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Theoretical outcomes of design-based research (DBR) are often presented in the form of local theory design principles. This article suggests a complementary theoretical construction in DBR, in the form of a design framework at a higher abstract level, to study and inform educational design with ICT in different situated contexts. Laurillard’s Conversational Framework (CF) is used as a conceptual lens to analyse how eight teachers use or envisage using technology to support learning in one-to-one environments. The findings demonstrate how the researcher uses the CF to discern different aspects of the teachers’ situated design practices. In the study, ICT is primarily used to support communication and the exchange of knowledge representations between the teachers and their students. Considerably fewer examples are found where ICT is used to support communication, collaborative creation and modelling between peers. However, the interview analyses reveal that the teachers’ intentions to apply ICT to support learning often include this second type of ICT use. Reasons for this discrepancy between the expressed intentions and de facto use of ICT include limitations in technical know-how and a perceived conflict between collaborative learning, existing school cultures and individual assessment. The findings suggest that in DBR, an analytical design framework could be an important tool for researchers and teachers when analysing and discussing educational uses of ICT. The CF provides a promising basis for a design framework, but should be expanded to include interactions with actors outside the classroom.
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- Applying a conceptual design framework to study teachers’ use of educational technology
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