Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Current studies investigating natural human–robot interaction (HRI) in the field concentrate on the analysis of automatically assessed data (e.g., interaction times). What is missing to date is a more qualitative approach to investigate the natural and individual behavior of people in HRI in detail. In a quasi-experimental observational field study, we investigated how people react to an android robot in a natural environment according to the behavior it exhibits. We present data on unscripted interactions between humans and the android robot “Geminoid HI-1” in an Austrian public café and subsequent interviews. Data related to the participants’ nonverbal behavior (e.g., attention paid to the robot and proximity) were analyzed. The results show that participants’ behavior toward the android robot, as well as their interview answers, was influenced by the behavior the robot exhibited (e.g., eye contact). In addition, huge inter-individual differences existed in the participants’ behavior. Implications for HRI research are discussed.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M., N.C. Krämer, C. Becker-Asano, K. Ogawa, S. Nishio, and H. Ishiguro. 2014. The uncanny in the wild. Analysis of unscripted human–android interaction in the field. International Journal of Social Robotics 6 (1): 67–83.
Onishi, M., Z. Luo, T. Odashima, S. Hirano, K. Tahara, and T. Mukai. 2007. Generation of human care behaviors by human-interactive robot RI-MAN. In ICRA 2007. Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, 3128–3129. New York: IEEE Press. https://doi.org/10.1109/robot.2007.363950.
Matarić, M.J. 2006. Socially assistive robotics. IEEE Intelligent Systems 21 (4): 81–83.
von der Pütten, A.M., N.C. Krämer, and S.C. Eimler. 2011. Living with a robot companion—Empirical study on the interaction with an artificial health advisor. In ICMI’11. Proceedings of the international conference on multimodal interaction. International conference on multimodal interaction, Alicante, Spain, November 14–18, 2011.
Krämer, N.C., N. Sommer, S. Kopp, and C. Becker-Asano. 2009. Smile and the world will smile with you—The effects of a virtual agent’s smile on users’ evaluation and non-conscious behavioural mimicry. In Paper presented at ICA 2009. Conference of the international communication association, Chicago, USA.
Bailenson, Jeremy N., Nick Yee, Kayur Patel, and Andrew C. Beall. 2007. Detecting digital chameleons. Computers in Human Behavior 24: 66–87. CrossRef
Mori, M. 1970. The uncanny valley. Energy 7 (4): 33–35.
Gockley, R., A. Bruce, J. Forlizzi, M. Michalowski, and A. Mundell. 2005. Designing robots for long-term social interaction. Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 05): 2199–2204.
Kanda, T., T. Hirano, D. Eaton, and H. Ishiguro. 2004. Interactive robots as social partners and peer tutors for children: a field trial. Human-Computer Interaction 19 (1): 61–84. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327051hci1901&2_4. CrossRef
Kanda, T., H. Ishiguro, T. Ono, M. Imai, and R. Nakatsu. 2002. Development and evaluation of an interactive humanoid robot “Robovie”. In Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA 2002), vol. 2, 1848–1855. https://doi.org/10.1109/robot.2002.1014810.
Hayashi, K., D. Sakamoto, T. Kanda, M. Shiomi, S. Koizumi, H. Ishiguro, T. Ogasawara, and N. Hagita. 2007. Humanoid robots as a passive-social medium. In Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE international conference on human-robot interaction HRI ‘07, ed. Breazeal, C., A.C. Schultz, T. Fong, and S. Kiesler, Arlington, VA, USA, March 08–10. https://doi.org/10.1145/1228716.1228735.
Ishiguro, H. 2006. Interactive humanoids and androids as ideal interfaces for humans. In IUI ‘06 Proceedings of the 11th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces, ed. Paris, C.L., C.L. Sidner, E. Edmonds, and D. Riecken, 2–9. New York: ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/1111449.1111451.
Hara, F. 2004. Artificial emotion of face robot through learning in communicative interactions with human. In Proceedings of the 13th IEEE international workshop on robot and human interactive communication (RO-MAN 2004), 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1109/roman.2004.1374712.
Walters, M.L., K. Dautenhahn, R. te Boekhorst, K.L. Koay, and S.N. Woods. 2007. Exploring the design space of robot appearance and behavior in an attention-seeking ‘living room’ scenario for a robot companion. In IEEE symposium on artificial life (ALIFE ‘07), 341–347. https://doi.org/10.1109/alife.2007.367815.
MacDorman, K.F. 2006. Subjective ratings of robot video clips for human likeness, familiarity, and eeriness: An exploration of the uncanny valley. In Proceedings of the conference on cognitive science 2006 (CogSci 06), workshop on android science, 26–29.
Hanson, D., A. Olney, I. Pereira, and M. Zielke. 2005. Upending the uncanny valley. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence 20 (4): 1728–1729.
Straub, I., S. Nishio, and H. Ishiguro. 2010. Incorporated identity in interaction with a teleoperated android robot: A case study. In Proceedings of the 19th IEEE international workshop on robot and human interactive communication (RO-MAN 2010), 319–144. https://doi.org/10.1109/roman.2010.5598695.
Ramey, C.H. 2006. An inventory of reported characteristics for home computers, robots, and human beings: Applications for android science and the uncanny valley. In Proceedings of the ICCS: 2006 workshop: Toward social mechanisms of android science, Vancouver, Canada, 43–47.
Becker-Asano, C., K. Ogawa, S. Nishio, and H. Ishiguro. 2010. Exploring the uncanny valley with Geminoid HI-1 in a real world application. In IHCI 2010. Proceedings of the IADIS international conference on interfaces and human computer interaction, ed. Blashki K., Freiburg, Germany, July 26–30, 121–128.
Ho. C., K.F. MacDorman, and Z.A.D.D. Pramono. 2008. Human emotion and the uncanny valley: a GLM, MDS, and Isomap analysis of robot video ratings. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE international conference on human robot interaction (HRI’08), 169–176.
Nishio, S., H. Ishiguro, and N. Hagita. 2007. Geminoid: Teleoperated android of an existing person. In Humanoid robots: New developments, ed. de Pina Filho, A.C., 343–352. InTech.
OpenCV Wiki FaceDetection.
Wittenburg, P., H. Brugman, A. Russel, A. Klassmann, and H. Sloetjes. 2006. ELAN: A professional framework for multimodality research. In LREC 2006. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on language resources and evaluation.
- At the Café—Exploration and Analysis of People’s Nonverbal Behavior Toward an Android
Astrid M. von der Pütten
Nicole C. Krämer
- Springer Singapore
- Chapter 24
Neuer Inhalt/© Filograph | Getty Images | iStock