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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

4. Artificial Intelligence: Evolution, Benefits, and Challenges

verfasst von : Fazeela Mughal, Abdul Wahid, Muazzam A. Khan Khattak

Erschienen in: Intelligent Cyber-Physical Systems for Autonomous Transportation

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

The decision-making power of machine working on human behavior through perception, learning, and reasoning is called Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI tries to break the barrier between human and robots as an expert machine. Artificial Intelligence is useful in order to save time and increase the productivity of work. AI automates routine tasks which were previously performed by human beings, consequently, the cost of hiring human resource is decreased. Furthermore, with the help of AI, such machines can be developed which will be much faster and smarter than human beings. The idea of modern AI was first presented by John McCarthy in Dartmouth conference in 1956. The first golden years of AI from 1956 to 1974 were at that time when AI was considered quite interesting and a hot topic for researchers and it was believed to be good investment, time and money. However, at the end of 1974 the first winter of AI was started, it was considered that AI is not as such of great progress rather wastage of time and money. Afterwards, another rebirth of AI from 1980 to 1987 took place with the knowledge about the expert systems. In 1997, a supercomputer named as Deep blue was created on the basis of AI. After that DARPA Grand Challenge in March 2004, it was about an autonomous vehicle drive through uncharted terrain by itself for hundred miles that vehicle was also working on AI. Hence, transportation system started using Artificial Intelligence. With AI being part of the system, congestion, accidents can be controlled, predict future moves (e.g., RATP dev AI engine works on it). In addition, AI is used for scheduling and routing, applying higher and lower traffic patterns. In ITS specifically in VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) there are two modes of communications V2V (vehicle to vehicle) and V2I (vehicle to infrastructure). AI is also used in Swiss Federal Railways and Tesla self-driving cars. According to UITP’s survey it is stated that 62% of public transport players are involved in Artificial Intelligence projects and 86% are engaged in partnership to develop and adopt AI. In this chapter, authors discuss Artificial Intelligence, its needs, and evolution in transportation system. In addition, the challenges and future directions are also described in detail.

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Literatur
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6.
Zurück zum Zitat Maximizing the Benefits of Self-Driving Vehicles, Union of concerned scientists Maximizing-Benefits-Self-Driving-Vehicles.pdf (ucsusa.org). Maximizing the Benefits of Self-Driving Vehicles, Union of concerned scientists Maximizing-Benefits-Self-Driving-Vehicles.pdf (ucsusa.org).
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Reina, G., Johnson, D., & Underwood, J. (2015). Radar sensing for intelligent vehicles in urban environments. Sensors, 15(6), 14661–14678.CrossRef Reina, G., Johnson, D., & Underwood, J. (2015). Radar sensing for intelligent vehicles in urban environments. Sensors, 15(6), 14661–14678.CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Artificial Intelligence: Evolution, Benefits, and Challenges
verfasst von
Fazeela Mughal
Abdul Wahid
Muazzam A. Khan Khattak
Copyright-Jahr
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92054-8_4

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