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Über dieses Buch

Das 21. Fachgespräch Autonome Mobile Systeme (AMS 2009) ist ein Forum, das Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern aus Forschung und Industrie, die auf dem Gebiet der autonomen mobilen Systeme arbeiten, eine Basis für den Gedankenaustausch bietet und wissenschaftliche Diskussionen sowie Kooperationen auf diesem Forschungsgebiet fördert bzw. initiiert. Inhaltlich finden sich ausgewählte Beiträge zu den Themen Humanoide Roboter und Flugmaschinen, Perzeption und Sensorik, Kartierung und Lokalisation, Regelung, Navigation, Lernverfahren, Systemarchitekturen sowie der Anwendung von autonomen mobilen Systemen.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Perzeption

Advanced Data Logging in RoboCup

In this work an advanced data logging approach for the RoboCup domain using an autonomous camera man is presented. It includes approaches from the field of real-time robot message logging, situation based camera control and 3D video visualisation. Based on the implementation of this work the RoboCup team of the IPVS of the University of Stuttgart won the first price in the scientific challenge of the RoboCup World Championship 2009 in Graz.

Andreas Koch, Adam Berthelot, Bernd Eckstein, Oliver Zweigle, Kai Häussermann, Uwe-Philipp Käppeler, Andreas Tamke, Hamid Rajaie, Paul Levi

Data Association for Visual Multi-target Tracking Under Splits, Merges and Occlusions

In this contribution we present an algorithm for visual detection and tracking of multiple extended targets which is capable of coping with merged, split, incomplete and missed detections. We utilize information about the measurements’ composition gained through tracking dedicated feature points in the image and in 3D space, which allows us to reconstruct the desired object characteristics from the data even in the case of detection errors due to limited field of view, occlusions and sensor malfunction. The proposed feature-based probabilistic data association approach resolves data association ambiguities in a soft threshold-free decision based not only on target state prediction but also on the existence and observability estimation modeled as two additional Markov chains. This process is assisted by a grid based object representation which offers a higher abstraction level of targets extents and is used for detailed occlusion analysis.

Michael Grinberg, Florian Ohr, Jürgen Beyerer

Fusing LIDAR and Vision for Autonomous Dirt Road Following

Incorporating a Visual Feature into the Tentacles Approach

In this paper we describe how visual features can be incorporated into the well known tentacles approach [

1

] which up to now has only used LIDAR and GPS data and was therefore limited to scenarios with significant obstacles or non-flat surfaces along roads. In addition we present a visual feature considering only color intensity which can be used to visually rate tentacles. The presented sensor fusion and color based feature were both applied with great success at the C-ELROB 2009 robotic competition.

Michael Manz, Michael Himmelsbach, Thorsten Luettel, Hans-Joachim Wuensche

Improved Time-to-Contact Estimation by Using Information from Image Sequences

Robust time-to-contact (TTC) calculation belongs to the most desirable techniques in the field of autonomous robot navigation. Using only image measurements it provides a method to determine when contact with a visible object will be made. However TTC computation by using feature positions in the last two images only, is very sensitive to noisy measurements and provides very unstable results. The presented work extends the approach by incorporating also the information about the feature positions in the previous image sequence. The achieved results testify the better performance of this method.

Maria Sagrebin, Josef Pauli

Monocular Obstacle Detection for Real-World Environments

In this paper, we present a feature based approach for monocular scene reconstruction based on extended Kaiman filters (EKF). Our method processes a sequence of images taken by a single camera mounted in front of a mobile robot. Using various techniques we are able to produce a precise reconstruction that is almost free from outliers and therefore can be used for reliable obstacle detection and avoidance. In real-world field tests we show that the presented approach is able to detect obstacles that can not be seen by other sensors, such as laser range finders. Furthermore, we show that visual obstacle detection combined with a laser range finder can increase the detection rate of obstacles considerably, allowing the autonomous use of mobile robots in complex public and home environments.

Erik Einhorn, Christof Schroeter, Horst-Michael Gross

Stereo-Based vs. Monocular 6-DoF Pose Estimation Using Point Features: A Quantitative Comparison

In the recent past, object recognition and localization based on correspondences of local point features in 2D views has become very popular in the robotics community. For grasping and manipulation with robotic systems, in addition accurate 6-DoF pose estimation of the object of interest is necessary. Now there are two substantially different approaches to computing a 6-DoF pose: monocular and stereo-based. In this paper we show the theoretical and practical drawbacks and limits of monocular approaches based on 2D-3D correspondences. We will then present our stereo-based approach and compare the results to the conventional monocular approach in an experimental evaluation. As will be shown, our stereo-based approach performs superior in terms of robustness and accuracy, with only few additional computational effort.

Pedram Azad, Tamim Asfour, Rüdiger Dillmann

Probabilistisches Belegtheitsfilter zur Schätzung dynamischer Umgebungen unter Verwendung multipler Bewegungsmodelle

In dieser Arbeit wird eine Erweiterung des zeilbasierten Belegtheitsfilters BOFUM

1

um Objektgruppen zum BOFUG (Bayesian Occupancy Filtering using Groups) vorgenommen. Diese ermöglicht die Einteilung und Klassifikation der Gruppenzugehörigkeit von Belegtheit, allein auf Basis von statischen Belegtheitsmessungen. Exemplarisch wird für Fußgänger und Fahrzeuge gezeigt, dass die Definition unterschiedlicher Dynamikmodelle ausreicht, um auf Objektinformationen zu schließen und das Filterergebnis nachhaltig zu verbessern. Die implizite Gruppeninferenz stellt einen ersten Schritt zur Vereinigung von Objekt- und Zellebene dar.

Sebastian Brechtel, Tobias Gindele, Jan Vogelgesang, Rüdiger Dillmann

Regelung

A Computational Model of Human Table Tennis for Robot Application

Table tennis is a difficult motor skill which requires all basic components of a general motor skill learning system. In order to get a step closer to such a generic approach to the automatic acquisition and refinement of table tennis, we study table tennis from a human motor control point of view. We make use of the basic models of discrete human movement phases, virtual hitting points, and the operational timing hypothesis. Using these components, we create a computational model which is aimed at reproducing human-like behavior. We verify the functionality of this model in a physically realistic simulation of a Barrett WAM.

Katharina Mülling, Jan Peters

A Vision-Based Trajectory Controller for Autonomous Cleaning Robots

Autonomous cleaning robots should completely cover the accessible area with minimal repeated coverage. We present a mostly visionbased navigation strategy for systematical exploration of an area with meandering lanes. The results of the robot experiments show that our approach can guide the robot along parallel lanes while achieving a good coverage with only a small proportion of repeated coverage. The proposed method can be used as a building block for more elaborated navigation strategies which allow the robot to systematically clean rooms with a complex workspace shape.

Lorenz Gerstmayr, Frank Röben, Martin Krzykawski, Sven Kreft, Daniel Venjakob, Ralf Möller

Automatic Take Off, Hovering and Landing Control for Miniature Helicopters with Low-Cost Onboard Hardware

This paper details experiments for autonomous take off, hovering above a landing place and autonomous landing. Our visual tracking approach differs from other methods by using an inexpensive Wii remote camera, i.e., commodity consumer hardware. All processing is done with an onboard microcontroller and the system does not require stationary sensors. The only requirements are a stationary pattern of four infrared spots at the start and landing site and a roll and pitch attitude estimation of sufficient quality, provided by an separate inertial measurement unit.

Karl E. Wenzel, Andreas Zell

Foot Function in Spring Mass Running

The leg function in human running can be characterized by spring-like behaviour. The human leg itself has several segments, which influence the leg function. In this paper a simple model based on spring-mass-running but with with a compliant ankle joint is introduced to investigate the influence of a rigid foot segment. The predicted force-length-curve explains changes in leg stiffness as well as changes in leg length during stance phase similar to what is observed in human running.

Daniel Maykranz, Sten Grimmer, Susanne Lipfert, Andre Seyfarth

From Walking to Running

The implementation of bipedal gaits in legged robots is still a challenge in state-of-the-art engineering. Human gaits could be realized by imitating human leg dynamics where a spring-like leg behavior is found as represented in the bipedal spring-mass model. In this study we explore the gap between walking and running by investigating periodic gait patterns. We found an almost continuous morphing of gait patterns between walking and running. The technical feasibility of this transition is, however, restricted by the duration of swing phase. In practice, this requires an abrupt gait transition between both gaits, while a change of speed is not necessary.

Juergen Rummel, Yvonne Blum, Andre Seyfarth

Generisches Verfahren zur präzisen Pfadverfolgung für Serienfahrzeuggespanne

In Anbetracht der fortschreitenden Automatisierung im Güterverkehr ist auch der Einsatz von Serienfahrzeugen erstrebenswert. Aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht besteht diesbezüglich ein Bedarf an präzisen und echtzeitfähigen Regelungsverfahren, die auch für Fahrzeuge mit einachsigem Anhänger ein exaktes Abfahren vorgegebener Pfade insbesondere bei rückwärtsgerichteten Fahrmanövern gewährleisten. In diesem Beitrag wird ein zweistufiges Regelungsverfahren vorgestellt, das diese Kriterien erfüllt und sich generisch auf verschiedene Fahrzeuge des gleichen Gespanntyps übertragen lässt. Darüber hinaus kann das vorgestellte Verfahren als Grundlage für das autonome oder assistierte Fahren fungieren.

Christian Schwarz, Christian Weyand, Dieter Zöbel

Learning New Basic Movements for Robotics

Obtaining novel skills is one of the most important problems in robotics. Machine learning techniques may be a promising approach for automatic and autonomous acquisition of movement policies. However, this requires both an appropriate policy representation and suitable learning algorithms. Employing the most recent form of the dynamical systems motor primitives originally introduced by Ijspeert et al. [

1

], we show how both discrete and rhythmic tasks can be learned using a concerted approach of both imitation and reinforcement learning, and present our current best performing learning algorithms. Finally, we show that it is possible to include a start-up phase in rhythmic primitives. We apply our approach to two elementary movements, i.e., Ball-in-a-Cup and Ball-Paddling, which can be learned on a real Barrett WAM robot arm at a pace similar to human learning.

Jens Kober, Jan Peters

Nonlinear Landing Control for Quadrotor UAVs

Quadrotor UAVs are one of the most preferred type of small unmanned aerial vehicles because of the very simple mechanical construction and propulsion principle. However, the nonlinear dynamic behavior requires a more advanced stabilizing control and guidance of these vehicles. In addition, the small payload reduces the amount of batteries that can be carried and thus also limits the operating range of the UAV. One possible solution for a range extension is the application of a mobile base station for recharging purpose even during operation. However, landing on a moving base station requires autonomous tracking and landing control of the UAV. In this paper, a nonlinear autopilot for quadrotor UAVs is extended with a tracking and landing controller to fulfill the required task.

Holger Voos

Oscillation Analysis in Behavior-Based Robot Architectures

This paper presents a method for detecting oscillations in behavior-based robot control networks. Two aspects are considered. On the one hand, the detection of oscillations inside single behavior modules is based on analyzing the signal in the frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transformation (

FFT

). On the other hand, tracing oscillations through the behavior network helps to evaluate its propagation and to find its root cause. Results of the oscillation analysis are presented using appropriate visualization techniques. The suitability of the proposed approach is shown by an indoor application.

Lisa Wilhelm, Martin Proetzsch, Karsten Berns

Variable Joint Elasticities in Running

In this paper we investigate how spring-like leg behavior in human running is represented at joint level. We assume linear torsion springs in the joints and between the knee and the ankle joint. Using experimental data of the leg dynamics we compute how the spring parameters (stiffness and rest angles) change during gait cycle. We found that during contact the joints reveal elasticity with strongly changing parameters and compare the changes of different parameters for different spring arrangements. The results may help to design and improve biologically inspired spring mechanisms with adjustable parameters.

Stephan Peter, Sten Grimmer, Susanne W. Lipfert, Andre Seyfarth

Lokalisation und Kartierung

3D-Partikelfilter SLAM

In diesem Artikel wird ein Verfahren zur Erstellung von 3D Punktwolkenkarten der Umgebung vorgestellt, das während der Fahrt aufgenommene Laserentfernungsmessungen verarbeitet. Dabei werden die vollen sechs Freiheitsgrade in der Roboterposition beachtet. Es wird ein partikelfilterbasierter Ansatz verfolgt, der FastSLAM und ähnliche Ansätze aus dem Zweidimensionalen ins Dreidimensionale überträgt. Hierbei werden insbesondere Methoden zur Handhabung der erhöhten Komplexität durch die zusätzlichen Freiheitsgrade und des erhöhten Speicheraufwandes vorgestellt. Des Weiteren kommt das Verfahren mit Odometriebewegungsdaten aus und ist nicht auf zusätzliche Bewegungssensoren angewiesen. Abschließend wird das Verfahren zur Evaluation sowohl auf Simulationsals auch auf Realdaten angewendet.

Jochen Welle, Dirk Schulz, A. B. Cremers

Absolute High-Precision Localisation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle by Using Real-Time Aerial Video Imagery for Geo-referenced Orthophoto Registration

This paper describes an absolute localisation method for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) if GPS is unavailable for the vehicle. The basic idea is to combine an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to the ground vehicle and use it as an external sensor platform to achieve an absolute localisation of the robotic team. Beside the discussion of the rather naive method directly using the GPS position of the aerial robot to deduce the ground robot’s position the main focus of this paper lies on the indirect usage of the telemetry data of the aerial robot combined with live video images of an onboard camera to realise a registration of local video images with apriori registered orthophotos. This yields to a precise driftless absolute localisation of the unmanned ground vehicle. Experiments with our robotic team (AMOR and PSYCHE) successfully verify this approach.

Lars Kuhnert, Markus Ax, Matthias Langer, Duong Nguyen Van, Klaus-Dieter Kuhnert

An Improved Sensor Model on Appearance Based SLAM

In our previous work on visual, appearance-based localization and mapping, we presented in [

14

] a novel SLAM approach to build visually labeled topological maps. The essential contribution of this work was an adaptive sensor model, which is estimated online, and a graph matching scheme to evaluate the likelihood of a given topological map. Both methods enable the combination of an appearance-based, visual localization and mapping concept with a Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter (RBPF) as state estimator to a real-world suitable, online SLAM approach. In this paper we improve our algorithm by using a novel probability driven approximation of the local similarity function (the sensor model) to deal with dynamic changes of the appearance in the operation area.

1

Jens Keßler, Alexander König, Horst-Michael Gross

Monte Carlo Lokalisierung Fahrerloser Transportfahrzeuge mit drahtlosen Sensornetzwerken

Ein drahtloses Sensornetzwerk ist ein Funknetz aus Kleinstrechnern, das aus vielen kleinen, dicht verteilten Sensorknoten besteht. Neben den klassischen Anwendungen wie z.B. dem Umweltmonitoring kann es auch zur Lokalisierung von Objekten verwendet werden. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Lokalisierung von Fahrerlosen Transportfahrzeugen mit dem drahtlosen Sensornetzwerk nanoLOC des Herstellers Nanotron Technologies. Aufbauend auf einem angepassten Monte Carlo Algorithmus wird ein Sensormodell entwickelt, welches eine Lokalisierung durch Entfernungsmessung zu ortsfesten Sensorknoten ermöglicht. Es werden experimentelle Ergebnisse präsentiert, die zeigen, dass mit dem nanoLOC-System eine Positionsbestimmung eines Fahrerlosen Transportfahrzeugs mit einem Fehler kleiner als 0,5 m erreichbar ist.

Christof Röhrig, Hubert Büchter, Christopher Kirsch

Using a Physics Engine to Improve Probabilistic Object Localization

Each robot that is meant to handle objects must identify and localize the designated objects prior to any manipulation attempt. Commonly the locations of the objects are estimated separately, assuming full mutual probabilistic independence between all of them.

Hereby information is lost in constellations where objects are probabilistically dependent in their state. A full state estimation could cope with this problem, although it seems infeasible due to the enormous computational demands.

In this paper we present an approach that models such local dependencies and utilizes a physic engine to exploit those within a probabilistic particle filter multi object localization system, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimation results.

Thilo Grundmann

Visual Self-Localization with Tiny Images

Self-localization of mobile robots is often performed visually, whereby the resolution of the images influences a lot the computation time. In this paper, we examine how a reduction of the image resolution affects localization accuracy. We downscale the images, preserving their aspect ratio, up to a tiny resolution of 15×11 and 20×15 pixels. Our results are based on extensive tests on different datasets that have been recorded indoors by a small differential drive robot and outdoors by a flying quadrocopter. Four well-known global image features and a pixel-wise image comparison method are compared under realistic conditions such as illumination changes and translations. Our results show that even when reducing the image resolution down to the tiny resolutions above, accurate localization is achievable. In this way, we can speed up the localization process considerably.

Marius Hofmeister, Sara Erhard, Andreas Zell

Navigation

Coordinated Path Following for Mobile Robots

A control strategy for coordinated path following of multiple mobile robots is presented in this paper. A virtual vehicle concept is combined with a path following approach to achieve formation tasks. Our formation controller is proposed for the kinematic model of unicycle-type mobile robots. It is designed in such a way that the path derivative is employed as an additional control input to synchronize the robot’s motion with neighboring robots. A second-order consensus algorithm under undirected information exchange is introduced to derive the control law for synchronization. Our controller was validated by simulations and experiments with three unicycle-type mobile robots.

Kiattisin Kanjanawanishkul, Marius Hofmeister, Andreas Zell

Kooperative Bewegungsplanung zur Unfallvermeidung im Straßenverkehr mit der Methode der elastischen Bänder

Die Fortschritte der Kommunikationstechnologie ermöglichen neuartige kooperative Sicherheitssysteme, die deutlich über heutige Fahrerassistenzfunktionen hinausgehen. Mit abgestimmten Fahrmanövern mehrerer Fahrzeuge lassen sich Unfälle vermeiden, die ein einzelnes Fahrzeug nicht mehr verhindern könnte. Eine wichtige Komponente eines solchen Systems ist ein Verfahren zur kooperativen Bewegungsplanung. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Methode der elastischen Bänder vor, die bei der Simulation kooperativer Fahrmanöver vielversprechende Ergebnisse liefert.

Christian Frese, Thomas Batz, Jürgen Beyerer

Perception of Environment Properties Relevant for Off-road Navigation

In this paper a set of physical properties is presented that can be utilized for save and efficient navigation in unstructured terrain. This set contains properties of positive obstacles, i.e. flexibility, shape, dimensions, etc. as well as properties of negative obstacles and ground, i.e. slope, carrying capacity, slippage, etc. By means of these properties a classifier is developed that supports the discrimination from traversable to non-traversable areas. Furthermore, an overview of different sensor systems, that can be employed to determine some these properties, is given.

Alexander Renner, Tobias Föhst, Karsten Berns

Architekturen und Anwendungen

Aufbau des humanoiden Roboters BART III

Der vorliegende Beitrag präsentiert den humanoiden Roboter BART III, der am Institut für Regelungstechnik als eine robuste und erweiterbare Plattform für weiterführende Grundlagenforschung zur zweibeinigen Fortbewegung entwickelt wurde. Im Gegensatz zu den bisher am IRT genutzten Robotern BARt-UH und LISA besitzt der neue Roboter einen beweglichen Oberkörper mit einem Bauchgelenk und Armen. BART III besitzt insgesamt 19 aktive Freiheitsgrade, 12 davon im Unterkörper. Ein weiteres Merkmal des Roboters ist die im gesamten Körper verteilte Ansteuerelektronik, die neben der lokalen Motorregelung diverse sicherheitsrelevante Funktionen übernimmt.

Dimitri Resetov, Björn Pietsch, Wilfried Gerth

Development of Micro UAV Swarms

Some complex application scenarios for micro UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) call for the formation of swarms of multiple drones. In this paper a platform for the creation of such swarms is presented. It consists of modified commercial quadrocopters and a self-made ground control station software architecture. Autonomy of individual drones is generated through a micro controller equipped video camera. Currently it is possible to fly basic maneuvers autonomously, such as take-off, fly to position, and landing. In the future the camera’s image processing capabilities will be used to generate additional control information. Different co-operation strategies for teams of UAVs are currently evaluated with an agent based simulation tool. Finally complex application scenarios for multiple micro UAVs are presented.

Axel Bürkle, Sandro Leuchter

Die sechsbeinige Laufmaschine LAURON IVc

Die biologisch motivierte sechsbeinige Laufmaschine LAURON wurde entwickelt um in Szenarien eingesetzt zu werden, die für den Menschen zu gefährlich und für rad-oder kettengetriebene Systeme nur schwer passierbar sind. LAURON IVc ist mittlerweile die vierte Generation aus der LAURON-Laufmaschinen-Reihe. In diesem Beitrag wird ein aktueller Überblick über Hard- und Softwaresysteme der Laufmaschine LAURON IVc gegeben. Abschließend wird auf die Frage eingegangen, wie weit LAURON noch vom realen Einsatz in teileingestürzten Häusern oder dem Auffinden von Abfall in unstrukturiertem Gelände entfernt ist.

M. Ziegenmeyer, A. Rönnau, T. Kerscher, J. M. Zöllner, R. Dillmann

Dynamic Bayesian Network Library

Ein C++ Framework für Berechnungen auf dynamischen Bayes’schen Netzen

Anwendungen, wie sie beispielsweise bei autonomen, mobilen Systemen vorkommen, erfordern die Bearbeitung und Auswertung von heterogenen, unsicheren Messwerten. Probabilistische Ansätze bieten die Möglichkeit, derartige Probleme zu lösen. Präsentiert wird die DBNL, eine C++ Bibliothek, welche die Repräsentation und Inferenz von dynamischen, hybriden Bayes’schen Netzen in komfortabler Weise ermöglicht. Zu den Stärken der DBNL zählen ihre modulare Architektur, die flexible Formulierung von Anfragen, die Unterstützung von beliebigen, benutzerdefinierten Übergangsfunktionen sowie die einfache Erweiterbarkeit um neue Inferenzalgorithmen und Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilungen.

Ralf Kohlhaas, Ferdinand Szekeresch, Tobias Gindele, Rüdiger Dillmann

Modellgetriebene Softwareentwicklung für Robotiksysteme

Die Erschließung breiter Anwendungspotenziale für Serviceroboter erfordert den Schritt weg von manuell erstellten Einzelentwürfen hin zu baukastenartig zusammengesetzten Systemen. Grundlegend hierfür ist der Schritt weg von codezentrierten hin zu modellgetriebenen Systemen. In modellgetriebenen Ansätzen wird langlebiges Lösungswissen von kurzlebigen Implementierungstechnologien entkoppelt. Durch das Explizieren von Eigenschaften wie Ressourcenbedarf und Kommunikationsverhalten wird die Systemebene adressiert, so dass Zusammensetzbarkeit von ausgereiften Komponenten ebenso unterstützt werden kann wie der Nachweis von Systemeigenschaften. Die so möglichen ressourcenadäquaten Lösungen mit zugesicherten Eigenschaften und der Wiederverwendung ausgereifter Lösungen wird als grundlegend für die effiziente Umsetzung der geforderten Qualitätsmaßstäbe vieler zukünftiger Servicerobotikapplikationen gesehen. Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Umsetzung eines modellgetriebenen Softwareentwicklungsprozesses in OpenArchitectureWare auf der Basis eines Komponentenansatzes und eines Ausführungscontainers, der beispielsweise völlig unabhängig von der Middleware ist.

Andreas Steck, Dennis Stampfer, Christian Schlegel

Situation Analysis and Adaptive Risk Assessment for Intersection Safety Systems in Advanced Assisted Driving

Intersection Safety Systems (ISS) are a relative new but an important research topic in the field of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems as accident statistics show. Unfortunately, intersections are one of the most complex scenarios out of all traffic related scenarios which complicates the development of such ISS. This paper presents situation analysis and risk assessment algorithms for Intersection Safety Systems which are suitable for online implementation. The demonstrator system is able to observe the intersection environment with several onboard sensors and to build an appropriate scene model including behaviors, intentions and interrelations of all vehicles in the scene. The subsequent risk assessment judges possible individual risks for the vehicle that is equipped with the safety system.

Jianwei Zhang, Bernd Roessler

Transparente protokollierbare Kommunikation zwischen Funktionen kognitiver Systeme

In kognitiven Systemen werden komplexe Entscheidungen getroffen, die ein umfassendes Umfeldverständnis erfordern. Technische Realisierungen sind meist datenintensiv und bestehen aus vielen Teilfunktionen. Um solche Systeme zu überwachen und neue Funktionen zu testen ist eine transparente und verfolgbare Kommunikation notwendig. Dieser Beitrag präsentiert einen datenzentrierten Ansatz zur Kommunikation und liefert eine Methode um alle Kommunikationsbeziehungen zu beobachten und ganzheitlich aufzuzeichnen. Ausgewählte Anwendungen demonstrieren die erzielten Ergebnisse.

Matthias Goebl, Georg Färber

Walking Humanoid Robot Lola

An Overview of Hard- and Software

Based on the experience gathered from the walking robot

Johnnie

the new performance enhanced 25-DoF humanoid robot

Lola

was built. The goal of this project is to realize a fast, human-like walking. This paper presents different aspects of this complex mechatronic system. Besides the overall lightweight construction, custom build multi-sensory joint drives with high torque brush-less motors were crucial for reaching the performance goal. A decentralized electronics architecture is used for joint control and sensor data processing. A simulation environment serves as a testbed for the walking control, to minimize the risk of damaging the robot hardware during real world experiments.

Markus Schwienbacher, Valerio Favot, Thomas Buschmann, Sebastian Lohmeier, Heinz Ulbrich
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