Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Home-based businesses (HBBs) account for a considerable proportion of entrepreneurial activity worldwide. Among Europe’s new and established entrepreneurs, almost 45% operate their business activities primarily from home. Moreover, this option is most frequently chosen among youth and senior entrepreneurs. To better understand this phenomenon also in the context of intergenerational differences in entrepreneurship, the aim of our exploratory study is to analyze the character of home-based business activities of youth and senior population in Europe as future new trend in working environment and differences between these two entrepreneur populations. In our study we employ the 2014 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor individual-level adult population survey data for 28 European countries. In our dataset of 8380 new and/or established entrepreneurs we identified 1713 youth entrepreneurs (aged 18–34) and 1933 senior entrepreneurs (aged 55+). Our analysis was based on the comparison of youth and senior home-based entrepreneur subpopulations across the selected personal, business-related, and contextual characteristics of entrepreneurs and their businesses. Also, to discover the specifics of HBBs, we applied the similar comparison to youth and senior non-HBBs. We looked for patterns and statistical significance of the differences employing chi-square tests. Our findings confirm certain intergenerational differences related to young and senior entrepreneurs in HBB that are generally declared in literature and can be the basis of new trends in working style. Among them, we found higher opportunity perception, innovativeness, and growth aspirations of youth than among seniors. However, findings such as equal skill perception and motives for starting business, or lower fear of failure among seniors compared to youth, are surprisingly different in HBBs than in nonhome-based businesses.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
OECD/The European Commission. (2017). Policy Brief on Home-Based Businesses. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Loscocco, K., & Bird, S. R. (2012). Gendered paths: Why women lag behind men in small business success. Work and Occupations, 39(2), 183–219. CrossRef
Ekinsmyth, C. (2014). Mothers’ business, work/life and the politics of “mumpreneurship”. Gender, Place and Culture, 21(10), 1230–1248. CrossRef
Holliss, F. (2015). Beyond live/work: The architecture of home-based work. Abingdon, Oxford: Routledge. CrossRef
Steenbeek, W., & Schutjens, V. (2014). The willingness to intervene in problematic neighbourhood situations: A comparison of local entrepreneurs and (un)employed residents. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 105(3), 349–357. CrossRef
Deschamps, M., Dart, J., & Links, G. (1998). Home-based entrepreneurship in the information age. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 15(1), 74–96. CrossRef
Wilson, G., Mitchell, H., & Hall, G. (2004). Home-based entrepreneurs. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 1(3/4), 249–254. CrossRef
Wynarczyk, P., & Graham, J. (2013). The impact of connectivity technology on home-based business venturing: The case of women in the North East of England. Local Economy, 28(5), 451–470. CrossRef
Mason, C. M., Carter, S., & Tagg, S. (2011). Invisible businesses: The characteristics of home-based businesses in the United Kingdom. Regional Studies, 45(5), 625–639. CrossRef
Salazar, C. (2001). Building boundaries and negotiating work at home. In: Proceedings of the 2001 International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work, pp. 162–170. ACM SIGGROUP, Boulder.
Allinson, G., Braidford, P., Houston, M., & Ston, I. (2013). Understanding growth in microbusinesses [Online]. Retrieved February 2, 2018, from www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/207646/bis-13-895-understanding-growth-in-microbusinesses.pdf
Walker, E. A., Wang, C., & Redmond, J. (2008). Women and work-life balance: is home-based business ownership the solution? Equal Opportunities International, 27(3), 258–275. CrossRef
Anwar, M. N., & Daniel, E. M. (2016). The role of entrepreneur-venture fit in online home-based entrepreneurship: A systematic literature review. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 24(6), 419–451. CrossRef
Loscocco, K., & Smith-Hunter, A. (2004). Women home-based business owners: Insights from comparative analyses. Women in Management Review, 19(3), 164–173. CrossRef
Walker, E. (2003). Home-based businesses: Setting straight the urban myths. Small Enterprise Research, 11(2), 35–48. CrossRef
Dwelly, T., Maguire, K., & Truscott, F. (2005). Under the radar: tracking and supporting rural home-based business. Penzance: Live Work Network.
Thompson, P., Jones-Evans, D., & Kwong, C. (2009). Women and home-based entrepreneurship evidence from the United Kingdom. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 227–239. CrossRef
Rehak, J., Pilkova, A., Marian, H., & Jančovičová, Z. (2017). Do senior entrepreneurs differ from youth entrepreneurs? Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability 2017, pp. 836–848. VSE, Prague.
Hart, M., Anyadike-Danes, M., & Blackburn, R. (2004). Spatial differences in entrepreneurship: A comparison of prime age and third age cohorts. Belfast: Economic Research Institute of Northern Ireland.
Levesque, M., & Minniti, M. (2006). The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behaviour. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(2), 177–194. CrossRef
Botham, R., & Graves, A. (2009). The grey economy: How third age entrepreneurs are contributing to growth. NESTA Research Report.
Weber, P., & Schaper, M. (2004). Understanding the grey entrepreneur. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 12(2), 147–164. CrossRef
De Bruin, A. & Firkin, P. (2001). Self-Employment and The Older Worker. Working Paper. Massey University, Auckland.
Kilber, E., Thomas, W., Teemu, K., & Robert, B. (2011). (Work) Life after work: Understanding barriers to older entrepreneurship in London. In: 56th Annual ICBS World Conference. ICSB, Stockholm.
Halabisky, D. (2012a). Entrepreneurial activities in Europe—Senior entrepreneurship. OECD Employment Policy Papers, No. 2. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Halabisky, D. (2012b). Entrepreneurial activities in Europe—Youth entrepreneurship. OECD Employment Policy Papers, No. 1. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Minola, T., Criaco, G., & Cassia, L. (2014). Are youth really different? New beliefs for old practices in entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 18(2/3), 233–259. CrossRef
Minola, T., & Giorgino, M. (2011). External capital for NTBFs: The role of bank and venture capital. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 14(2), 222–247. CrossRef
Hytti, U., & O’Gorman, C. (2004). What is ‘enterprise education’? An analysis of the objectives and methods of enterprise education programmes in four European countries. Education and Training, 46(1), 11–23. CrossRef
Parker, S. C. (2006). Learning about the unknown: how fast do entrepreneurs adjust their beliefs? Journal of Business Venturing, 21(1), 1–26. CrossRef
Baker, T., & Nelson, R. E. (2005). Creating something from nothing: resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3), 329–366. CrossRef
Institute for the Future for Intuit. (2007a). Intuit Future of Small Business Report. First installment: Demographic trends and small businesses [Online]. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from http://http-download.intuit.com/http.intuit/CMO/intuit/futureofsmallbusiness/SR-1037_intuit_SmallBiz_Demog.pdf
Institute for the Future for Intuit. (2007b). Intuit Future of Small Business Report. Second installment: Technology trends and small businesses [Online]. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from http://http-download.intuit.com/http.intuit/CMO/intuit/futureofsmallbusiness/SR-1037B_intuit_tech_trends.pdf
GERA. (2018). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2017/18 Global Report. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association.
Institute for the future/INTUIT (2010). Intuit 2020 report. Twenty trends that will shape the next decade [Online]. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from https://http-download.intuit.com/http.intuit/CMO/intuit/futureofsmallbusiness/intuit_2020_report.pdf
- Are Home-Based Businesses New Trends in Working Environment for Youth and Senior Entrepreneurs in Europe?