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Über dieses Buch

Applied data-centric social sciences aim to develop both methodology and practical applications of various fields of social sciences and businesses with rich data. Specifically, in the social sciences, a vast amount of data on human activities may be useful for understanding collective human nature. In this book, the author introduces several mathematical techniques for handling a huge volume of data and analysing collective human behaviour. The book is constructed from data-oriented investigation, with mathematical methods and expressions used for dealing with data for several specific problems. The fundamental philosophy underlying the book is that both mathematical and physical concepts are determined by the purposes of data analysis. This philosophy is shown throughout exemplar studies of several fields in socio-economic systems. From a data-centric point of view, the author proposes a concept that may change people’s minds and cause them to start thinking from the basis of data. Several goals underlie the chapters of the book. The first is to describe mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis, and toward that end the author delineates methods with actual data in each chapter. The second is to find a cyber-physical link between data and data-generating mechanisms, as data are always provided by some kind of data-generating process in the real world. The third goal is to provide an impetus for the concepts and methodology set forth in this book to be applied to socio-economic systems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Recent development of information and communication technology enables us to acquire, collect, analyse data in various fields of socioeconomic-technological systems. In this chapter, we will address data from several different perspectives and define the applied data-centric social sciences. I will explain that limitation of our ability to understand our society from inductive approach is origins of complexity. Concepts and methodologies of data-centric science will be introduced and their potential applications and existing studies will be mentioned.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Chapter 2. Framework

Abstract
A framework of the applied data-centric social sciences is based on data-centric science. A methodology of data-centric science is very common and applicable to all the types of sciences. In this chapter, we will see a methodology used in applied data-centric sciences commonly.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Methodology

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. Mathematical Expressions

Abstract
Statistical methods are useful tools to deal with data on socioeconomic-technological systems. In this chapter, we will address fundamental expressions used in statistics and methods of data analysis: time series analysis, network analysis and spatial analysis.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Chapter 4. Data in Computers

Abstract
The applied data-centric social sciences are cyber-enabled and require the use of inductive strategies to define problems and challenges. Thus, we require the use of computers to process a large number of data points. In this chapter, we will see how computers can be used to acquire, handle and analyse data.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Exemplar Studies

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Risk Assessment of Extreme Events

Abstract
Risk assessment is one of the crucial issues in management science. Specifically, it is important to infer risks of extreme events, which generate huge damage with small probability. To estimate risk of these extreme events, we need a method to extrapolate tail probabilities. In this chapter, the method to estimate parameters and empirical evidence are introduced through exemplar study of the foreign exchange market.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Chapter 6. Segmentation Study of Foreign Exchange Market

Abstract
This chapter explains a recursive segmentation procedure under normal distribution assumptions. The Akaike information criterion between independently identically distributed Gaussian samples and two successive segments drawn from different Gaussian distributions is used as a discriminator to segment time series. The Jackknife method is employed in order to evaluate a statistical significance level. This chapter shows univariate and multivariate cases. The proposed method is performed for artificial time series consisting of two segments with different statistics. Furthermore, log-return time series of currency exchange rates for 30 currency pairs for the period from January 4, 2001 to December 30, 2011 are divided into 11 segments with the proposed method. It is confirmed that some segment corresponds to historical events recorded as critical situations.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Chapter 7. Hotel Booking Data

Abstract
This study considers a method to determine and classify districts based on the stay capacity of hotels in order to understand regional dependence of social wealth. We analyse the geographical positions and the number of rooms about 2,881 Japanese hotels which have 582,898 rooms in total empirically. Firstly, we conduct a clustering analysis of regional statistics on the stay capacities by using the centroid method. Secondly, we divide areas by a centroid method from a maximum entropy point of view hierarchically. It may be concluded that the rank size distribution for the number of rooms in the cluster is fitted with a power-law function with the exponent depending on the number of clusters included in the level. We further investigates an association between the availability of hotels and socioeconomic dynamics before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March, 2011.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Chapter 8. Tendency of International Air Travels

Abstract
This study considers the relationship between the price of flight tickets and their geodesic distance from the departure airport to the destination. Using the data collected from a Japanese flight booking site, I empirically investigated demand-supply situations from parameter estimates of an \(N\)th order polynomial function of the price in terms of the distance on each observation date. An adequate order of the polynomial function is determined by using two kinds of information criteria (AIC and BIC). It is confirmed that the ticket availability strongly depends on the Japanese calendar date and that the parameter estimates also depend on the calendar date. The parameter estimates may correspond to demand-supply situations of the Japanese air travel market.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Chapter 9. Energy Consumption

Abstract
The relationship between annual electric power consumption per capita and gross domestic production (GDP) per capita is investigated. In addition, the values of the annual electric power production by four international agencies that report macro data on socioeconomic systems are examined. An increasing tendency of GDP per capita was found in relation to the annual electric power consumption per capita. The results also showed that the data structure, values, and unit depended on the data on annual electrical power consumption in a sample of organisations: the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD Factbook (Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics), and the United Nations (UN) Energy Statistics Yearbook. Further research should establish data standards and an organisation that would oversee to collection, storage, and distribution of data on socioeconomic systems. A distributed energy management system is proposed for the accurate and rigorous collection of data on electrical power consumption.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Future Work

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Future Research in Applied Data-Centric Social Sciences

Abstract
This chapter addresses future works in applied data-centric social sciences. Rich data on human societies should not only contribute to establishing better understanding of our society but also to developing new services and goods.
Aki-Hiro Sato

Backmatter

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