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Current studies investigating natural human–robot interaction (HRI) in the field concentrate on the analysis of automatically assessed data (e.g., interaction times). What is missing to date is a more qualitative approach to investigate the natural and individual behavior of people in HRI in detail. In a quasi-experimental observational field study, we investigated how people react to an android robot in a natural environment according to the behavior it exhibits. We present data on unscripted interactions between humans and the android robot “Geminoid HI-1” in an Austrian public café and subsequent interviews. Data related to the participants’ nonverbal behavior (e.g., attention paid to the robot and proximity) were analyzed. The results show that participants’ behavior toward the android robot, as well as their interview answers, was influenced by the behavior the robot exhibited (e.g., eye contact). In addition, huge inter-individual differences existed in the participants’ behavior. Implications for HRI research are discussed.
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- At the Café—Exploration and Analysis of People’s Nonverbal Behavior Toward an Android
Astrid M. von der Pütten
Nicole C. Krämer
- Springer Singapore
- Chapter 24