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Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems brings together the relevant studies in mechatronic systems with the latest research from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, computational algorithm development and exemplary applications. Readers can easily tailor the techniques in this book to accommodate their ad hoc applications. The clear structure of each paper, background - motivation - quantitative development (equations) - case studies/illustration/tutorial (curve, table, etc.) is also helpful. It is mainly aimed at graduate students, professors and academic researchers in related fields, but it will also be helpful to engineers and scientists from industry.

Lei Liu is a lecturer at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China; Quanmin Zhu is a professor at University of the West of England, UK; Lei Cheng is an associate professor at Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China; Yongji Wang is a professor at HUST; Dongya Zhao is an associate professor at China University of Petroleum.



Chapter 1. Synchronized Control of Mechanical Systems: A Tutorial

Mechanical systems with synchronization functionality have been used for many complex production tasks that cannot be carried out by a single machine and/or individual mechanism. Synchronized control approach is one of the key issues to achieve the synchronized motion of mechanical systems, which attracts more and more attention from academic research to applications. There are many types of mechanical systems that require synchronized control, which have different kinematics and dynamics. It is not an easy job to use a unified synchronized control algorithm for all mechanical systems. This chapter summarizes the work on synchronized control mainly developed by the authors and their colleagues. In the presentation it tries to use several classical mechanical systems to show the design philosophy of the synchronized control systems, and consequently establishes a reader/user-friendly framework with tutorial, survey, applications, and potential research expansion.
Dongya Zhao, Quanmin Zhu, Shaoyuan Li, Feng Gao

Chapter 2. Control Reconfiguration on Deadlocked Gimballed Thrust of Launch Vehicle

An unprecedented challenge of the new generation launch vehicle control is its four parallel strap-on engines are oscillateable by the servomechanism. It increases the manoeuvrability of the vehicle and the control complexity simultaneously. The chapter investigates actuator failure compensation for new generation launch vehicle control. A control reconfiguration scheme of fault-tolerant control is developed to enhance the reliability of launch vehicle attitude control systems and prevent the control invalidation caused by the deadlock of the oscillating actuator, based on the congruity of the composite moment before and after the failure happens. This reconfiguration scheme is capable of utilizing the remaining control authority to achieve the desired performance in the presence of deadlock at certain detectable angle occurring in one or several actuators at unknown time instants.
Lei Liu, Yongji Wang

Chapter 3. Synthesis of an Advanced State Feedback Control for Continuous Nonlinear Polynomial Systems

In this chapter, the problem of approximate linearization of affine nonlinear control systems by a static state feedback is considered. First of all, we propose an analytical method, based on the development into generalized Taylor series expansions and the Kronecker product tools, in order to simplify the complex implementation of the input-state feedback linearization formalism. Next, to improve the synthesized polynomial feedback control, the genetic algorithm, as an optimization method, is used. Finally, the new approach presented in this work is applied to investigate the control problem of a chemical reactor. Moreover, we prove that the controlled process is locally asymptotically stable in a wide region around the operating point, in the Lyapunov sense.
Houssem Jerbi, Wiem Jebri Jemai

Chapter 4. Recent Advances in Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control Method

The terminal sliding mode (TSM) control method has become a hot topic in recent years due to its special merit on finite-time convergence and good robustness. One critical issue is how to balance the singularity of control law and the fast convergence of closed-loop system. The chapter reviews the research history of the singularity and introduces the recent advance on nonsingular and fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) control method. The synthesis of NFTSM controller synthesis is based on a newly proposed nonsingular fast terminal function and a terminal attractor with nonnegative exponential coefficient. Both theoretical analyses and computer simulations have proved its effectiveness under the condition that plant uncertainties are bounded.
Shengbo Eben Li, Kun Deng

Chapter 5. Flocking Behavior via Leader’s Backstepping on Nonholonomic Robot Group

This chapter aims to improve flocking control for a group of nonholonomic robots. It introduces a new flocking control algorithm with potential-based flocking as its foundation. By incorporating Leader’s Backstepping algorithm into the flocking strategy, an improved flocking performance is obtained, which leads the flock to the target point swiftly in a smoothed trajectory. Simulations in this chapter test and verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, in which key parameters’ influences on system performance are discussed.
Lei Cheng, Jun Wang, Huaiyu Wu, Wenxia Xu, Wenhao Zhang, Pian Jin, Quanmin Zhu

Chapter 6. Performance Comparison Between NCTF and PV Techniques for the Control of Linear Motion Servo System

Motion control system is a challenging problem in the area of control systems. It is very useful to demonstrate concepts in linear control such as the stabilization of unstable systems. Motion control system plays important roles in industrial equipment such as machine tools, semiconductor manufacturing systems, and robot systems. One type of motion control system is the point-to-point (PTP) positioning system, which is used to move an object from one point to another point. Linear motion servo system is a machine that moves the cart from one point to another point. This system consists of a cart driven by a DC motor, via a rack and pinion mechanism to ensure consistent and continuous traction. Till date, many types of controllers have been proposed and evaluated for positioning systems. Two types of controllers discussed in this thesis are Proportional-Velocity (PV) and Nominal Characteristic Trajectory Following (NCTF). The experimental results showed that the PV was successfully implemented which controlled the settling time, rise time, and steady-state error of the desired position. However, the overshoot performances show its disadvantages. Additionally, the PV controller design is a time-consuming process, since model and parameters of the linear motion servo system are needed. Therefore, the needs for higher performance controller become important for the simplicity of the controller design. Hence, the investigation proceeds with the non-model-based NCTF controller to control the cart position of the linear motion servo system. The NCTF controller consists of a Nominal Characteristic Trajectory (NCT) and PI compensator. The NCTF controller was designed based on a simple open-loop experiment of the object. The experimental results showed that the NCTF controller is more effective for controlling the position of linear motion servo system than the PV controller.
Jiwa Abdullah, Noor Hisham Jalani, Jamaludin Jalani

Chapter 7. A High Order PID-Sliding Mode Control: Simulation on a Torpedo

Position and speed control of the torpedo present a real problem for the actuators because of the high level of system nonlinearity and because of the external disturbances. The nonlinear systems control is based on several different approaches, which include the sliding mode control. This chapter deals with the basic concepts, mathematics, and design aspects of a control for nonlinear systems that make the chattering effect lower. As solution to this problem we will adopt as a starting point the high order sliding mode approaches and then the PID-sliding surface. Simulation results show that this control strategy can attain excellent control performance with no chattering problem.
Ahmed Rhif, Zohra Kardous, Naceur Ben Hadj Braiek

Chapter 8. Sliding Mode Control with Self-Turning Law for Uncertain Nonlinear Systems with Time-Delay and External Disturbances

This study proposes a novel sliding mode control with self-turning law for nonlinear systems with time-delay and external disturbances possessing uncertain parameters. The adjustable control gain and a bipolar sigmoid function are online tuned to force the tracking error to approach zero. The proposed control scheme provides good transient and steady-state performance. Moreover as the proposed controller, the chatting phenomenon can be avoided and the problem of time-delay and external disturbances are solved for a class of nonlinear systems. The closed-loop control system stability is proved to use the Lyapunov method. Steady-state system performance and chattering are considerably improved. Numerical simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.
Ran Zhen, Jinyong Chen, Xueli Wu, Quanmin Zhu, Hassan Nouri, Xiaojing Wu, Jianhua Zhang

Chapter 9. Applied Methods and Techniques for Modeling and Control on Micro-Blog Data Crawler

Models can provide mechanisms to improve system performance. This chapter presents the applied methods and techniques for modeling and controlling on micro-blog crawler. With the rapid development of social studies and social network, millions of people present or comment or share their opinions on the platform everyday, and as a result, produce or spread their opinions and sentiments on different topics. The microblog has been an effective platform to know or mine social opinions. In order to do so, crawling the relevant microblog data is necessary. But it is hard for a traditional web crawler to crawl micro-blog data as usual, as by using Web 2.0 techniques such as AJAX, the micro-blog data is dynamically generated rapidly. As most microblogs’ official platforms cannot offer some suitable tools or RPC interface to collect the big data effectively and efficiently, we present an algorithm on modeling and controlling on micro-blog data crawler based on simulating browsers’ behaviors. This needs to analyze the simulated browsers’ behaviors in order to obtain the requesting URLs to simulate and parse and analyze the sending URL requests according to the order of data sequence. The experimental results and the analysis show the feasibility of the approach. Further works are also presented at the end.
Kai Gao, Er-Liang Zhou, Steven Grover

Chapter 10. Development of an Improved Genetic Algorithm for Resolving Inverse Kinematics of Virtual Human’s Upper Limb Kinematics Chain

Inverse kinematics is the key technique in virtual human motion control and it is difficult to obtain the solutions by using geometric, algebraic, or iterative algorithms. In this chapter, an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) is proposed to resolve the inverse kinematics problem in upper limb kinematics chain (ULKC). First, the joint-units of ULKC and its mathematical models are constructed by using D–H method; then population diversity and population initialization are accomplished by simulating human population, and the adaptive operators for mutation are designed. The simulation results show that compared with the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA), the IGA can provide higher precise solutions in searching process and avoid “premature” stop or inefficient searching in later stage with high probability.
Gangfeng Deng, Xianxiang Huang, Qinhe Gao, Ying Zhan, Quanmin Zhu

Chapter 11. Sliding Mode Control for Nonlinear Discrete Time Systems with Matching Perturbations

This chapter considers sliding mode control of nonlinear discrete time systems with matching perturbations. The nonlinear sliding mode controller, whose parameters assure the closed-loop system stable, is designed in order to drive the state trajectories toward to a small bounded region. The controller is approximated by a polynomial equation in current control term \(u(k)\) according to Taylor series expansion. The algebraic solutions can be obtained by resolving a polynomial equation in the latest control term \(u(k)\). The integrated procedure provides a straightforward methodology to apply sliding mode control design technique for nonlinear systems. The simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Yang Li, Quanmin Zhu, Xueli Wu, Jianhua Zhang

Chapter 12. Type-2 Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Network Controller Design Based on an Adaptive Gradient Descent Method for Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

The integration of fuzzy systems, Wavelet theory, and neural networks has recently become a popular approach in the engineering fields for control of nonlinear systems. Therefore, the application of Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Network controllers is clearly obvious to investigators. A lot of research has been done in the control of nonlinear systems by using the models based on type-1 Fuzzy Logic Systems (FLS). However, they are regularly unable to handle uncertainties in the rules. This chapter develops a novel structure of Type-2 Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Networks (T2FWNN) to control a nonlinear system. This has been performed by invoking some of the specific advantages of wavelets, such as dynamic compatibility, compression, and step parameter adaptation along with a combination of type-2 fuzzy concepts regarding the neural networks abilities. The proposed network is constructed based on a set of TSK fuzzy rules that includes a wavelet function in the consequent part of each rule. This can provide appropriate tools on adaptation of plant output signal to follow a desired one. In this regard, the merits of utilizing wavelets and type-2 FLS simultaneously have been discussed and explored to efficiently handle the uncertainties. It is worth mentioning that the stability of the system is effectively dependent on the learning procedure and the initial values of the network parameters. Here, an adaptive gradient descent strategy is used to adjust the unknown parameters. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed T2FWNN is compared with the type-1 FLS networks. As investigated, this method has gained considerably high levels of accuracy with the reasonable number of parameters. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated via the simulation results of two nonlinear case studies.
Hamidreza Abbasi, Ali Akbar Safavi, Maryam Salimifard

Chapter 13. Multivariable Closed-Loop Identification and Its Application to Boiler-Turbine System of Power Unit

In this chapter, a new technique for multivariable closed-loop identification is presented. On the basis of process input and output data in the control loops, the process frequency-response matrix is estimated with signal decomposition and frequency spectrum analysis, and then a transform-function matrix is identified by least square method. The required input and output data are obtained while the processes are still in normal closed-loop operation. The closed-loop identification is applied to the boiler-turbine coordinated control system of power unit. Simulation example is given to show both effectiveness and accuracy of the identification method for boiler-turbine unit.
Shi-he Chen, Ya-gang Wang, Xi Zhang, Xiao-feng Li

Chapter 14. Tracking and Statistics Method Based on LBTM for Traffic Car Flow

Since limitations have been encountered in the achievement of the traditional targets tracking algorithms, a novel tracking method based on local block-graphs targets matching is proposed. Car flow tracking is applied to prove the effectiveness of the method. First, the images containing the targets are captured by the video frames to get the targets block-graphs. Second, the block-graphs can be used to achieve targets matching, and the detection process can be achieved by targets matching to get the optimal targets set. Finally, the targets set can be used to achieve the minimum deviation forecasting of all frames, and the targets tracking can be achieved. A junction video is selected as the experimental data, and a large number of experiments have been done. The results show that the proposed method not only has a great effect to track cars, but also has a better detection rate and tracking accuracy. The car flow statistics can be completed effectively.
Jian Liu, Zhiheng Gong, Xin Wang, Enyang Gao, Zexian Xu

Chapter 15. Object Manipulation Strategy Analysis and Realization for a Humanoid Robot

It is hoped that the humanoid robot will be able to move flexibly and have excellent object operation capability like human beings. Based on people operation object strategy, this chapter proposes a humanoid robot object operation strategy that integrates the visual feedforward control strategy and the visual feedback control strategy. Using the visual feedforward control strategy, the humanoid robot can walk approaching the target object and make its arm close to the target object; using the visual feedback control strategy, the humanoid robot achieves the robot hand fine alignment with the target object. Based on the visual feedforward control strategy the time of the humanoid robot hand approaching the target object has been reduced; based on the visual feedback control strategy the accuracy of the operation has been improved. Based on the control strategy of this chapter proposed, the humanoid robot will be able to walk and operate objects independently.
Qinjun Du, Hongzhe Sha, Fei Jia, Lina Liu, Xinghua Wu

Chapter 16. Low Intensity Laser Irradiation Influence Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Comparison of Experimental Data to Intelligent Agent-Based Model Predictions

Over the past several decades, evidences have shown that low intensity laser can stimulate a number of biological processes, including stem cell proliferation. In order to fully utilize stem cells in research and medical studies, understanding these processes is essential. However, for gaining this fundamental understanding in a rapid and cost-effective manner, model predictions and computer simulations are required as they may yield useful information and represent powerful supportive tools. This chapter provides some of the experiments employed to measure influence of low intensity laser on proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells which can vary considerably according to many parameters and biological conditions such as laser nature of emission, irradiation time, wavelength, and energy density. These experiments were compared to intelligent agent-based model predictions and detailed information about the model description and comparison results are provided. The model was capable of predicting the data for the scenarios fairly well although a few were somewhat problematic. This study recommends a wave length ranging from 600 to 680 nm, and an energy density ranging from 0.3 to 4.0 J/\( \mathrm cm^{2}\) for enhancing proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.
Aya Sedky Adly, Mohamed H. Haggag, Mostafa-Sami M. Mostafa

Chapter 17. Motor Soft Starter Based on Variable Reactance

When an industrial induction motor is started directly, the stator current is generally 5–7 times greater than the rated one, which makes the voltage sag of the transmission lines increase rapidly, furthermore, affecting the power quality seriously. However, applying variable reactance type motor soft starter to start motors, the starting current of the motor can be reduced effectively. The mathematical model of the soft starter which is based on variable reactance is established, and the relationship between the thyristor conduction angle and the motor current is analyzed. The purpose of the motor and equipment’s protection is achieved by selecting the appropriate conduction angle to control the starting current amplitude.
Xiang Shi, Qinjun Du

Chapter 18. Mixed $$\mathrm{{H}}_{2}/\mathrm{{H}}_{\infty }$$ Robust Controller Design Based LMI Techniques

\(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}\) and \(\mathrm{{H}}_{\infty }\) optimal control are two important breakthroughs in modern robust control. In recent years, the \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}\) and \(\mathrm{{H}}_{\infty }\) controller design techniques have gained a lot of research attention. Both have strong theoretical basis and are efficient algorithms for synthesizing optimal controllers. The performance of \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}\) robust controller is useful to handle stochastic aspects such as measurement noise and capture the control cost. In the robust \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}\) approach, the controller is designed to minimize an upper bound on the worst case \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}\) norm for a range of admissible plant perturbations. When a model under analysis is applied with \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}\) robust controller, the closed loop system will have a good dynamic system performance, but it has poor robustness for the external disturbances of the uncertain system model. The performance of \(\mathrm{{H}}_{\infty }\) is convenient to enforce robustness to model uncertainty, but it is based on compromising system performance. Their combination, the mixed \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}/\mathrm{{H}}_{\infty }\) allows intuitive quadratic performance specifications of the \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}\) synthesis with robust stability requirements specifications expressed by the \(\mathrm{{H}}_{\infty }\) synthesis. In time domain aspects, satisfactory time response and closed loop damping can often be achieved by enforcing the closed loop poles into a predetermined region of the left half plane. Combining these requirements to form so-called mixed \(\mathrm{{H}}_{2}/\mathrm{{H}}_{\infty }\) design with regional pole placement constraints allows for more flexible and accurate specification of closed-loop behavior. This chapter introduces the work of design of improved LMI-based robust output feedback controller and related simulations.
Yuan Peng, Quanmin Zhu, Hassan Nouri

Chapter 19. Advanced Control of Atomic Force Microscope for Faster Image Scanning

In atomic force microscopy (AFM), the dynamics and nonlinearities of its nanopositioning stage are major sources of image distortion, especially when imaging at high scanning speed. This chapter discusses the design and experimental implementation of an observer-based model predictive control (OMPC) scheme which aims to compensate for the effects of creep, hysteresis, cross-coupling, and vibration in piezoactuators in order to improve the nanopositioning of an AFM. The controller design is based on an identified model of the piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS) for which the control scheme achieves significant compensation of its creep, hysteresis, cross-coupling, and vibration effects and ensures better tracking of the reference signal. A Kalman filter is used to obtain full-state information about the plant. The experimental results illustrate the use of this proposed control scheme.
M. S. Rana, H. R. Pota, I. R. Petersen

Chapter 20. Design of the State Estimation System in the Advanced Driver Assistance System

The development of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) is emphasized in road transportation research. Reliability and safety is one of the most important issues in the design process of ADAS. In general, the system must fuse information from multiple sensors to obtain more complete and accurate information about the world. In this chapter, a novel loose coupling sensor fusion strategy is designed, which uses the Extended Kalman filtering (EKF) to fuse the sensor measurements from odometers, accelerometers, gyroscope, and GPS. By using a novel four-wheel vehicle model, the EKF is able to conduct a multi-output rate sensor fusion, compensate the latency for GPS signals, and increase the accuracy of vehicle state estimation even if there exist sensor errors, such as GPS outage, odometer reading error due to wheel slippage. From the road test, it is proved that the designed EKF has achieved good results for vehicle state estimation.
Wei Huang, Xiaoxin Su, David Bevly

Chapter 21. A Collaborative Learning Optimization Strategy for Shared Control of Walking-Aid Robot

Elderly and disabled people often require assistance in getting about with maximum freedom and control while maintaining overall safety. In this chapter, we develop a collaborative learning optimization strategy for shared control of an intelligent walking-aid robot for the purpose of assisting elderly and disabled people. The proposed architecture can adjust two user control weights dynamically by a learning algorithm according to user control habit and walking environment, allowing both human and robot to maintain control of the walking-aid robot. Finally, the experiment results illustrate the validity of the collaborative learning optimization strategy as part of a shared control algorithm.
Wenxia Xu, Jian Huang, Yongji Wang, Chunjing Tao

Chapter 22. Vibration Suppression of Deformable Linear Object Based on Vision Feedback

Deformable Linear Objects, such as hose and cable, are widely used in daily life and industrial applications. Problems in robotic operation and precise control of DLOs, have limited the progression of automation in the electronics industry and automotive industry. In this chapter, we propose an approach based on robot vision to suppress the vibration of a DLO, by means of real-time image processing of high-speed visual feedback to obtain the geometric coordinates and posture of the DLO. A PID controller verifies the validity of the theory along with the expected posture of the DLO. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is confirmed by experiment. Results show that the proposed method can damp vibrations effectively.
Jian Huang, Feng Ding, Huan Wang, Yongji Wang


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