Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Reductionism was one of the greatest themes of twentieth century biology. It began early in the century with genetics explaining single traits with single genes. It rose further with the inference that DNA encoded genetic information. It culminated with genetic cloning and genetic engineering. With disorders like sickle cell anemia or Huntington’s Disease, reductionism is indeed a scientific triumph. Similar claims have been made about aging, which has been attributed to a single agent in the case of the free-radical theory of aging. In other hands, up to seven specific cell-molecular mechanisms have been offered as the entire foundation of aging. Meanwhile, the last 15 years of genomic research has shown that most functional characters, from human height to aging in fruit flies, are affected by hundreds if not thousands of sites genome-wide. Furthermore, these sites cannot be delineated as hereditary factors tuning one or a few pathways, as reductionism would require. That is, at the genomic frontier of biology, reductionism is now seen as a special and unrepresentative case. Most of the genetic machinery of animals does not work using simple isolated pathways. Rather, it usually operates as part of large encompassing networks. Given this, it is doubtful that aging interventions founded on reductionist premises will succeed. Does this mean that aging cannot be re-tuned radically? Evolutionary theory and experiments suggest otherwise. More recent evolutionary research even raises the possibility that there might be straightforward and powerful interventions that can control human aging on a very short timescale. Those who stick to twentieth century reductionist theories of aging may be risking their lives. They may indeed die for their beliefs.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Bell, G. (1988). Sex and Death in Protozoa: the History of an Obsession: Cambridge University Press.
Carey, J. R., Liedo, P., Orozco, D., & Vaupel, J. W. (1992). Slowing of mortality rates at older ages in large medfly cohorts. Science, 258(5081), 457–461. CrossRef
Charlesworth, B. (1980). Evolution of Age-Structured Populations: Cambridge University Press.
Comfort, A. (1979). The Biology of Senescence (3 Ed.). Edinburgh and London: Churchill Livingstone.
Curtsinger, J. W., Fukui, H. H., Townsend, D. R., & Vaupel, J. W. (1992). Demography of genotypes: failure of the limited life-span paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. Science, 258(5081), 461–463. CrossRef
de Grey, A., & Rae, M. (2007). Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs That Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime: St. Martin’s Press.
Finch, C. E. (1990). Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome: University of Chicago Press.
Gruman, G. J. (1966). A history of ideas about the prolongation of life: the evolution of prolongevity hypotheses to 1800: American Philosophical Society.
Haldane, J. B. S. (1941). New paths in genetics. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Harman, D. (1956). Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol, 11(3), 298–300. CrossRef
Haycock, D.B. (2008). Mortal Coil, A short history of living longer. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Kirkwood, T. B., & Cremer, T. (1982). Cytogerontology since 1881: a reappraisal of August Weismann and a review of modern progress. Hum Genet, 60(2), 101–121. CrossRef
Martinez, D. E. (1998). Mortality patterns suggest lack of senescence in hydra. Exp Gerontol, 33(3), 217–225. CrossRef
Medawar, P. B. (1946). Old age and natural death. Modern Quarterly, 1, 30–56.
Medawar, P. B. (1952). An Unsolved Problem of Biology: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at University College, London, 6 December, 1951: H.K. Lewis and Company.
Mitteldorf, J., & Sagan, D. (2016). Cracking the Aging Code: The New Science of Growing Old – And What It Means for Staying Young: Flatiron Books.
Mueller, L. D., Rauser, C. L., & Rose, M. R. (2011). Does Aging Stop? : Oxford University Press, USA. CrossRef
Mueller, L. D., & Rose, M. R. (1996). Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(26), 15249–15253. CrossRef
Rauser, C. L., Abdel-Aal, Y., Shieh, J. A., Suen, C. W., Mueller, L. D., & Rose, M. R. (2005). Lifelong heterogeneity in fecundity is insufficient to explain late-life fecundity plateaus in Drosophila melanogaster. Exp Gerontol, 40(8–9), 660–670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2005.06.006 CrossRef
Rose, M., & Charlesworth, B. (1980). A test of evolutionary theories of senescence. Nature, 287(5778), 141–142. CrossRef
Rose, M. R. (1991). Evolutionary Biology of Aging. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rose, M. R., Drapeau, M. D., Yazdi, P. G., Shah, K. H., Moise, D. B., Thakar, R. R., … Mueller, L. D. (2002). Evolution of late-life mortality in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution, 56(10), 1982–1991. CrossRef
Rose, M. R., Long, A. D., Mueller, L. D., Rizza, C. L., Matsagas, K. C., Greer, L. F., & Villeponteau, B. (2010). Evolutionary Nutrigenomics. In The future of aging (pp. 357–366). Dordrecht: Springer. CrossRef
Rose, M. R., Passananti, H. B., & Matos, M. (2004). Methuselah Flies: A Case Study In The Evolution Of Aging. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company. CrossRef
Rose, M. R., Rauser, C. L., Benford, G., Matos, M., & Mueller, L. D. (2007). Hamilton’s forces of natural selection after forty years. Evolution, 61(6), 1265–1276. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00120.x CrossRef
Rose, M. R., Rutledge, G. A., Phung, K. H., Phillips, M. A., Greer, L. F., & Mueller, L. D. (2014). An evolutionary and genomic approach to challenges and opportunities for eliminating aging. Curr Aging Sci, 7(1), 54–59. CrossRef
Shahrestani, P., Tran, X., & Mueller, L. D. (2012). Patterns of male fitness conform to predictions of evolutionary models of late life. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25(6), 1060–1065. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2012.02492.x CrossRef
Sokal, R. R. (1970). Senescence and genetic load: evidence from Tribolium. Science, 167(3926), 1733–1734. CrossRef
Williams, G. C. (1957). Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution, 11(4), 398–411. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1957.tb02911.x CrossRef
- Are You Willing to Die for Reductionism?
Michael R. Rose
Grant A. Rutledge
- Chapter 20
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA