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Über dieses Buch

This book comprises select proceedings of the First International Conference on Geomatics in Civil Engineering (ICGCE 2018). This book presents latest research on applications of geomatics engineering in different domains of civil engineering, like structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, hydraulic and water resources engineering, environmental engineering and transportation engineering. It also covers miscellaneous applications of geomatics in a wide range of technical and societal problems making use of geospatial information, engineering principles, and relational data structures involving measurement sciences. The book proves to be very useful for the scientific and engineering community working in the field of geomatics and geospatial technology.



Papers of Key Note Speakers


Harnessing Remote Sensing for Civil Engineering: Then, Now, and Tomorrow

Despite enormous advances in remote sensing data over the past 20 years, harnessing and exploiting that data by the Civil Engineering community has been relatively limited. To understand the full potential of such data, first this paper briefly recaps the Civil Engineering community’s engagement with remote sensing for dike monitoring and post-earthquake damage assessment. Next, the state of the art is introduced with special considerations for recent advances in quality, affordability, accessibility, and equipment size; the role of national aerial laser scanning data collection programs; and the increasing applicability of remote sensing to a wide range Civil Engineering applications. Finally, the paper concludes with a vision of how Civil Engineering can better benefit from existing technologies not regularly exploited today, as well as the logistical challenges of storing and integrating such data in a computationally meaningful manner.

Debra F. Laefer

Geomatics Applied to Civil Engineering State of the Art

Civil engineers, as well as other engineering careers, are facing new challenges in their professions due to new technologies and market forces that have been redefining engineer’s roles toward a new productive vision (ASCE, American Society of Civil Engineers in The vision for civil engineering in 2025. Reston, Virginia) [1]. As one of the oldest civil engineering related activity and to this day an indispensable tool for any civil engineering work, Geomatics Engineering shares the same concerns, especially when related to the synergy between Geomatics and Civil Engineering. As all technical segments, Geomatics has been making important technological advances over the years, incorporating new instruments, new technologies, and new working methods that must be understood by civil engineers so that both continue to develop complementarily and work together seamlessly. Considering this, the present article discusses new technologies available in Geomatics and their applications in civil engineering projects and the level of teaching that must be passed on to civil engineers so that both can work together making efficient use of the new technologies at their disposal.

Irineu da Silva

Geomatics in Structural Engineering


3D Digital Documentation of a Cultural Heritage Site Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner—A Case Study

Cultural heritage sites are the important sites which are given more priority in terms of preservation and conservation, so that they last for a long duration of time. Although modern structures are designed to be resilient to several events, heritage structures usually undergo considerable damages. Irreparable damages have been inflicted on some old structures in such cases, documentation proved to be a very useful tool for the reconstruction of the structure and preserving it. Remote sensing techniques using Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Photogrammetry are very effective methods in acquiring 3D information and texture of the structure with least interaction with the structure. The point cloud data from TLS is textured using high-quality photographs acquired from a Digital Single-Lens Reflex camera (DSLR). The colored point cloud data was used to create different sections like top, front, back, left, and right and drawings were made in AutoCAD software. 3D digital documentation is necessarily sufficient to reconstruct the structure in case any damage occurs. The main advantage of using remote sensing technique is that it does not need any physical contact with the surface. Remotely accessed data are very vital in case of cultural heritage site because the present strength of the structure is not known.

S. K. P. Kushwaha, Karun Reuel Dayal, Sachchidanand, S. Raghavendra, Hina Pande, Poonam S. Tiwari, S. Agrawal, S. K. Srivastava

Thermal Remote Sensing in Early Age Concrete Strength Estimation

The construction industry is the most prominent sector which needs continuous evaluation and monitoring for structural stability and reliability. Monitoring the concrete at early ages can reduce structural failures which may result in fatal accidents. Maturity method is one such NDT method, particularly used for predicting the early age strength by heat generated from concrete. The temperature generated from the heat of hydration is considered as a key parameter in evaluating the maturity method. Conventionally, the maturity method is evaluated by installing temperature sensors inside the concrete and plotting the temperature graphs. NDT, in conjunction with remote sensing thermal imaging sensors, is a motivating alternative for strength estimation in early stages of construction. This study is aimed to replace the thermocouples with well-calibrated thermal infrared imaging sensor. Two different mix proportions, i.e., M20 and M40 are adopted for conducting the study. This study is conducted under a controlled environment without interacting with the external climatic temperature by placing the concrete cubes in thermocol box. Thermal images are obtained in specific time intervals like 15, 30, 60, and 90 min. Concrete cubes are tested for compressive strength simultaneously at the age of 3, 5, and 7 days developing calibration curve. Thermal images of concrete specimens are processed in FLIR SMART VIEW software for recording the surface temperature variations. Time-temperature graphs are plotted from the observed surface temperatures for calculating the maturity indices of concrete. From the developed graphs it is observed that drastic change in surface temperatures has occurred only in the first 24 h of the casting. Nurse-Saul calibration curve is generated by the observed temperatures and compressive strengths of concrete specimens. This calibration curve can be used for concrete specimens under controlled climatic conditions. The hybridization of thermography, photogrammetric, and computer vision techniques like image analysis serves in interpreting the early age strength gain of concrete.

Kumar Kumarapu, M. Shashi, K. Venkata Reddy

3D Reconstruction: An Emerging Prospect for Surveying

Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction has been evolved for modern surveying techniques because it provides a visual interpretation of real-world scene. 3D model can be generated from a cluster of points, which are known as cloud points. Cloud point can be compiled from various sources like Laser scanner, Microsoft Kinnect, digital images, etc. Digital images are more easily accessible technology from others for cloud point creation, and advancements of digital camera in last few years have made the camera sensors, capable of capturing in-depth details, high-resolution digital images. This study is mainly focused on computer vision’s 3D reconstruction out of commodity hardware for surveying purpose with the help of camera sensor (Sony IMX298). For validation, the ground truth has been carried out with advance surveying instrument by distributing several points around Region of Interest (ROI) and evaluate the dimensions.

Shirshendu Layek, Rajat Kumar Singh, Vasanta Govind Kumar Villuri, Radhakanta Koner, Ashish Soni, Rupali Khare

Monitoring of Concrete Hydration Using Resin Jacketed Embedded PZT Sensors

Effective monitoring of concrete hydration makes construction of civil structures efficient and safe by indicating the strength gain of concrete under curing. Due to the complexity in construction practices, the condition monitoring of concrete is still a challenge for engineers. Hence, even after the curing of concrete as per the recommendations by standards codes, expected strength is not always achieved. In this paper, concrete hydration has been monitored using two types of sensors, i.e., concrete vibration sensor (CVS) and resin jacketed piezo sensors (RJP). Three concrete cubes of M35 grade are cast with both types of sensors embedded at equal distances from the center. The admittance signatures are recorded over a period of 28 days. The experiment shows variation of signatures with strength gain of the cubes over time. CVS has shown better results in monitoring the concrete hydration in comparison to RJP sensors.

Rajat Chhabra, Prateek Negi, Naveet Kaur, Suresh Bhalla

Geomatics in Geotechnical Engineering


Spatial Variability of Depth to Weathered Rock for Chennai Using Geostatistical Kriging

The objective of this study is to evaluate the spatial variability of depth to weathered rock in Chennai city using field test data. The database consists of nearly 400 borehole data covering the entire city with stratigraphic information and the same is used in the study. Ordinary kriging technique, which uses the spatial correlation of the data, is applied to estimate the depth at locations where the field measurements are not available. In addition, the variance of the estimated data is also computed. The developed map indicates that the depth to weathered rock in the study area varies from 3 to 30 m from the ground level. The estimated depths to weathered rock are compared and validated with a few selected borehole data and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) test results. These maps can be used in the ground response analysis, foundation analysis, and design studies.

B. Divya Priya, G. R. Dodagoudar

Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval Using C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) over Yanco Study Site, Australia—A Preliminary Study

The motto of this work is to evaluate retrieval of surface soil moisture (5 cm) using Sentinel-1a C-band data Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Data for this study is collected from Yanco Study site, Australia. Yanco study site consists of 37 soil moisture measuring stations at every 20 min interval for various soil depths and it also provides other Hydro-Meteorological information. SAR backscattered energy is a function of soil roughness and soil moisture. Surface roughness is eliminated using change detection approach. The R2 performance statistics revealed that between Backscattered energy and NDVI there is no relation. Volumetric soil moisture and backscattered energy showed a positive correlation with R2 = 0.57 and 0.43 for VH and VV polarization. Dielectric constant also showed a positive correlation with backscattered energy having R2 = 0.62 and 0.38 for VH and VV polarization respectively. By taking into account of all these affecting parameters, a regional Semi-empirical model is developed to retrieve surface Soil moisture over the study area.

G. Punithraj, Umesh Pruthviraj, Amba Shetty

Landslide Hazard Mapping Using Geo-Environmental Parameters—A Case Study on Shimla Tehsil, Himachal Pradesh

A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth down a slope. Landslides are a type of “mass wasting,” which denotes any down-slope movement of soil and rock under the direct influence of gravity. The present research paper is an attempt to assess the vulnerability of Shimla Tehsil to landslides. Five causative factors such as land use and land cover, slope morphometry, relative relief, lithology, and hydrogeology are used to calculate the landslide vulnerability. Survey of India, Geological Survey of India Toposheets, ASTER GDEM, and LANDSAT 8 OLI/TIRS sensor were used as data sources. The causative factors were analyzed and processed in GIS environment. The weightages were assigned based on ratings derived from Bureau of Indian Standards, pp 1–19, 1998, [1] for macroscale landslide mapping. Finally, the factors were integrated using weighted overlay method to produce final vulnerability map. The final output was categorized into four types based on the Total Hazard Estimated Index (THED) ranging from very low hazard to high hazard. The output reveals that the entire Shimla Tehsil falls under four categories of vulnerability ranging from very low vulnerability to high vulnerability. 62.02% of the Shimla Tehsil is prone to low hazard followed by very low at 26.10%, moderate at 11.55%, and high covering only 0.32%. Most of the major settlements are located along moderately vulnerable area.

C. Prakasam, R. Aravinth, Varinder S. Kanwar, B. Nagarajan

Geomatics in Hydraulics Engineering


Estimation of Groundwater Recharge Rate Using SWAT MODFLOW Model

Groundwater, which is in aquifers below the surface of the Earth, is one of the most important natural resources. Due to the increased population, drought, improper irrigation practices, and pollution, depletion of groundwater takes place more rapidly. With the advent of remote sensing data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and integrating SWAT with MODFLOW model, estimation of groundwater recharge became much easier. The HRU’s in the SWAT model are exchanged with MODFLOW cells by using SWAT-MODFLOW interface to simulate the groundwater head distribution and groundwater recharge rates. The study is conducted in Chintalapudi village, which is located in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. To estimate spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater recharge, it requires DEM, LULC map, Soil map, rainfall data, aquifer parameters such as aquifer thickness, hydraulic conductivity, and specific yield. Model results are shown by month and year to determine seasonal and decadal trends in groundwater recharge rates. The SWAT-MODFLOW was calibrated and validated using groundwater levels and streamflow data.

K. N. Loukika, K. Venkata Reddy, K. H. V. Durga Rao, Amanpreet Singh

Flood Hazard Risk Assessment and Mapping of a Sub-watershed of Imphal River Basin, Manipur, India: A Multi-resolution Approach

Flood is one of the major disasters that prevail in the northeastern India. Mapping of spatial inundation patterns during flood events is regarded for environmental management and disaster monitoring. This study emphasized on the assessment and flood inundation mapping of sub-watershed of Imphal River Basin of Manipur. Multispectral datasets from Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from ASTER and Cartosat with 30 and 10 m resolutions, respectively, are used for producing flood inundation maps. Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River analysis system (HEC-RAS) and RAS mapper are used in this study to generate flood inundation map. The study involved the assessment of flood map derived from multi-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamic model approach. The result from the study provides the required assessment of impacts of flood events in the study area and will help the policy-makers to take an effective decision-making for mitigation and preventive measure of the region.

Maisnam Bipinchandra, Ngangbam Romeji, Chandramani Loukrakpam

Hydraulic Modeling of River Discharge Subjected to Change in Riverbed Morphology

In natural channels such as rivers, the flow behavior is highly complicated phenomenon due to unsteady and nonuniform flow. Hydraulic modeling is essential for the study of characteristics of unsteady flow in rivers. Changes in riverbed morphology influence the increase in depth of flow in rivers. In the present study, the roughness coefficient is varied to match the natural condition. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of the change in riverbed morphology on the river discharge using a hydraulic model. The study is carried out using the Hydrologic Engineering Center—River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). A river length of 12 km of the Nethravathi river regime, Karnataka from Uppinangadi to Bantwal is considered for the study. Daily river stage and discharge data are collected from Central Water Commission (CWC) gaged at Bantwal station. GIS interface of HEC-GeoRAS is also used to extract the cross section, bed slope, and length of the river channel from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of resolution 30 m. The cross sections are represented for each kilometer length of the river. Since accurate data is unavailable in the study area, cross sections are simplified. HEC-RAS model was used for the simulation of surface water levels and discharge values. Manning’s roughness coefficient and river cross sections were defined for the calibration of observed river stage and discharge data. The predicted discharge was in good agreement with that of the observed discharge value. Study results illustrated that accuracy of predicted maximum water depth, and surface water level depends upon the precise representation of Manning’s roughness. The study is useful for the prediction of the flood dynamics in the river regime with the change in riverbed morphology.

Pramodkumar Kappadi, M. K. Nagaraj

Effect of Temporal-Based Land Use–Land Cover Change Pattern on Rainfall Runoff

High-resolution satellite imagery was often used to study the spatial patterns and temporal changes by analyzing Land Use–Land Cover (LULC) changes using rapid urbanization, thereby increasing the impervious areas has an increasing effect on runoff in urban areas. The objective was to estimate the effects of temporal change based LULC on rainfall runoff. A LULC classified map of the year 1995 derived from the Landsat TM satellite image was used as input for a Runoff model with the precipitation data. A similar procedure is carried out with a LULC classified map of the year 2005 as an input into the model, along with similar precipitation data and calibration parameters. The comparison of the outcomes shows an increase in runoff volume and peak discharge between the times because of LULC.

B. Aneesha Satya, M. Shashi, Deva Pratap

Effect of Land Use–Land Cover Change on Runoff Characteristics in Mumbai City

Change in Land use and Land cover (LU/LC) impacts the runoff attributes of a drainage basin to a huge degree, which thus, influences the surface and groundwater accessibility of the zone, and hence prompts furthermore change in LU/LC. Consequently, it becomes essential to survey the impact of variation in LU/LC on the runoff characteristics of an area. Such an examination can adequately be accomplished by utilizing watershed simulation models with coordinated GIS framework. In this study, the change in land use–land cover of Mumbai city is detected and analyzed. Hydrological modeling is performed by SWAT to simulate runoff from the basin. The results of SWAT modeling were calibrated and validated using SWAT-CUP by SUFI-2 method. It was observed that the exponential increase in urbanization resulted in an increase in simulated runoff in Mumbai for the past two decades (from 1995 to 2016).

Sahoo Biswa Manaschintan, Sahoo Sanat Nalini

Snowmelt Runoff Estimation Using Energy-Balance Approach

The energy balance of a snowpack derives the production of snowmelt water. Proper budgeting of this energy driven processes is required for the efficient management of water resources. The study area is a part of North-Western Himalayas, i.e. Manali sub-watershed (area = 350 km2), situated in the Himachal Pradesh state, India. The region experiences snowfall from December to February with January being the coldest month. Meteorological data and remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+, IRS P-6 LISS-III and MODIS 8-day snow cover data product of the watershed has been used as input. For simulation of energy-exchange process and estimation of the amount of snowmelt generated, a physically based Utah Energy Balance model was used. The model performances were found good and an agreement between the observed and simulated values was obtained with few over- and under-predictions and the coefficient of determination being 0.718 at the Manali outlet.

Tripti Khanduri, Praveen K. Thakur

Assessment of Reservoir Sedimentation and Identification of Critical Soil Erosion Zone in Kodar Reservoir Watershed of Chhattisgarh State, India

Intense rainfall in a shorter span of time causes a huge amount of erosion resulting in rapid deposition of sediment, consequently reducing the capacity of reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to estimate reservoir sedimentation and identify critical zones susceptible to erosion. With the help of RS and GIS technique, reservoir sedimentation and soil erosion have been assessed in Kodar river watershed. LANDSAT-8 imagery is used to calculate the capacity at various elevations of the reservoir. 14.39% of the reservoir capacity has been lost due to sedimentation in the last 36 years when compared to the designed storage. RUSLE model is being applied to estimate erosion. Thematic maps were prepared for various factors and overlaid in GIS resulting in computation of erosion. The estimated average soil erosion is 5.50 tons/hectare/year. To identify the critical zones, watershed is isolated into 11 sub-watersheds out of which 5 are under critical zone which needs best management practices.

Champat Lal Dewangan, Ishtiyaq Ahmad

Application of Geographic Information System and HEC-RAS in Flood Risk Mapping of a Catchment

Flood is one of the catastrophic outbreaks, which ravages the normal functioning of a society whose aftermath is experienced by more or less throughout the world. In this context, the present study has been focussed to analyse the flood risk based on flood hazard and vulnerability using HEC-RAS model in GIS environment for a portion of Ajay River catchment lying in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. Flood hazard map has been obtained using a multi-criteria evaluation technique. Steady flow analysis has been carried out using one-dimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS in conjunction with GIS to generate inundation area and classify the hazard map based on the depth of inundation for 10 years, 50 years and 100 years return period. Land use characteristics and population density of the study area have been taken into account for vulnerability analysis. The risk analysis classifies the area into different categories of flood hazard zones for various return periods. The study will help in preparing the strategies for flood preparedness and in turn flood mitigation of the area.

Swarnadeepa Chakraborty, Sujata Biswas

Drought Vulnerability Assessment Using GIS: Case of Sangli District, Maharashtra

Dry season is a crawling circumstance of shortage without energizing of assets. 66% is under dry season inclined land in Sangli. GIS is a decent apparatus for enhancing basic leadership in a fiasco administration. The point of this activity is to plan dry season memoranda, dry spell affirmation, and appraisal of the extent and help required. Number of factors is responsible in land degradation which leads to rainfall study, population and water demand and supply chain. To examine existing agrarian land utilize and its circulation in the area. We have considered the climatic state of Sangli area and its impact on the farming creation. To analyse existing agrarian land and its circulation in the area. We have also studied the climatic and topographical state of Sangli area and its impact on farming.

Dhanashree Raut, Nandita Mukherjee, Zoheb Sheikh, Alolika Basu

Geomatics in Environmental Engineering


Estimation of Urban Area Surface Temperature with Landsat 8 Thermal Band Using GIS: A Case Study of Jaipur City

Surface temperature is depending upon type of surface if surface is hard or made from concrete or harder matter than the temperature will be more, so it is important to study surface temperature of an urban area, with increasing urban area temperature in the central part of the city cause more air temperature, and if humidity is present, then it creates very uncomfort situation to live without any cooling system. So, the study of urban heat is mandatory to know about these types of situations in city and identify area are being in this situation [1]. This heat zone in a city center which will present in both seasons summer and winter. This situation is only uncomfort to humans in the area of earth below 32° of latitude and not in other part of world. Landsat 8 provides this facility to investigate the surface temperature using its thermal band [2]. Data collected from the thermal band is easily possible to convert into surface temperature in degree [3]. So, in this study, only year 2017 images are investigated by developing the surface temperature model in GIS. The results will show that the temperature is distributed over the surface. So, the hot area is very hot in summer. So, changing land use also have a direct connection with surface temperature if the more urban area will increase the more the surface temperature rise will increase in city [3]. If there is too much urbanization distance to increase more surface temperature. So, this study becomes important in this aspect [4].

Lakhwinder Singh, Deepak Khare

Estimation of PM2.5 from MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Over the Indian Subcontinent

Daily estimation of ground-level PM2.5 (µg/m3) at high spatial resolution is a requisite for carrying out epidemiological studies with respect to air pollution. This can be made possible by exploiting the relationship between Aerosol Optical Depth and PM to provide high spatiotemporal predictions. We have used MODIS-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurement for the Indian subcontinent region in Mixed-Effect Model (MEM) to calibrate the AOD–PM relationship. Ground-level PM2.5 pollution data averaged daily were collected from 34 monitoring stations spread across the country. The MEM considers a fixed and random component, where the random components model the daily variations of the PM2.5–AOD relationship and also derives site-specific adjustment parameters. Comparison between the observed and predicted concentrations of the PM2.5 levels at the monitoring stations show R2 values ranging between 0.25 and 0.667 depending upon the effect of site bias on the PM2.5–AOD relationship.

S. L. Kesav Unnithan, L. Gnanappazham

Application of Geomatics for Drainage Network Delineation for an Urban City

Traditionally, topographic maps are usually employed for the drainage analysis. However, channel network extraction and watershed delineation from topographic maps require time and expertise in cartography. The application of Geomatics (Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and other land topographic informations) is imperative for drainage network delineation. In the present study, drainage network of an urban city, Allahabad in U.P., is delineated using ArcHydro. The ASTER Global DEM (GDEM) data of 30 m resolution is processed to determine the primary natural flow routes and catchment. Hydrological analysis is performed for flow accumulation, slope, drainage path using DEM data. Results show that the maximum drainage length is 1.73 km, the longest flow path length in catchment is 2.10 km.

Kaushal Kumar, Raj Mohan Singh

Assessment of Spatial Variations in Groundwater Quality of Agartala, Tripura for Drinking Employing GIS and MCDA Techniques

Groundwater is an essential part of our life support system and a change in the quality of groundwater may affect human health, mapping of groundwater contamination is an important tool for groundwater protection and management. The present study figures out groundwater quality suitability for drinking by adopting Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) Techniques. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) is employed to find the weightage of various parameters and reclassification along with weighted overlay tools in ArcGIS software is used. A total 18 samples of groundwater were collected from different wards of Agartala Municipality and various water quality parameters of collected samples were tested in the laboratory. It was found that only 24.24% of AMC area is having potable groundwater and 75.76% of AMC area is not potable for drinking and iron content in more than 96.25% of area is above permissible limit prescribed by BIS (2012) and WHO (2011) and for pH 22.09% of the area having value less than permissible limit.

Santanu Mallik, Shivam, Umesh Mishra

Analysis of Water Quality Parameters and Their Variation for Surface Water Using GIS-Based Tools

This study is aimed at evaluation of water quality parameters for the surface water taken from Futala Lake, Nagpur. The analysis of variation in 11 water quality parameters (including pH, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, chlorides, sulphates, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrates, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)) was studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The lake basin is subjected to an ecological imbalance due to idol immersions, rendering the water unusable for drinking and other purposes. Sampling was done between September and October 2017. Percentage difference for all the parameters was calculated, which showed a significant alteration from natural water quality. Kriging interpolation was used to represent the distribution of the parameters across the lake. The pre-immersion and immersion phases were compared for each parameter (change detection). The areas that are most affected and least affected spatially by idol immersion were found out and buffers were created to represent their definitive spatial extent. The areas found to be most affected by immersion pollution should be prioritized and treated more frequently during the immersion period. Lesser affected areas can be treated with lower frequency and dosages of treatment reagents.

Rajat Chatterjee, Dilip H. Lataye

Assessment of Surface Water Quality Using GIS: Case of Tapi Basin, Surat, Gujarat, India

Quality and quantity of water bodies is of prime importance for sustainable development. Tapi basin is the lifeline of Surat city, as it fulfills the majority of its water requirement. Due to the impact of urbanization and industrialization, the water quality of the Tapi basin has been adversely affected. The present study is focussed on assessing water quality of Tapi basin, with the aims: (i) to give an overview of present water quality of Tapi basin, (ii) to determine spatial dissemination of water quality parameters by means of BOD, COD, chloride and TDS, and (iii) to generate map for river water quality in the study area by using GIS. Water quality of the basin was assessed by taking samples from nine locations through the flow path of basin within the assessment area and an interpolation technique, that is, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), is used to obtain the spatial dissemination of water quality parameters of the basin. The results indicated that the quality of water is more deteriorated on the downstream side as compared to that of the upstream side. From the assessment of water with GIS and IDW, it is concluded that despite urbanization and industrialization, the quality of surface water is predominately average to unsuitable.

Divya Lad, Mehali Mehta, Manisha Vashi

Investigate Groundwater Quality Parameters for Accomplishing Demand of Bhimrad of Surat City

Water, the basis of analysis for the chemical unknown substance is the essential need of every locality. However, be the important part of human life it is nowadays found in scares due to rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization. The quality of water is usually described by its physical, chemical and biological properties. It is essential to investigate groundwater quality for new urban area Bhimrad of Surat city to accomplish public needs. For this investigation, Groundwater samples were collected from different seven places in the study area during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period of the year 2015. Experimental work was carried out for determination of different parameters of water quality. GIS is the best tool for the analysis of water quality assessment. Each of the groundwater samples was examined for physical and chemical parameters like Color, Odor, Turbidity, TDS, pH, Chloride, Hardness, and EC using standard procedures. By comparing all these parameters with the Indian standard it is found that this groundwater quality is not suitable for domestic/drinking purposes. As per GIS investigation, Groundwater quality should be recovered and practiced.

Manisha Desai, Jayantilal Patel

Geomatics in Transportation Engineering


Evaluating Transit-Oriented Development Using a Sustainability Framework: A Case Study of Bhopal

Globally, TOD is gaining popularity as an admitted tool to implement Smart Growth and Sustainable Development. TOD includes high density, compact, mixed-use type of development around the transit station, suitable for bicycle and pedestrian users in order to encourage the use of the nonmotorized vehicle and public transit system. The objective of this study was to build up a strategy for measuring the performance of TOD in Bhopal against selected five criteria, including 1. Built environment; 2. Social environment; 3. Travel behavior; 4. Natural environment; 5. Economic Development; and other performance indicators to set up the structure for a database required to attempt performance estimation. And, it evaluates the sustainability of the TOD based on various criteria. Therefore, this study has set up a pattern that future analysis can be measured against.

Rupali Khare, Vasanta Govind Kumar Villuri, Devarshi Chaurasia, Supriya Kumari

Application of Geospatial Technology in Planning and Acquiring Land for Proposed Roads Under a Master plan: A Case Study of Sultanpur Lodhi Local Planning Area

A general problem faced by many Indian cities is the criss-crossing of major roads through the centre of the city. The present study focuses on one such city in Punjab, Sultanpur Lodhi. Sultanpur Lodhi is a religious centre in Punjab of Sikhs attracting large number of tourists throughout the year. Due to the location of Gurudwaras in congested city and crossing of major road connecting Firozpur to Jallandhar through the city, the traffic becomes a huge problem. During festive seasons, the traffic diverts to the internal roads causing chaotic conditions. The present study focuses on the master plan development of the area with special regard to the proposed ring road to ease the traffic volumes. Geospatial technology using high-resolution satellite data has been used to prepare the master plan of Sultanpur Lodhi, which includes a 12 km long proposed ring road with a right of way of 150 feet.

Lakhvir Singh, Simerjit Kaur, Sana, Ramandeep, Harmanpreet, Balwan, Aman Kumar Balihar, Preeti Kashmira, Tapti Baskey, Reenu Sharma, Ajay Mathur, Brijendra Pateriya

Route Analysis of Hyderabad City Using Geomatics Application—A Case Study

Surveying technology is enhancing the process of old method of collecting geospatial data, through coming new hardware and software. Previously, the data collection and handling both are very tedious work, but nowadays, both are going to be easier and faster for a trained person. If data quality is good as per user demand and makes the availability of data is easy to some extent. So, it will be a new era for real analysis of ground in any field. Compared to other parts of the world, urbanization in India is rapidly growing. At present, due to urbanization and population growth, urban transportation system and its management is a challenging task for all over the world. However with the development of a proper methodology and its systematic approach, transportation problems can be resolved. Network Analyst tool provides a network-based spatial analysis tool for solving complex routing problems. Network Analysis data can be shared through the server to improve data analysis and its productivity. Route problems can be solved using a topologically correct network dataset. The study of Hyderabad City area is basically done to keep in mind about the problem faced mostly in the unprecedented developing urban areas, where the population is growing blindly in an unsystematic manner due to socio-economic issues. If the transportation system are not maintained properly and the current ground reality of transportation are not accessed quickly, then it may be difficult to rearrange it systematically in future for any growing city and also make a challenge for coming smart city.

Bipin Chand Pandey

Identification and Removal of Accident-Prone Locations Using Spatial Data Mining

Road accidents are responsible for a great amount of morbidity and mortality, hence, public health safety on transport channels is a major concern in the present scenario. The present study shows a method for identification and removal of accident-prone locations on roads (hot spots). The proposed methodology includes road network analysis followed by hot spot analysis using Kernel Density Estimation (KDE), buffer operation of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial data mining techniques. Various causes for occurrences of accidents are further correlated with identified hot spots. For the present study, accident records on internal roads of an engineering institute have been used. The results reflect that the junction points and low visibility at turns are the main causes behind the occurrences of accidents at identified hot spots. The obtained results can be further used by institute administration for implementing accident prevention measures and removal of hot spots.

Rashmi A. Mestri, Ravindra R. Rathod, Rahul Dev Garg

Study of Pedestrian Movement in Correlation to the Transportation Infrastructure and Land Use/Land Cover in a Fast Developing Indian City

The cities in developing countries are growing at a faster rate, which has ultimately generated stress on the transportation networks within them. During transportation planning, less attention is paid for pedestrian movement during the design of any street functionaries. So the study focuses on understanding the pedestrian movement in a developing country like India w.r.t., rate of development. Intersections located along the Nagpur inner ring road were considered and based on the trends in the development rate of built-up, study intersections were selected. The video data were acquired and Pearson’s correlation coefficient and ANOVA analysis have been carried out to find the correlation between development and the pedestrian movement. From the analysis, it is observed that the development rate and infrastructure are directly related to the pedestrian movement at the intersection.

M. S. Mukesh, Y. B. Katpatal

Remote Sensing and GIS-Based Analysis to Envisage Urban Sprawl to Enhance Transport Planning in a Fast Developing Indian City

Rapid changes and sudden shootouts of development are occurring in most of the major cities in developing countries, leading to a requirement for mass transit facilities. Envisaging Urban Sprawl helps in finding out the future needs and critical locations of development. This paper validates the use of Shannon’s entropy in finding out the sprawl in Nagpur, one of the fast developing cities of India, with the help of remote sensing data and GIS tools. In the present study, the spatial pattern of urban sprawl has been worked out based on location factors. Remotely sensed data obtained from Landsat and IRS LISS-III sensors were utilized. The entropy values show that the city is spreading outward following the transportation corridors. The observed growth pattern can be used for the future development plans of the city to mitigate some of the environmental impacts and provide sustainable growth.

N. P. Anoona, Y. B. Katpatal

Application of GIS in Road Information System—An Experience with State Highways of West Bengal

In last few years, application of GIS technology in highway and transportation engineering field increased substantially in India. In the present study, GIS has been used to develop a user-friendly road information system for State Highway Network in state of West Bengal, India. Objective of the study is to prepare a “Base map” to have all the traffic, road, and structure features mapped into a GIS platform. This map will provide the basic platform for all spatial features of the road and structure assets with an integrated database for storing attributes of the data features and screening and ranking of developmental requirements and to prioritize resource allocation for such development. The present paper demonstrates with the help of data collected from State Highways of West Bengal that GIS can be used as a useful tool for developing an interactive road information system.

Sudipta Pal

An Intelligent Gas Pipeline Route Alignment System

Pipeline is one of the premier means of transportation for petroleum products. Optimizing the cost, time of construction and environmental considerations for pipeline route, depends on the determination of optimal route for pipeline alignment. In this paper, an intelligent system capable of identifying optimal (based on cost, engineering criteria, and environmental issues) land corridor for alignment of natural gas pipeline from source to destination within onshore has been proposed. Accessing results by analyzing large datasets is achieved through spatial multi-criteria decision-making strategy. A preliminary implementation of the proposed system is being done to identify land corridor for alignment of gas pipeline from Shahdol (Latitude 23 18′ 07″ N and Longitude 81 21′ 24″ E in Madhya Pradesh, India) to Phulpur (Latitude 25 33′ 03″ N and Longitude 82 05′ 18″ E in Uttar Pradesh, India). Slope, crossings (road networks, rail tracks, rivers etc.), forests, vegetation and costs have been considered as criteria for identification of optimal land corridor. For implementation and analysis of the proposed work, Landsat 8 images, having spatial resolution 30 m, are used for analysis purpose. The study also made use of state boundary, road network, river network, elevation, and land cover type data. Data layers for analysis have been created using distance criteria. Finally, different layers of criteria have been merged using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) algorithm to de ne two cost layers the Cost Distance Layer and Cost Direction Layer. Finally, depending on guiding criteria, the least cost path from source to destination station has been identified as the optimal land corridor for alignment of gas pipeline. To make the system more intelligent is the future scope of this work.

Suraj Sawant, Roshan Kumar, Rupendra Kumar



The Digital Cadastral Map/Layer Generation and Conclusive Titling of Land Parcels Using Hybrid Technology (Aerial/High-Resolution Image (HRSI) and DGPS and ETS Survey) Adopted by Govt. of Odisha Under Digital India Land Record Modernization Programme (DILRMP), Govt. of India—The Technical Challenges and Solutions

To bring efficacy in survey, creation, and updation of Land Records within a short time span with perfection and accuracy compared to the old method of survey and record preparation, the High-Tech Survey involving High-Resolution Satellite/Aerial Orthoimage, Differential Global Position System (DGPS) and Electronic Total Station (ETS) has been initiated in the State under the umbrella of Digital Land Record Modernization Program (DILRMP), a Govt. of India flagship program. The Odisha Special Survey and Settlement Act, 2012 has been enacted by the Government of Odisha to facilitate such Survey. The four costal Districts and five Western Districts of the State were taken in the first phase using HRSI and Aerial Survey Methodology, respectively. Odisha Space Applications Centre (ORSAC) is the technical collaborator to Revenue and Disaster Management Department (R&DM), Govt. of Odisha for this activity. A Standard Operating procedure (SOP) is prepared to facilitate the revenue officials in the field to overcome the technical challenges faced during execution.

P. K. Parida, M. K. Sanabada, Sandeep Tripathi

Accuracy Assessment of the Digital Elevation Model, Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from Aerial Stereo Pairs and Contour Maps for Hydrological Parameters

In this study, some of the widely used data for elevation models were compared based on hydrological parameters such as slope, aspect, flow direction, and slope length and steepness factor (LS factor). The study considers the comparison among ASTER GDEM, SRTM DEM, topographic maps, and aerial photography at 430239 predetermined tests points. Bilinear interpolation technique was used to interpolate the data at these testing points. The result shows the digital elevation model (DEM) from topographic maps has relatively higher vertical accuracy (RMSE = 5.40 m), compared to ASTER GDEM (7.10 m) and SRTM DEM (15.07 m), while comparing with digital surface model (DSM) from stereo pairs. For validation, we used 47 ground control points (GCPs) using GPS. The results show the vertical accuracy are relatively higher for DSM (RMSE = 1.11 m), followed by DEMs from topographic maps (4.10 m), ASTER GDEM (7.36 m), and SRTM DEM (12.22 m). The DSM matches closely with the result of topographic DEM in case of slope, LS factor curves, aspect, and flow direction. The result with ASTER DEM matches better than results with SRTM data in all the parameters but both of them show poor match with the results from DSM data.

Odai Ibrahim Mohammed Al Balasmeh, Tapas Karmaker

Study of Subsurface Roughness Impact on GPR Performance Using Modelling and Simulation

Numerical modelling and simulation for Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) were done to characterize and quantify the effect of subsurface roughness on GPR performance at 500 MHz operating frequency. An open-source electromagnetic solver was utilized for modelling multiple scenarios with various subsurface roughness and its numerical simulations. The detailed quantitative analysis for GPR signal losses was attempted in different subsurface roughness scenarios by using Normalized Energy (NE) and Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR). This work also included the different fractal window sizes, i.e. variation of height of roughness with mean surface which define dynamic range of roughness. Quantitative results and analysis showed continuous decreasing trend in SCR with respect to increase in subsurface roughness. There was also a significant drop observed in SCR with increasing window size. The overall loss of signal has been quantified with respect to smooth interface. Hypothesis test has also been carried out to ensure and validate the subsurface roughness effect on GPR performance via signal-to-clutter ratio.

Narayana Rao Bhogapurapu, Dharmendra Kumar Pandey, Keesara Venkata Reddy, Deepak Putrevu

A Conceptual Framework of Public Health SDI

From several years, public health is one of the major problems faced by several countries including India. This requires proper Public Health Information System (PHIS) that is safe, reliable, and efficient. At present, most of the public-health-based information and management system are lacking the support of real-time data uploading, data visualization, data analysis, and decision-making. To overcome these issues, Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) became the promising approach through which the improvements can be made. SDI provides an environment in which users can share and access the geospatial data with the common set of policies, standards, and network protocols. The main objective of the present work is to conceptualize an SDI framework for public health using open-source resources so that users can access the health information easily from the developed system. Moreover, the concept presented in the paper can be applied onto the larger scale.

Ashutosh Kumar Tripathi, Sonam Agrawal, R. D. Gupta

Influence of Hyperparameter in Deep Convolution Neural Network Using High-Resolution Satellite Data

In recent years, Deep Convolution Neural Network (DCNN) has evolved in the various fields of computer vision and performed state of the art in image classification task including feature extraction in high-resolution satellite imagery. During the training process, DCNN is required to achieve the highest accuracy but framework should be optimized with the help of hyperparameters (knobs) to reach that accuracy. In this study, we investigated the effect of various hyperparameters like batch size, learning rate, and other additional factors like test ratio w.r.t different variants of gradient optimizer algorithms, which can help to give the direction for the searching of better hyperparameter setting so that DCNN could achieve better classification accuracy with less computation time. Herein, we used SAT4 and SAT6 datasets to train the ALEXNET framework.

Ashish Soni, Radhakanta Koner, Vasanta Govind Kumar Villuri

Comparison of Various Indices to Differentiate Built-up and Bare Soil with Sentinel 2 Data

Accurate mapping of built-up area and bare soil, having similar spectral characteristics is an important task for urban mapping using remote sensing data. In order to classify both built-up area and bare soil accurately, several indices with Landsat data are proposed in the literature. This study is planned to compare the performance of several indices proposed to accurately differentiate built-up area and bare soil using Sentinel 2 data acquired over Kurukshetra (Haryana) during April 2017. All together nine indices related to built-up area and bare soil identification and proposed in literature were derived with Sentinel 2 data. Different dataset combinations were used for classification in four land cover classes. Support vector machine classifier was used to classify different combination of images used in this study. Comparison of results in terms of area for both built-up area and bare soil using classified images and field visit suggest that a combination of six bands of Sentinel 2 data with six indices was found performing well in comparison to other combinations and was able to differentiate both built-up area and bare soil accurately.

Prajjwal Singh Rahar, Mahesh Pal

Assessment of SCATSAT-1 Backscattering by Using the State-of-the-Art Water Cloud Model

The SCATSAT-1 satellite data can be used for various applications in the field of agriculture. The main aim of the study is to investigate the water cloud model (WCM) for backscattering simulation by using the field-measured soil moisture in order to validate the SCATSAT-1 measured backscattering. WCM requires various input datasets for simulation of backscattering such as vegetation parameters A and B and soil parameters C and D, which can be estimated by Non-linear least square fitting method by using with experimental dataset. The results showed that the simulated WCM values are well correlated with the backscattering of SCATSAT-1 satellite data. However, it can be further improved when each parameter of WCM is generated by using the ground-based measurements. In this study, some progress has been made toward backscattering simulations using the SCATSAT-1; however, it can be further refined with the advancement in the retrieval algorithms and sensor sensitivity.

Ujjwal Singh, Prashant K. Srivastava, Dharmendra Kumar Pandey, Sasmita Chaurasia

Building Footprint Extraction from Very-High-Resolution Satellite Image Using Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) Technique

Building footprints are an important input in several urban applications such as master plan preparation, development of 3D city building models, rooftop solar energy potential estimation, tax compliance evaluation, or study of population distribution in cities. The very high spatial resolution (VHR) image is invariably required for the extraction of building footprints. However, the conventional pixel-based approaches have limited success in building footprint extraction owing to inherent heterogeneity of the urban environment. In this research, we have therefore applied Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) for building footprints extraction from Cartosat-2 series data. The image was segmented into several objects on the basis of spectral and spatial homogeneity of pixels. The objects were thereafter classified using nearest-neighbor classification approach. Finally, these classified objects were further subjected to segmentation into smaller objects and classified using decision-rules. The combination of supervised nearest-neighbor classification with decision-rules resulted in an accuracy of over 82.5% in the extraction of building footprints. The results of the study will be used to develop a 3D city model of Ahmedabad city and assess the changes in the built-up volume in the city.

A. P. Prathiba, Kriti Rastogi, Gaurav V. Jain, V. V. Govind Kumar

Role of Ground Control Points (GCPs) in Integration of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close-range Photogrammetry (CRP)

The need for GCPs is increasingly more important with the increase in higher accuracy requirements and increase in user expectations. GCPs (Ground control points) are necessary for orientation and placement of photographs and 3D models in the spatial coordinate system, and they play a key role in co-registration of two point clouds. This paper deals with the assessment of the role of Ground Control Points in Co-registration of CRP and TLS point clouds by point-pair selection methodology and Automatic co-registration algorithm. In this work, the point cloud is generated from multiple overlapping sequences of images using Close-range Photogrammetry (CRP) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for a building over the planar surface. GCPs were collected by the total station to register the TLS and CRP point cloud. Overlapping photographs are processed in Agisoft PhotoScan software. TLS point cloud was generated from Riegl VZ 400 and GCPs were used to geo-reference it in Cloud Compare software. Various subsets of both point clouds are co-registered by the point-pair co-registration method and by Automatic point detection fine co-registration. Two subsets for each of CRP and TLS point cloud are considered in such a way that one is having some common overlap and other is having no common feature. GCPs registered point clouds integrate precisely as compared to that of the non-registered point cloud. The RMS error achieved in case of geo-referenced point cloud co-registration was 0.0091645433 m and in non-geo-referenced co-registration was found to be 0.03327466 m. In this study, it was also found that error is significantly higher in Automatic point detection method as compared to that of conventional point-pair selection co-registration. From this study, it is observed that higher accuracy of co-registration is achieved in the case of geo-referenced models by point-pair selection method. So, GCPs are the prerequisite for the effective and precise co-registration of 3D point clouds.

Yogender, S. Raghavendra, S. K. P. Kushwaha

Developing of Geoweb Application for Urban Planning

The achievement of rapid growth that is both inclusive and sustainable presents formidable challenges for urban planning in India. Urban planning involves a lot of spatial implications. The planning process may have social, economic, and environmental effects. The emerging GIS techniques have various solutions for the urban planning. This paper presents the development of flexible and user-friendly geoweb application which has necessary tools that can be used as an alternative for the ease in urban planning. The main objective of this project is to develop a geoweb application for urban planning. And to develop a query builder so that it would be a useful tool for the urban planner and the users. In order to achieve these objectives, a detailed study was carried out to find the existing applications and technologies that are best suited for developing such a system and a methodology was prepared. After identifying software and technology stack required for the development, a spatial database containing all the data was prepared and published on GeoServer using Postgresql/PostGIS. A web interface was developed using HTML, CSS, JS, and PHP along with the OpenLayers to visualize and it was made responsive using the BOOTSTRAP. Hence, it can be used by various planners using the database and GIS tools in the applications for the town and country planning.

B. Sai Teja, K. Venugopal Rao, Y. Navatha, Reedhi Shukla, P. Sampath Kumar

A Proposed Framework Approach for Mapping Glacier Hazard Zones

The main aim of this study is to propose a new ensemble framework model for the prediction of snow avalanche prone regions. The proposed approach is based on the following pillars: Support vector machine classifier (SVM) and recent state-of-the-art ensemble learning techniques, Bagging and MultiBoost. On the basis of current literature, it has been observed that such techniques have been rarely used in this field. The study was conducted on the surrounding region of Gomukh, Uttarakhand, India. Several parameters were computed on which the base classifier was trained, viz., slope, aspect, surface curvature, precipitation, surface temperature, and snowfall. It was observed that the proposed ensemble frameworks outperformed with the current state-of-the-art SVM classifier. The highest classification accuracy was observed by the MultiBoost ensemble framework (92.61%), followed by Bagging (88.93%), while the lowest classification accuracy of (78.98%) was produced by artificial neural network (ANN) classifier. Accuracy assessment was performed and the proposed models were evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and statistical measures.

Rahul Nijhawan, Josodhir Das

Snow Cover Analysis in Chandra Basin of Western Himalaya from 2001 to 2016

Snow cover and glaciers play an important and significant role in high-altitude areas. Chandra Basin, a subbasin of Chenab Basin, is situated in Lahaul–Spiti district, Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalaya and lying on the monsoon-arid transition region. To study the snow cover variation in Chandra basin from 2001 to 2016 for winter period (November−April), MODIS 8-day Terra (MOD10A2) data product is used. A Python script (Arcpy and Numpy package) is used to estimate the snow cover variation in Chandra Basin during the study period. This analysis shows that maximum average snow cover during 2001−2016 was in March (96.94%) and minimum in November (76.93%). Linear-trend-based analysis of snow cover area indicates that it is shrinking at the rate of 0.12% per year. The total reduction in snow cover area in the study area during 2001−2016 is 2.00%.

Rakesh Sahu, R. D. Gupta

Long-Term Dynamics of Mangrove Forest in Andaman, India

Mangrove forests in Andaman district, India are chosen for investigation based on its high diversity and rich species composition. The long-term understanding of distribution and dynamics of mangrove forest in Andaman region is still inadequate. This study aims to generate the detail changes of mangroves during past decades. It also focuses on the key factors responsible for spatial changes during the period. Historical database are generated from past literatures and coupled with satellite image information to prepare the mangrove dynamics. This study finding revealed that the mangrove deforestation is high due to natural as well as anthropogenic stresses specially the impact of seismic and climate change and reclamation of land, agriculture pressure, and pollution. The outcomes of the study have been checked during field but due to the convenience of accessibility conditions only eastern part of Andaman island is considered for validation.

Subha Chakraborty, Swati Saha, Debaleena Majumdar, Debajit Datta

Evaluation of CORDEX Multi-RCM for Indian Subcontinent Using NASA’s RCMES

Mean, minimum, and maximum surface air temperature, precipitation and cloudiness are evaluated for their strengths and limitation in the period (1991−2001) from the CORDEX regional climate model hindcast experiment. South Asia region has limited CORDEX data availability, 3 RCMs namely RCA4 (SMHI), REMO (MPI), and REGCM4 (ICT) were available for assessing their climate feature simulation capabilities. Regional climate model evaluation system (RCMES) is a powerful tool for characterizing strength, weakness, and uncertainty involved in the model. In this study, Indian region has been divided into 17 subregions in such a way that they represent spatial climatic variability of the country. These regions are assessed individually as well as collectively with CORDEX data which is available at a resolution of 0.5° for their biases and correlation against the gridded surface station data of climate research unit (CRU TS v. 4.01). Comparative study of simulated precipitation against CRU dataset revealed that systematic model biases do occur across all the models whereas basic climatological features are simulated reasonably well except for few regions including Himalayas as well as regions of Gujarat and Arunanchal Pradesh. The study also revealed that surface air temperature is simulated better in comparison to precipitation and cloudiness, multi-model ensemble mean outperforms individual models. Taylor diagrams are used to enhance studies effectiveness by incorporating correlation coefficient, RMSE and standard deviation among various models.

Saket Dubey, Sandeep Kumar Chouksey

Biomass Estimation Using Synergy of ALOS-PALSAR and Landsat Data in Tropical Forests of Brazil

Satellite remote sensing technologies are currently tested and suggested as a tool in REDD+ (MRV, Measurement Reporting, and Verification). SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has got an extensive application in the estimation of biomass due to its all-weather capabilities. L band radar signals penetrate the canopy more efficiently when compared to C band. Scientific biomass study using SAR has not been conducted in Para in spite of extensive field datasets being freely available under CMS (Carbon Monitoring System) project. This study aims in using various polarization combinations like HH + HV, HH − HV, HH + HV/HH − HV and vegetation index such as NDVI from the optical data. ALOS-PALSAR and Landsat 7 data acquired over Paragominas in Brazil, where field samples were collected in the form of transects. Regression analysis was performed using backscatter coefficients and field collected Above Ground Biomass (AGB). Semi-empirical model was developed to model AGB using various polarization combinations and NDVI as predictor variables. Combination gave higher R2 value of 0.657 for biomass prediction. Multiple linear regression using NDVI and HH + HV as variables yielded R2 of 0.73 during calibration and 0.363 during validation. There is future scope to use other vegetation indices such as RVI, EVI, etc., along with increased number of samples, which may yield more robust models with acceptable level of accuracy for practical application.

Vinayak Huggannavar, Amba Shetty

Geospatial Data Availability Through Map and Server—A Case Study

Now days free mapping tools are available to prepare a map, but they are not so much reliable and authentic, because the new mapmakers are not so much trend about principle, concept and methodology. So improperly designed map with lack of modern concept and technique do not effectively use for analysis and mapping. The study and analysis of area of this paper is lying between latitude of 17:19:0.5–17:30:07 (approx.) and longitude of 78:27:30 to 78:38:29 (approx). It covers an area of 400 km2 (around 10 km from IISM, SOI, Uppal, Hyderabad). The area falls in Survey of India OSM Sheet No. E44M7 & E44M11. The study and its analysis using MS-V8, Erdas and GIS, and creation of public utility map in terms of spatial and non-spatial data is a challenging task. The heavy data volume can’t be handled and analysis by traditional system of record keeping. This paper is to develop integrating concept of GIS for future smart city projects. It is very helpful for future city/urban planning and healthy city development. Finally it is Upload and displaying the Map of selected area of city on Internet browser with attribute using open source software Geo-server, Google Earth & Bhuvan Portal (for upload data). Those map which have spatial and non spatial information along with geometrical accuracy will have a massive demand not only in user community but also in infrastructure development in a systematic manner. Forthcoming smart city project, interactive revolution of Geospatial mapping tool will have a very powerful optimization.

Bipin Chand Pandey

Web-GIS-Based Interface for a UBA Selected Village

The Unnat Bharat Abhiyan (UBA) mission is to enable people of higher educational institutions, work along with people of rural areas by identifying their development challenges and evolving solutions for accelerating sustainable growth. Planners and policy makers have to depend on spatial infrastructure and non-spatial data for effective planning and decision-making. The Web-GIS with integration of both spatial and non-spatial data, i.e. household data which helps in extending the information accessibility for rural mass and the administrators in planning development activities as well as monitoring different rural programs by the government. This aim of this work is to provide interactive geospatial database, which helps in accessing the household information including spatial data for Ramulapalli village of Kannuru gram panchayat selected under UBA program. Household survey data as non-spatial data, and google earth image as Spatial data integrated into Geospatial environment and provide through web interface. Web-based interface, containing information that is helpful planning in development activities has been developed using MapGuide open source platform.

B. Pavan Kumar, K. Venkata Reddy

Downscaling of Coarse Resolution Land Surface Temperature Through Vegetation Indices Based Regression Models

In geoscience and remote sensing necessitate thermal imagery having high-resolution for various applications like estimation of the Land surface temperature (LST) analysis, thermal comfort, urban energy resources, forest fire, assessment of evapotranspiration, drought prediction, etc. We need accurate and sharp thermal images to explore surface temperature related phenomenon on frequent basis. The present physical and technological constraints have not allowed us to dig up remote sensing thermal data at high temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously. Hence, it is obligatory to construct a dynamic relation between low- and high-resolution satellite data to acquire enhanced thermal images. The present study evaluates three downscaling algorithms in our study area, namely, disaggregation of radiometric surface temperature (DisTrad), sharpening thermal imagery (TsHARP), and local model using seasonal Landsat 8 and MODIS data thermal imagery. The aggregated Landsat 8 LST of 1000 m resolution has been downscaled to 400, 300, 200, and 100 m using DisTrad, TsHARP, and the local model and compared with original Landsat 8 and resampled LST of matching level. The results have shown that LST downscaling technique performance varies over climate, surface feature and earth surface moisture conditions. The models have not performed well in surface having highest and lowest water content i.e. water bodies and arid sandy areas. Alternatively, regression-based downscaling accuracy is higher for NDVI > 0.3. For example, the accuracy of all algorithms is higher for the growing seasons (February and October) unlike the harvesting season (April). The root means square error of the downscaled LST increases from 400 to 100 m spatial resolution in all seasons. The downscaling algorithms gave realistic results of MODIS satellite thermal band to a spatial resolution of 200 m. The present study is an attempt to rationalize coarse resolution thermal image by using the association between earth facade vegetation indices and land surface temperature. The study aims to develop a robust LST downscaling algorithm for MODIS data at LANDSAT resolution. The downscaling methods successfully operate over a heterogeneous landscape and reduced thermal mixture effect to monitor the daily basis long-term environmental phenomena.

Kul Vaibhav Sharma, Sumit Khandelwal, Nivedita Kaul

Optimization Models for Selecting Base Station Sites for Cellular Network Planning

Increasing number of base station sites with continuously growing customers not only lifted up the total cost of the cellular network but it also has radiation hazard issues affecting health. So, it is vital to select most favorable sites in the planning of cellular networks. For this, various site optimization models based on Meta-heuristic approaches (like Genetic Algorithm GA) and Geographical Information system GIS have been presented in this paper. Outcomes of this study will help us in developing a new model for placement of optimal number of base stations in Uttarakhand (study area). Paper concludes with the pros and cons of different models and also outlines all the necessary variables and/or parameters required for the study area.

Shikha Tayal, P. K. Garg, Sandip Vijay

Acquisition of Inaccessible Geospatial Data

The acquisition of geospatial data from inaccessible areas using conventional methods and man-operated mobile mapping system (MMS) is a critical operation. However, autonomous unmanned vehicles may be used for the acquisition of geospatial data from inaccessible areas rapidly and cost-effectively. Therefore, the objective of this research work is the acquisition of geospatial data using an unmanned mobile mapping system (UMMS) and validating the acquired data using the inexpensive RTK GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) system. The data have been collected at the predefined waypoints using UMMS of the study areas. The waypoints and study areas have been selected using Google Earth. The quality of acquired data by the system has been tested with a geodetic GNSS receiver data. It has been observed that the proposed system has the capability to provide data with an accuracy of 2.5 cm. The accuracy of the proposed system degrades as the system navigates under the canopy and buildings.

Sharwan Ram, Suraj Sawant, Ajay Kumar Patel
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