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This Springer Brief provides theory, practical guidance, and support tools to help designers create complex, valid assessment tasks for hard-to-measure, yet crucial, science education standards. Understanding, exploring, and interacting with the world through models characterizes science in all its branches and at all levels of education. Model-based reasoning is central to science education and thus science assessment. Current interest in developing and using models has increased with the release of the Next Generation Science Standards, which identified this as one of the eight practices of science and engineering. However, the interactive, complex, and often technology-based tasks that are needed to assess model-based reasoning in its fullest forms are difficult to develop.

Building on research in assessment, science education, and learning science, this Brief describes a suite of design patterns that can help assessment designers, researchers, and teachers create tasks for assessing aspects of model-based reasoning: Model Formation, Model Use, Model Elaboration, Model Articulation, Model Evaluation, Model Revision, and Model-Based Inquiry. Each design pattern lays out considerations concerning targeted knowledge and ways of capturing and evaluating students’ work. These design patterns are available at http://design-drk.padi.sri.com/padi/do/NodeAction?state=listNodes&NODE_TYPE=PARADIGM_TYPE. The ideas are illustrated with examples from existing assessments and the research literature.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Understanding, exploring, and interacting with the world through models characterizes science in all its branches and at all levels of education. Model-based reasoning is central to science education and thus science assessment. Building on research in assessment, science education, and learning sciences, we present a set of design patterns to help assessment designers, researchers, and teachers create tasks for assessing aspects of model-based reasoning. This chapter provides a rationale for the design patterns and evidence-centered assessment design, lays out the structure of the book, and introduces two running examples of inquiry assessments that will be used to illustrate the ideas.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 2. Model-Based Reasoning

Abstract
Model-based reasoning consists of cycles of proposing, instantiating, checking, revising to find an apt model for a given purpose in a given situation, and reasoning about the situation through the model. Results from cognitive research can help us understand and assess both the experiential and reflective aspects of model-based reasoning. This chapter reviews research on model-based reasoning and the inquiry cycle to define aspects of model-based reasoning that can be used to guide assessment design.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 3. Evidence-Centered Assessment Design

Abstract
Design patterns are tools to support task authoring under an evidence-centered approach to assessment design (ECD). This chapter reviews the basic concepts of ECD, focusing on evidentiary arguments. It defines the attributes of design patterns, and shows the roles they play in creating tasks around valid assessment arguments.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 4. Design Patterns for Model-Based Reasoning

Abstract
The aspects of model-based reasoning serve as the Focal knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of the design patterns. They highlight distinct aspects of model-based reasoning in a way that supports either focused tasks (building on one or a few design patterns) or more extensive investigations (building jointly on several design patterns). This chapter overviews the design-pattern perspective on assessing model-based reasoning, as a prelude to the next chapters that look more closely at each aspect. A table charts the correspondence between the aspects addressed in the design patterns and practices in the Next Generation Science Standards.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 5. Model Formation

Abstract
Model Formation begins by selecting and assembling model elements to establish a correspondence with some situation, often in the real world or a corpus of data. The Model Formation design pattern addresses features of this contextualized process that are similar across contexts and models. Design choices concerning the knowledge and skill that will be encompassed, variable features of tasks, potential work products and observations.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 6. Model Use

Abstract
Model use is reasoning through the entities, relationships, and processes of a given model to provide explanations, make predictions, or fill in gaps with respect to real-world situations or summary data about real-world situations. The Model Use design pattern describes characteristic and variable features of tasks for eliciting this thinking, and work products and observations to capture and interpret the evidence that results.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 7. Model Elaboration

Abstract
Model elaboration focuses on combining or extending a model, such as embedding it in a larger system, adding elements or submodels, or connecting it with other models to form multilevel or composite models. The Model Elaboration design pattern describes characteristic and variable features of tasks, and potential work products and observations.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 8. Model Articulation

Abstract
The Model Articulation design pattern supports developing tasks to assess articulating meanings between systems associated with a model. Focal KSAs concern making the connections, translations, or re-representations of information within a model system, across representational systems associated with the system, such as diagrams, equations, graphs, and digital or physical models. A Characteristic Feature of such tasks is the need to translate meaning or information across multiple representation systems these forms.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 9. Model Evaluation

Abstract
Model evaluation is examining the appropriateness of a model for a given situation or data. The Focal KSAs in model evaluation tasks are the capabilities to determine whether, how well, or in what aspects, a model is appropriate for a given situation. Potential Observations may include whether students identify cues of model misfit; whether particular areas, patterns, or unaccounted-for features of the situation are identified; and whether hypotheses for the model-data discrepancy can be proposed. The Model Evaluation design pattern is tied closely with the Model Use and the Model Revision design patterns.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 10. Model Revision

Abstract
Model revision is modifying a given model in a given situation, so that its elements better match the features of the situation for the purpose at hand. Model revision tasks feature a situation to be modeled, a provisional model that is inadequate in some way, and the opportunity to revise the model in a way that improves the fit. Provisional models may be provided or arise through the students’ work, possibly multiple times, in more encompassing tasks. Work Products can include the choice or the construction of a representation of the revised model, and an indication of the problem with the initial model and how modifications could address the issue.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 11. Model-Based Inquiry

Abstract
Model-based inquiry highlights the metacognitive aspects of managing and moving effectively through cycles of inquiry. The Focal KSAs in this design pattern are students’ capabilities to manage their reasoning across in inquiry cycles. A key Variable Task Feature to consider is the degree of scaffolding to provide students as they move from one aspect of an inquiry to another. All the considerations, design choices, work products, and observations addressed in the preceding design patterns can be involved in a model-based inquiry task.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Chapter 12. Conclusion

Abstract
Research on science learning increases our understanding of the capabilities we want to help students develop, and advances in technology expand the ways we can support and assess their learning. Familiar testing practices offer little guidance, however, for designing valid assessments of more ambitious proficiencies in more complex settings. These design patterns can support the development of tasks for assessing model-based reasoning in a variety of contexts, including standards-based assessment, classroom assessment, large-scale accountability testing, and simulation- and game-based assessment.
Robert J. Mislevy, Geneva Haertel, Michelle Riconscente, Daisy Wise Rutstein, Cindy Ziker

Backmatter

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