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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Conference on Applications and Usability of Interactive Television, jAUTI 2018, in Bernal, Argentina, in October 2018.

The 13 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on Contexts of application of the IDTV; Design and Implementation Techniques of IDTV Content and Services; Interaction Techniques, Technologies and Accesibility of IDTV Services; Testing and User Experience of IDTV Services.



Contexts of Application of the IDTV


A Systematic Literature Review of iDTV in Learning Contexts

In early 2000s, several countries have experienced the technological transition from Analog Television to Interactive Digital Television (iDTV). This fact has impacted in diverse areas of knowledge, among them, education. However, to date, there has not been a systematic study of the works using this technology in learning environments. This paper presents a systematic literature review in order to contribute and to better understand the state-of-art using DTV in learning contexts. To do so, literature data search and collection was performed in ACM, BioMed Central, ERIC, IEEE, Ingenta Connect, ScienceDirect and WOS databases; boolean expressions were used as search terms for papers published between 2014 and 2017, and full texts not mentioning the word “learning” were not considered. It was found 521 papers, being selected 18 through double peer review for systematic analysis to identify the most relevant characteristics and outcomes. Results showed positive outcomes during the teaching-learning process, as in participation and motivation of the students. Most of the analyzed studies were originated in Latin American countries and are related to the historical period of discussion and implementation of DTV technology.
Vagner Beserra, Alan César Belo Angeluci, Rafael Guimarães Pedroso, Monica Navarrete

Design and Implementation of a Home Automation System with an Interactive Application for Digital Television Based on the Ginga Middleware

In this work we present “DomoiTV”, a home automation system and its communication protocol with a graphic interface for the Brazilian digital terrestrial television standard ISDB-Tb.
This project is divided into three main phases, the design and implementation of the home automation system, the development of the graphic interface for DTT and the communication protocol between these two areas.
For the automation phase, six areas are covered: intrusion alarms, technical alarms, lighting control, blinds and shades control, access to cameras, and pre-programmed scenarios. To meet the requirements of these six areas, a controller with different sensors and actuators are installed providing a safe, comfortable and controlled environment.
The user interface, designed as an interactive TV application based on the Ginga middleware, is the way to represent the automation devices installed, therefore the user can visualize the status of each sensor and take action on its actuators. In addition, a mobile user application was implemented to provide interoperability and usability in multiple devices.
The communication protocol is developed in order to manage data sent from the application through TCP communication; and by means of a translator the information is redirected to a Real-Time cloud database, where the controller has access to complete the communication between both parties.
Testing of operation and Start-up of the automation system is carried out, in addition to the application usability tests on several devices. The final system resulted in an integrated, robust and reliable system in terms of operation; and friendly and intuitive to the user.
Belén Enríquez, Diego Villamarín, Freddy Acosta

The Concept of Interaction Triggers in Audiovisual Design Model and Its Application to Develop an Interactive Museum

This article describes how the methodology of Audiovisual Design was used in the production process of audiovisual content for an Interactive Museum, named Student Citizen. It focuses on how Interaction Triggers were developed considering the diversity of the Museum’s audience, especially high school students. To validate the methodology, personas and user scenarios were developed focusing on interaction and role changes. Each role described in the Audiovisual Design model has associated affordances to engage (Triggers of Action) or to relax (Triggers of Inertia). How individuals change roles and behave at each level represent a central element in production of contents for complex audiovisual systems.
Valdecir Becker, Rafael Toscano, Amanda Azevedo, Daniel Gambaro

Design and Implementation Techniques of IDTV Content and Services


TV Drama, Representation and Engagement

An Analysis Through the Lenses of the Audiovisual Design
This paper comments on the status of TV drama productions in the Iberian-American scenario, with a special focus on Brazil. According to descriptions of transmedia strategies presented on the last Obitel annual reports, most of the workpieces place the spectators within high levels of inertia, being a real challenge to TV producers to promote the action of the audiences. One probable cause is the rooted values of TV, normally strong enough to legitimate the passive fruition of content. In the special case of Brazil, the stories have been formed around matters of a construed national identity, public and personal affairs, and social issues, topics that draws attention from the audience. This always generated strong ties between the stations and viewers, who identify themselves within the narratives and feel represented. Today, the distribution of content through other platforms is changing the scenario, with other forms of representation taking place. This article observes Iberian-American productions through the lenses of the Audiovisual Design, a theoretical-methodological model developed to afford the creation and analysis of complex audiovisual systems, including television content, interfaces based on software and considering the variable behaviour of the audience. The study proposes that TV stations are still tied to old triggers of audience engagement, instead of seeking new forms of interaction to complement, through the experience with the content, the identity ties that characterise the regular TV production.
Daniel Gambaro, Thais Saraiva Ramos, Valdecir Becker

Hybrid DTT & IPTV Set Top Box Implementation with GINGA Middleware Based on Low Cost Platforms

This work shows the implementation of a hybrid STB (Set Top Box) that receives real-time digital signals for ISDB-Tb and IPTV. The implementation integrates middleware GINGA for interactive DTT applications based on low cost platforms. The features of the hardware platform for this implementation are analyzed so that they can integrate USB reception modules for digital TV, support interactive middleware versions and also be compatible with TV playback software by means of internet protocols. After the analysis and evaluation, we found that the most suitable board to achieve this implementation was Raspberry Pi 3. The development of the Android mobile graphic interface is also shown, which emulates a remote control by Bluetooth technology. Finally, the results of the implemented hybrid STB’s evaluation are presented; evaluation performed by reception tests of DTT channels with interactivity and free IPTV channels. Also, quantitative readings were made to test the performance and correct operation, as well as qualitative MOS polls to get the quality of user experience when handling the decoder.
Wilmer Chicaiza, Diego Villamarín, Gonzalo Olmedo

Dr. Nau, a Web Generator of Interactive Applications for Digital TV

This work introduces Dr. Nau, a tool that supports the design of interactive applications for Ginga-NCL and automatically generates them. Dr. Nau was developed with the aim of collaborating with television industry professionals; its goal is to simplify the development process, reduce the cost and time of development, increase the usability of applications, and support their consistent appearance. This work describes the main characteristics of Dr. Nau’s use, design, and implementation and also presents a usability evaluation by several groups of users.
Sandra Casas, Franco Herrera, Fernanda Oyarzo, Franco Trinidad

Interaction Techniques, Technologies and Accessibility of IDTV Services


Interaction Models for iTV Services for Elderly People

The increase of longevity is one of the most important advances in modern societies. However, as people get older there are multiple changes that occur at physiological, social and psychological levels. On the one hand, aging can generate more opportunities to have free time to consume products or services that are informative or playful. On the other hand, it is also more likely that social and digital exclusion situations would appear. In this framework, the use of television as a device to support dedicated services has been a viable solution to overcome the referred problems because it is a close technology to the elderly population. However, in the process of developing a product or service (in this case, for television), it is necessary to consider the users’ needs and expectations, being this a continuous challenge in the connection between different modes of interaction with different services. The present study will begin to explain what an interaction model is, adapting this definition later to interactive television services. Subsequently, literature on existing iTV projects and the interactions they offer (last five years) will be reviewed, providing a clear knowledge about the modalities that were used. Following the analysis, the current situation of iTV services for the elderly and their interaction paradigms will be addressed, in order to identify the most common practices on the design of interaction models for future projects in the field.
Daniel Carvalho, Telmo Silva, Jorge Abreu

IOM4TV: An AT-Based Solution for People with Motor Disabilities Supported in iTV

One of the most common electronic devices available in homes around the world is the TV. Its high utilization rate in domestic environments opens a series of possibilities to meet the most varied needs of its viewers. In this context, projects developed for specific audiences can take advantage of the opportunities offered by TV. +TV4E is a solution designed for the elderly, which aims to provide their inclusion by displaying informative contents on topics of their interest. Applications such as this are very relevant because they directly affect a considerable portion of the world’s population. However, many of the features available in applications such as the +TV4E are inaccessible to people with physical disabilities since the main features available must be accessed through conventional remotes. New forms of interaction, based on the principles of Assistive Technology (AT), aim to enable people with physical disabilities to perform daily tasks in a more autonomous way. An example of an AT-based initiative is the IOM (Mouse-Eye Interface) project, which focuses on developing a device that functions as an alternative form of computer interaction, designed for people with motor disabilities in the upper limbs. In this context, this paper introduces IOM4TV, a software prototype that allows its users to control the +TV4E application through the IOM device. The article presents the proposed architecture, highlighting the main steps involved during the development of the solution. The paper also highlights the results obtained with the first round of prototype testing using two evaluation tools: SAM and AttrakDiff.
Rafael Cardoso, Andréia Rodrigues, Matheus Coelho, Tatiana Tavares, Rita Oliveira, Telmo Silva

A Review of Voice User Interfaces for Interactive TV

The design of interaction models for Voice User Interfaces is changing. The increasing number of home assistants, mobile devices and televisions supporting natural language interaction that are transforming and introducing voice interaction in multiple home scenarios is leading to important changes in the design of its interaction models. In the TV context, voice interaction is being introduced with multimodal interaction, supported on graphical interfaces or voice-first devices.
By compiling voice interaction best practices and guidelines of a significant range of voice user interfaces for the television context and analyzing commercial solutions, this paper presents an analysis of leading-edge use cases and trends. It also examines the applicability of various user input approaches, the integration of visual signifiers and elements, and how the user experience changes due to those variations. Combined with interactive television trends, use cases are analyzed on how they take the user’s context and habits as personalization tools in the television experience. The analysis reported in this paper can support the development of advanced interfaces for natural language interaction solutions based on set-top boxes of Pay-TV operators.
Sílvia Fernandes, Jorge Abreu, Pedro Almeida, Rita Santos

Testing and User Experience of IDTV Services


Field Trial of a New iTV Approach: The Potential of Its UX Among Younger Audiences

The actual video consumption behaviors are blurring the traditional boundaries between linear and non-linear viewing, leveraged by On-demand and Over-the-Top (OTT) content offers. The Managed-Operated Networks (MON) adapted to this shift by providing flexibility to content access via Catch-up and Time-shift TV services. In addition, manufacturers of Smart TVs and high-end media centers (e.g. Apple TV) are offering their commercial solutions with a silo-based approach, lacking a fluid User eXperience (UX) when the user switches between proprietary applications (apps) displaying different settings and User Interfaces (UIs). In this framework, OTT providers have been taking the lead on setting the trends with partially unified cross-source UIs, enriched with personalization features to enhance the UX. These trends also contrast with Pay-TV solutions based in UIs mostly oriented to the traditional TV channel’s line-up. Based on this opportunity, an operator-based iTV solution, delivered over a set-top box (STB), was developed within the UltraTV R&D project. This initiative brought together the academic and the industry fields to design, develop and validate a concept of a profile-based and cross-source recommendation UI (offering, at the same level, content from linear and non-linear TV, Netflix, YouTube and Facebook videos). After an iterative evaluation through expert reviews and laboratory tests, a field trial validation, with end users, of a fully functional prototype was set. Qualitative data collection methods along with a triangulation of UX scales were applied to gather opinions and measure usability, hedonic and emotional parameters. The results were arranged by age groups and viewing dynamics to reveal motivational indicators related to the achieved viewing experience. The unified access to different sources fostered content discovery and was particularly valued by younger audiences. The outcomes from this empirical study aim to provide valuable contributions to push the next generation of television platforms and bring younger audiences back to the TV screen.
Ana Velhinho, Sílvia Fernandes, Jorge Abreu, Pedro Almeida, Telmo Silva

Lessons Learned from Testing iTV Applications with Seniors

Despite the increasing number of solutions that come up every day with real usefulness to support the elderly, older people need to feel that the product is a real asset, often requiring more time to adopt solutions. The usage and satisfaction levels are highly influenced by the concern that development and design teams need to have by taking target audience’s needs and expectations into account. Considering that the user is the key player, he/she should be the centrepiece in the development of a project. In the scope of the +TV4E project, that aims to develop an interactive television (iTV) platform to deliver informative contents about social and public services to Portuguese elders, several stages were carried out with potential end users based in a participatory design approach. These moments required that method and process’ decisions were adopted, based on literature as well as on the experience lived during these moments. Likewise, dealing with older people requires extra care (physical, language, etc.) by the researchers, considering the anticipated and unexpected difficulties that can arise. Thus, the present paper aims to describe and discuss the challenges faced by the +TV4E project team members during all the project process, as well as the lessons learned concerning the used methodologies and tools and the implemented process. It is the intention of the authors that the presented findings can be used as guidelines in other studies involving the elderly.
Telmo Silva, Hilma Caravau, Liliana Reis

Evaluating the Performance of ASR Systems for TV Interactions in Several Domestic Noise Scenarios

Voice interaction with the television is becoming a reality on domestic environments. However, one of the factors that influences the correct operation of these systems is the background noise that obstructs the performance of the automatic speech recognition (ASR) component. In order to further understand this issue, the paper presents an analysis of the performance of three ASR systems (Bing Speech API, Google API, and Nuance ASR) in several domestic noise scenarios resembling the interaction with the TV on a domestic context. A group of 36 users was asked to utter sentences based on TV requests, where the sentences’ corpus comprised typical phrases used when interacting with the TV. To better know the behavior, performance and robustness of each ASR to noise, the tests were carried out with three recording devices placed at different distances from the user. Google ASR proved to be the most robust to noise with a higher recognition precision, followed by Bing Speech and Nuance. The results obtained showed that ASR systems performance is globally quite robust but tends to deteriorate with domestic background noise. Future replications of the evaluation setup will allow the evaluation of ASR solutions in other scenarios.
Pedro Beça, Jorge Abreu, Rita Santos, Ana Rodrigues

Broadcast Testing of Emergency Alert System for Digital Terrestrial Television EWBS in Ecuador

The results of transmission and reception broadcast tests of the Emergency Warning Broadcast System (EWBS) for Digital Terrestrial Television in the city of Quito-Ecuador with the ISBD-T standard are presented in this paper, in coordination with government agencies and private companies. The system consists of an EWBS server developed and implemented by the authors, which modifies the text overlay message and the PSI tables for some-emergency-codes transmission, as established in the EWBS international harmonization document, while re-configuring the multiplexing and transmission stage of the television station. The tests were carried out in two stages, on the one hand working directly with the multiplexers and modulators of digital terrestrial television from Pichincha hill, and on the other hand from television station with a microwave transport network to Pichincha hill. It was possible make the activation of the EWBS receivers in the coverage region, select codes, and reception of the overlay message, with an nearly imperceptible delay in the complete system, within real time requirements.
Gonzalo Olmedo, Freddy Acosta, Raúl Haro, Diego Villamarín, Nelson Benavides


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