Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The presence of high indoor radon concentrations, C x , is a major concern of the public worldwide. Measurements of indoor radon in South Lebanon have been achieved using CR-39 detectors. C x values ranged between 30 and 122 Bq m−3 in one of the major towns in the area and are compared with measured atmospheric air Radon. Moderate seasonal variation of C x indoors has been observed, although 90 % of the obtained indoor C x measurements are below 100 Bq m−3. Some homes produced C x readings above the permissible limit. Results showed that the ventilation effect played a major factor in reducing radon concentration levels indoors. Health assessment has been considered. Annual effective doses of radon varied from 1.01 ± 0.10 to 8.65 ± 0.50 mSv a−1 in six homes in one of the four cases studied. These dosage values are above the permitted limit of 2.5 mSv a−1. Several types of granite contained in the studied homes were identified and their contributions to radon levels indoors were calculated.
Abdallah, S.M., R.R. Habib, R.Y. Nuwayhid, M. Chatila, and G. Katul. 2007. Radon measurements in well and spring water in Lebanon. Radiation Measurements 42(2): 298–303. CrossRef
Abu-Jarad, F., J.H. Fremline, and R. Bul. 1980. A study of radon emitted from construction materials using plastic α-track detectors. Physics in Medicine & Biology 25(6): 483–694. CrossRef
Al-Jarallah, M.I. 2001. Radon exhalation from granite used in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 53(1): 91–98. CrossRef
Barros-Dios, J.M., A. Ruano-Ravina, J. Gastelu-Iturri, and A. Figueras. 2007. Factors underlying residential radon concentration: Results from Galcia (Spain). Environmental Research 103(2): 185–190. CrossRef
Chen, J., N.M. Rahman, and I.A. Atiya. 2010. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 101(4): 317–322. CrossRef
El-Amri, E.A., M.I. Al-Jarallah, F. Abu-Jarad, and E.A. Fazal-yr-Rehman. 2003. Uniformity in radon exhalation from construction materials using can technique. Radiation Measurements 36(3): 453–456. CrossRef
El-Dine, N.W., A. El-Shershaby, F. Ahmed, and A.S. Abdel-Haleem. 2001. Measurements of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in different kinds of marbles and granites. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 55(6): 853–860. CrossRef
Environmental Health and Engineering. 2008. Assessing exposure to radon and radiation from granite countertops. Needham, MA: Environmental Health and Engineering.
Font, L.L., C. Baixeras, C. Domingo, and F. Ferdandez. 1999. Experimental and theoretical study of radon levels and entry mechanisms in a Mediterranean climate house. Radiation Measurements 31: 277–282. CrossRef
Hassan, M.N.M., M. Hosoda, K. Iwaoka, A. Sorimachi, J. Miroslaw, K. Chutima, S.S. Kumar, and T. Ishikawa. 2011. Simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron released from building materials used in Japan. Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology 1: 404–407. CrossRef
Khan, A.J., R. Prasad, and R.K. Tyagi. 1992. Measurements of exhalation rate from some building materials. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements 20(4): 609–610. CrossRef
Kobeissi, M.A., O. El-Samad, K. Zahraman, S. Melki, F. Bahsoun, and K.M. Abumrad. 2008. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in South Lebanon. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 99(8): 1279–1288. CrossRef
Kobeissi, M.A., O. El-Samad, and I. Rachidi. 2013. Health assessment of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in granites used as building materials in Lebanon. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 153(3): 342–351. CrossRef
Lawrence, C.E., R.A. Akber, A. BollhÖfer, and P. Martin. 2009. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 100(1): 1–8. CrossRef
Maged, A.F., and F.E. Ashraf. 2005. Radon exhalation rate of building materials used in Egypt. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 27(5–6): 485–489. CrossRef
Maged, A.F., and E. Borham. 1997. A study of radon emitted from various building materials using alpha track detectors. Radiation Measurements 28(1): 613–617. CrossRef
Mireles, F., M.L. Garcia, L.L. Quirino, J.I. Davila, J.L. Pinedo, C. Rios, M.E. Montero, L. Colmenero, and L. Villaba. 2007. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115. Radiation Measurements 42(8): 1397–1403. CrossRef
Nassiri, P., H. Ebrahimi, and P.J. Shalkouhi. 2011. Evaluation of radon exhalation rate from granite stone. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research 70(3): 230–231.
Nazaroff, W.W., and A.V. Nero Jr. (eds.) 1988. Radon and its decay products in indoor air. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Nicolopoulos, D., and A. Louizi. 2008. Study of indoor radon and radon in drinking water in Greece and Cyprus: Implication to exposure and dose. Radiation Measurements 43(7): 1305–1314. CrossRef
Papaefthymiou, H., and O. Gouseti. 2008. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece. Radiation Measurements 43(8): 1453–1457. CrossRef
Rahman, S.U., J. Anwar, and Matiullah. 2008. Measurement of indoor radon concentration levels in Islamabad, Pakistan. Radiation Measurements 43(S1): S401–S404. CrossRef
Sajo’-Bohus, L., J. Pa’′falvi, F. Urbani, D. Castro, E.D. Greaves, and J.A. Liendo. 1999. Environmental Gamma radon dosimetry in Venezuela. Radiation Measurements 31: 283–286. CrossRef
Sharma, D.K., A. Kumar, M. Kumar, and S. Singh. 2003. Study of uranium, radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples from some areas of Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, India, using solid-state nuclear track detectors. Radiation Measurements 36: 363–366. CrossRef
Singh, B., and H.S. Virk. 1996. Effect of soil and sand moisture content on radon diffusion using plastic track etched detector. Radiation Measurements 26(1): 49–50. CrossRef
Singh, S., R. Malhotra, J. Kumar, and L. Singh. 2001. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Kulu area, Himachal Pradesh, using solid state nuclear track detectors. Radiation Measurements 34: 505–508. CrossRef
Singh, S., D.K. Sharma, and A. Kumar. 2004. Environmental radon studies using solid state nuclear track detectors. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 76(3): 369–376. CrossRef
Singh, H., J. Singh, S. Singh, and B.S. Bajwa. 2008. Radon exhalation rate and uranium estimation study of some soil and rock samples from Tusham ring complex, India using SSNTD. Radiation Measurements 43(S1): S459–S462. CrossRef
UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 1993. United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation sources and effects of ionizing radiation. New York: United Nations.
UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). 2000. United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation. Annex A: Exposure from natural sources. New York: United Nations.
Walley, C.D. 1988. A braided strike-slip model for the northern continuation of the Dead Sea Fault and its implications for Levantine tectonics. Tectonophysics 145(1–2): 63–72. CrossRef
Walley, C.D. 1998. Some outstanding issues in the geology of Lebanon and their importance in the tectonic evolution of the Levantine region. Tectonophysics 298(1–3): 37–62. CrossRef
WHO (World Health Organization). 2009. Handbook on indoor radon. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Assessment of Indoor and Outdoor Radon Levels in South Lebanon
Mohammed A. Kobeissi
Omar El Samad
- Beijing Normal University Press