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2018 | Buch

Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value

Proceedings of the 2017 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference


Über dieses Buch

This proceedings volume presents timely research and insights on the advancement of marketing’s basic premise—providing greater levels of customer value. In recent years, both marketing scholars and practitioners have witnessed great advancements in technology and methodologies associated with big data, with location-based marketing centered on mobile apps and the real-time tracking of consumer behavior, and with innovations and enhancements in communications utilizing the continually growing presence of social media. Featuring the full proceedings of the 2017 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference held in Coronado Island, California, this volume provides ground-breaking research from scholars and practitioners from around the world that will help marketers in providing value for companies, consumers and society.

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses, and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complementing the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.


Managerial Decisions on International Price Adaptation: An Abstract

The study investigates how international pricing decisions are made. Specifically, how and under what conditions psychic distance affects managers’ export pricing adaptation/standardization decisions. Based on construal-level theory, we develop a model that suggests managerial promotion orientation and firm culture as the boundary conditions and construal-level mindset as the underlying mechanism of the psychic distance–price adaptation decision. Using a scenario-based experiment, with export managers in Greece and Taiwan, we find that psychic distance has a significant positive effect on price adaptation, but this effect is becoming nonsignificant for firms located in Asia. Moreover, for firms located in Europe, the positive effect of psychic distance becomes weaker when managers are characterized by higher promotion orientation. Results also confirm that construal-level mindset mediates the perceived psychic distance effect on price adaptation decisions. The article contributes in the export marketing literature by uncovering boundary conditions and an underlying mechanism for the effects of psychic distance and provides value-adding managerial implications.

Christina Papadopoulou, Aristeidis Theotokis, Magnus Hultman
A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Middle-Class Meanings of Money in India and South Korea: An Abstract

Little research exists that qualitatively and systematically examines the rich symbolic meanings of money across cultures. To what extent are symbolic money meanings universal? What roles do economic development and sociocultural differences play in shaping the symbolic meanings and attitudes associated with money? Prior research in the USA documents the interaction between societal changes, money meanings, and family dynamics and demonstrates that economic changes impact attitudes about money (Commuri & Gentry, 2005; Zeiler, 1989). This study builds on this research by examining differences in symbolic money meanings across two nations, India and Korea, at different stages of economic development. Qualitative analysis documents, assesses, and contrasts the rich, symbolic meanings of money for middle-class individuals in these nations.

Altaf Merchant, Gregory Rose, Sunmee Choi, Drew Martin, Mohit Gour
Ad Length and the Presence of the Timer in In-Stream Commercial: An Abstract

One of the most prominent phenomena in the online environment is the rapid growth of the in-stream commercial, where video advertising appears before, during, and/or after viewers watch their chosen content (YouTube, 2016). However, a limited number of scholarly articles have investigated the factors affecting individuals’ avoidance of the advertising exposure—mainly based on the traditional commercial context (e.g., zapping behavior for television commercials)—by focusing on the cognitive aspect of the decision-making process. Thus, we proposed two important features that might influence the consumers’ irritation level: the length of in-stream commercials and the existence (versus absence) of the countdown timer based on the concept of temporal uncertainty (Monat, 1976; Zakay, 1992) from the uncertainty theory (Knight, 1921).The study employed a 2 (length of ad, 15 s vs. 30 s) × 2 (timer: presence vs. absence) × 2 (disruption situation: in-stream commercial before the movie trailer vs. viewing the in-stream commercial only) between-subject randomized experiment, with 264 MTurk users.We found the main effects of advertising length for consumers’ perceptions of the advertising value (M15 s = 3.49, SD = 1.48 vs. M30 s = 4.04, SD = 1.71; F (1, 216) = 6.40, partial η2 = 0.029, p < 0.05) and perceived informativeness (M15 s = 3.82, SD = 1.50 vs. M30 s = 4.36, SD = 1.56; F (1, 216) = 7.00, partial η2 = 0.031, p < 0.01), but we failed to find the main effects of the time cue. Thus, contrary to our assumption of the negative relationship between the length of the ad and consumer’s evaluation of the advertisement, the longer advertisement (i.e., 30-s ad) was considered more valuable and informative for the consumer. Although statistically not significant, this pattern was similar for our main interest: consumer irritation. Those who viewed the shorter version of the ad felt more irritation (Mirritation = 3.19, SD = 1.49) and exhibited a higher level of irritation compared to those who viewed the longer version of the in-stream advertising (Mirritation = 2.93, 1.62).

Yongwoog Jeon, Hyunsang Son, Arnold D. Chung
Strategies for Theory Assessment and Enhancement in Marketing: An Abstract

Developing theoretical contributions in marketing is challenging for any scholar but can be particularly difficult for doctoral students or recent graduates. Many marketing academics have received reviews of articles they submitted to scholarly marketing journals only to find their work rejected or required to undergo revisions because of issues related to theory. Given the often incremental nature of theory contributions, it is difficult to understand what the threshold is for a clear and sufficient theoretical contribution in the marketing discipline. Our paper aims to address this challenge by elucidating what, exactly, a theoretical contribution in marketing is, in addition to offering practical advice to new and established marketing scholars on how to develop it.In doing so, our work provides two contributions: First, we outline why theoretical contributions are difficult to develop in general and especially in marketing. To further elucidate how to overcome these challenges, we showcase three exemplary papers that have advanced marketing theory and highlight elements of these contributions that make them so valuable. Second, our manuscript provides guidelines for authors regarding theoretical sufficiency and significance of their work that authors can consult prior to submitting their work to an academic journal for peer review.

Matthew Wilson, Jeannette Paschen
Understanding Perceived Values and Behavioral Effects of Mobile Apps: An Abstract

Mobile apps enable brands and retailers to enrich today’s customer’s shopping path with different services. But the number of app downloads, which was growing in the past years, has recently begun to slow down somewhat, making it more difficult for a marketer to provide a successful app to customers. To fulfill market needs, we therefore need a better understanding of how consumers perceive values evoked by these apps and their effects on customer behavior. The aim of this paper is to analyze perceived values in mobile apps and how they are able to enrich (non-digital) customer shopping experience. A first pilot study was set up in a shopping mall, and further experiments are conceptualized. Findings suggest that consumers see social value as important part of shopping experience and mobile shopping apps can support this social need. Moreover, it is found that economic and hedonic value enhances the intention to use a mobile shopping app and improve shopping experience. Thus, contribution is given for consumer value theory as well as from a managerial point of view to improve mobile app strategies. One implication is that hedonic and social values have a high impact on customer shopping experience and therefore it is surprising that those values are underestimated in mobile marketing research so far.

Ines Hackeradt
When the Service Experience Drives Negative and Positive Emotions: The Moderating Role of Pride in the Effects of Guilt on Coping and Satisfaction: An Abstract

Guilt and pride can be felt during the same consumption episode, thus referring to mixed emotions. While pride evokes a feeling of achievement that is attributed to the individual’s abilities and efforts (Tracy & Robins, 2007) and thus motivates people to engage in actions (Patrick et al., 2009), guilt discourages such engagement in action (Saintives & Lunardo, 2016). These antagonistic emotions make their interaction complex, and their combined effects thus remain unknown. To fill this gap, this research first examines how guilt and pride simultaneously felt by consumers during a service experience interact. Second, the studies analyze how these feelings influence behavior, especially in terms of coping strategies (positive reappraisal and mental disengagement), implementation, and satisfaction.With Study 1, respondents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions of guilt (guilt and control) and were told to write down their feelings and thoughts regarding a past service episode. They were then presented with a questionnaire measuring satisfaction, mental disengagement, positive reinterpretation, pride, and guilt. Study 1 reveals that the effects of guilt on mental disengagement and positive reappraisal are moderated by pride. However, the interacting effects of guilt and pride on these two strategies differ: the moderating role of pride is such that the effect of guilt on mental disengagement is stronger and negative for people who feel highly guilty, while its moderating effect on positive reappraisal is stronger and positive for people who feel lowly guilty. Further, the results show that mental disengagement is the only one that mediates the effects of guilt on satisfaction differently according to the low or high level of pride.The purpose of Study 2 is to replicate the aforementioned results in another context. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions that manipulated guilt. In the guilt (versus control) condition, participants were asked to read a scenario describing a hypothetical experience on an erotic (versus travel agency) website. Then, respondents were asked to answer a survey using the same measures as in Study 1. The results obtained replicate those of Study 1.Hence, marketers may gain in trying to appraise the levels of guilt and pride that are induced by their services to design the most appropriate marketing stimulus that is likely not to encourage mental disengagement.

Camille Saintives, Renaud Lunardo
Seeking Relief from Negative Emotions: Customer Revenge as an Emotional Outlet: An Abstract

Customer revenge as a form of customer misbehaviour has attracted increasing attention in service marketing. Previous research suggests that customer revenge can take various forms, ranging from aggressive behaviours towards the employees to negative word of mouth (NWOM) (Grégoire, Laufer, & Tripp, 2010). While a number of studies have examined the cognitive aspect of customer revenge (i.e. perceived unfairness), the emotional aspect is relatively understudied. This research aims to contribute to the literature in two ways. First, it will investigate the role of three moral emotions (i.e. anger, contempt and disgust) in translating perceived unfairness into various revengeful behaviours (i.e. H1). Second, it will examine whether revenge is employed by customers as an emotion regulatory strategy to ameliorate their negative emotions (i.e. H2).To test H1, a 2 (distributive fairness: low vs high) × 2 (procedural fairness: low vs high) × 2 (interactional fairness: low vs high) between-subject experimental design was conducted. Participants were asked to read a hotel service recovery scenario where the various dimensions of fairness were manipulated. Results demonstrated that anger mediates the effect of distributive and interactional fairness in the various revengeful behaviours (i.e. aggression, vindictive complaining, vindictive NWOM and third-party complaining). Furthermore, contempt mediates the effect of distributive and interactional fairness in aggression, vindictive complaining and vindictive NWOM but not third-party complaining. Procedural fairness did not have a significant impact on customer revenge. Similarly, disgust did not act as a mediator between perceived fairness and customer revenge.To test H2, a 2 (mood change beliefs: present vs control) one factor experimental design was employed. Participants read an airline service scenario that involved a failed service recovery. Following the procedures used by Bushman, Baumeister and Phillips (2001), participants in the mood change belief condition were led to believe that at the end of the experiment they will have positive emotions, while in the control condition, there were no such instructions. The logic behind this manipulation is that if individuals believe that exacting revenge will alleviate their negative emotions, providing them with another way to feel better (i.e. recall of a happy experience) will reduce their revengeful behaviours. Findings from the experiment demonstrate that individuals employ vindictive complaining, vindictive NWOM and third-party complaining but not aggression with the intention to feel better.

Marilena Gemtou, Haiming Hang
The Company or the Crowd? Comparing Consumers’ Reactions to Peer-Provided and Firm-Provided Customer Support: An Abstract

Despite firms’ best efforts, at some point, most customers will experience difficulty using the products they have purchased. Traditionally, consumers have looked to firms to provide them with assistance when they experience problems. Recently, consumers themselves have begun to play a more active role in providing customer support to their peers, which we term peer-provided support. While emerging evidence suggests that peer-provided support can provide benefits to firms by reducing costs and providing high-quality customer support to customers (Cook, 2008), can peer-provided support have an advantage over firm-provided support?When a consumer experiences a customer support issue, clearly actions are required to address the underlying problem and enable the customer to use the product as she wishes. However, we argue that, in addition to this functional element, effective customer support also requires a social support element to help address the negative psychological state (Gelbrich, 2010; Laros & Steenkamp, 2005) that often accompanies. Social support is “the perception or experience that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a social network of mutual assistance and obligations” (Taylor et al., 2004, p. 354–55). Indeed, this kind of social support may be especially important when a functional solution cannot be fully realized (i.e., when the underlying problem cannot be solved). Prior research also suggests that consumers themselves may be particularly adept at providing social support to their peers (Bickart & Schindler, 2001; Butler, Sproull, Kiesler, & Kraut, 2007). Hence, we posit that peer-provided customer support may have an advantage in improving customers’ psychological state via enhanced social support and may play an important role in improving their overall satisfaction following a problem.Across four studies, we show that peer-provided support generates greater satisfaction than firm-provided support in cases when the support attempt cannot successfully address the problem that the customer faces. First, using actual online postings from a support community, we show that while a successfully solved problem always leads to greater customer satisfaction, when a problem remains unsolved, peer-provided support results in greater satisfaction than firm-provided support (pilot study). Study 1 validates these results by replicating them in a controlled experimental setting. Study 2 extends these findings by identifying the mediating role of social support and by ruling out a potential alternative mechanism. In addition, we show that portraying firm employees as more customer-like can also generate enhanced feelings of social support and lead to greater customer satisfaction when the underlying problem remains unsolved. Study 3 draws from the mimicry literature and demonstrates that employees who imitate the language that customers use in their support requests can also provide customers a greater feeling of social support and thus replicate the advantage of peer-provided support.

Lan Jiang, Matthew O’Hern, Sara Hanson
Global Country Social Responsibility: What Is It? An Abstract

Corporate social responsibility (CSR), which refers to business practices and corporate resource contributions that help improve societal well-being (Kotler & Lee, 2005), and its impact on a country’s bottom line have attracted increased scholarly interest over the years as corporations recognize the communities in which they operate as significant stakeholders. CSR initiatives thus tend to help corporations boost their reputation and be viewed positively by consumers, investors, and prospective employees (Korschun, Bhattacharya, & Swain, 2014; Sen, Bhattacharya, & Korschun, 2006). Specifically, when firms engage in CSR activities, they communicate to key stakeholders their organizational values, which can reap multiple benefits when they are congruent with key stakeholders’ values (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003; Galbreath, 2010; Sen et al., 2006). However, given the numerous pressing social issues our world is facing today, it is imminent for the entire countries, not just corporations, to address important societal issues such as health and well-being, peace and security, and environmental sustainability. Recognizing this need, we extend the CSR concept to the country level and introduce the concept of global country social responsibility (GCSR), defined as a country’s practices that contribute to the well-being of its key constituents or stakeholders, including immigrants, emigrants, native citizens, non-native citizens, as well as domestic and foreign businesses.In our effort to construct the concept of GCSR, we point to three broad dimensions of GCSR – international peace and security, societal welfare, and environment – as these represent the primary indicators of socially responsible corporate activities (citation?). International peace and security concern a country’s active involvement with governments of other countries and international organizations such as the United Nations in an effort to ensure the safety of its key stakeholders. Societal welfare prefers to promoting economic well-being, equality, health, and education, while the pressing issues under environment for countries include promoting sustainability and mitigating negative human impact.

Boryana V. Dimitrova, Saejoon Kim, Monique Bell, Nikita Frantz
Influencing Factors on Moral Licensing Effect: A Meta-Analytic Approach: An Abstract

Moral licensing is a nonconscious effect that provides a moral boost in the self-concept, which increases the preference for a relative immoral action by dampening the negative self-attributions associated with such behavior. Applied to a marketing context, moral licensing explains why a purchase of a green product (a positive moral act) is likely to increase the likelihood of subsequently purchasing a luxury good (a negative moral act) or why donating to charity before purchasing a self-indulgent product increases the willingness to pay for this item. This study addresses the question which factors systematically influence the size of this effect by conducting a meta-analysis and meta-regressions. Results of a meta-regression analysis indicate that both cultural background and the type of comparison combined explain more than 20% of the total variation of moral licensing effect’s size. For the first time, we demonstrate that moral licensing effect differs between culturally distinct regions, with higher effects in North American samples compared to Western Europeans. Moreover, in Southeast Asian samples, the effect is reversed in direction, meaning that performing a good deed increases the likelihood of doing good subsequently. Our results indicate that marketing measures building on this effect might lead to different revenues in different markets.

Philipp Simbrunner, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch
The Role of Honor as a Key Global Marketing Dimension for Business and Academia

The history of international honor in business is presented together with its relevance to business today. Trust bridges are suggested based on commonalities between parties and to strengthen their network and relationships with one another. These postulates were investigated with a group of international marketing experts. A three-round Delphi study was conducted using the triple helix research approach. An analysis of the global perspectives focused on honorable practices is presented.

Michael Czinkota
The Influence of Posture on Taste: An Abstract

Sometimes, consumers eat while sitting down (e.g., at restaurants, on the couch). However, at other times consumers eat while standing (e.g., at cocktail parties). Would eating the same food while sitting (vs. standing) influence the perceived taste of the food? That is, how does posture influence taste evaluations?This research draws on literature which shows that standing postures induce more physiological stress on the body than sitting postures (Abalan et al., 1992) as well as work which shows that stress decreases responsiveness to reward (Born et al., 2010). We predict that because standing (vs. sitting) postures lead to more physiological stress and decreased sensitivity to reward individuals who eat while standing will evaluate a food as having a less favorable taste than individuals who eat while sitting. Additionally, we predict that stress/tension will mediate the effects of stress on taste evaluations. We test these predictions in four experiments.First, in Study 1 we have individuals sample a cookie while sitting (vs. standing) and find that individuals who sampled while sitting rated the cookie as better tasting. In Study 2, we replicate this basic effect using a different food item. Additionally, we provide physiological evidence that standing (vs. sitting) postures are associated with greater physiological stress. In Study 3 we provide additional evidence for the role of stress in driving the effects of posture on taste evaluations by showing that the effects hold when stress is not induced via a prime. However, when individuals complete a stressful task prior to sampling, taste evaluations among individuals who are seated are reduced, and there is no difference in taste based on posture. Finally, in Study 4 we show that inducing relaxation through ambient music can attenuate the effects of posture on taste.Collectively, the results of four studies show that posture influences taste evaluations by inducing physiological stress when an individual stands. Thus, restaurants should encourage diners to sit down while eating or allow consumers to stand but play relaxing ambient music.

Courtney Szocs, Dipayan Biswas
The Power of Scent: Effects of Scent on Temperature Perception Due to Synesthesia: An Abstract

Most research on the impact of scent has focused on its effects on memory and brand recall (e.g., Krishna, 2012; Morrin & Ratneshwar, 2003). Scent has been shown to have an effect on behaviors through the use of mood mechanisms (Baron & Bronfen, 1994). Given the mixed findings on scents’ effects (Ellen & Bone, 1998), there is a need for further exploration in the scent research area.Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which stimulation of one human sense causes abnormal experiences in another sense (Hubbard & Ramachandran, 2005). In regard to synesthesia, several studies have found that certain scents can carry haptic-based affiliations where some scents are perceived as warm (e.g., vanilla) and others are perceived as cool (e.g., peppermint).Kotler (1973, pg. 50) defined atmospherics as “the effort to design buying environments to produce specific emotional effects in the buyer that enhance his purchase probability.” We are concerned with atmosphere in reference to the quality of the area in which the product is presented. Since this type of atmosphere is processed through our senses, it is possible to describe the atmosphere utilizing sensory language. Scent may be an influential element in producing useful perceptions of a retail atmosphere.This research proposes that associations of a scent can be used to manipulate an individual’s perception of body temperature in order to influence purchase behavior. In this study, I test whether people will subsume warm and cool scents’ associations with self-perception of temperature when making certain product-purchasing decisions.The study utilizes a between-subject design with a sample of 60 students. An experiment will be conducted in which individuals will be asked to watch a series of advertisements and then complete a survey. Individuals will watch advertisements with hedonic products and utilitarian products and will complete a survey assessing the product preferences for those two categories of products. Ten minutes prior to the participant’s entry into the room, an electric diffuser will release either a warm or cool scent. Temperature will be measured concurrently with scent diffuser release as well as when individuals enter the room. This research attempts to combine scent theory with atmospheric theory through the phenomenon known as synesthesia to study its influence on preference formation.

Amy Rebecca Jones
If I Touch I Like It! The Interplay Between Tactile Inputs and Gustatory Perceptions: An Abstract

Three studies test whether touching food items modulate consumers’ purchase intentions and perceived taste during food sampling. In study 1, participants unobtrusively encouraged to touch (vs. not touch) a healthy food item (i.e. baby carrots) before tasting it declared higher purchase intentions and enhanced perceived taste when evaluating the product. In study 2, we replicated the results of study 1 with an unhealthy food item (i.e. nougat), so that touching (vs. not touching) the product resulted in better consumer responses towards the food (i.e. perceived taste and purchase intention). Finally, study 3 shows a boundary condition for the proposed effect. Specifically, the positive effect of touching is mitigated in sensory-overloaded environments, suggesting that intense sensory conflicts might suppress touch prominence in an evaluative task. Therefore, the authors demonstrate that consumers’ touch (vs. non-touch) in a food item enhances both gustatory perceptions and purchase intentions but only when other customer senses are not concurrently activated.

Felipe Pantoja, Adilson Borges, Patricia Rossi, Amanda Pruski Yamim
The Unconscious Affection Factor: Exploring the Dual Facets of Customer-Perceived Value and Their Impact on Brand Attachment: An Abstract

The customer-perceived value (CPV) has been identified as one of the most important factors considering customer’s decision-making. The reason why people prefer specific brands over others is directly related to the perceived (and experienced) values of the considered brand. In the past, most research with regard to brand-related marketing issues relies on conventional self-reporting scales (e.g., Esch et al., 2008). However, an impressive number of studies in the field of cognitive psychology and neuroscience indicate that most mental processes in the human’s brain are processed unconsciously without any conscious (explicit) awareness (e.g., Nisbett & Wilson, 1977; Weber et al., 2009). That introspective inaccessibility limits consumers to fully articulate their feelings and thoughts about a brand. Specifically, conventional research of customer-perceived value often falls back on conventional measures like self-reports which are able to capture judgments and opinions on an explicit level, but not on an implicit (un-subconscious/subconscious) level (e.g., Smith & Colgate, 2007). Against that backdrop, a substantial understanding of brand-related customer-perceived value implies an advanced comprehension not only of conscious, so-called explicit processes, but also of the unconscious, so-labeled implicit processes. In this respect, the present exploratory work introduces a multifaceted modeling of customer-perceived value incorporating explicit and implicit processes in a combined measurement approach and their impact on brand attachment. The findings of the present exploratory study show that brand attachment is strongly driven by implicit and explicit facets of CPV.

Sascha Langner, Steffen Schmidt, Levke Albertsen, Evmorfia Karampournioti, Klaus-Peter Wiedmann
Five Seconds to the Ad: How ProgramInduced Mood Affects Ad Countdown Effects: An Abstract

The study examines what effects a 5 s countdown warning will have on consumer’s attitudes toward the advertisement depending on the main program content. This study builds upon several theoretical models concerning program-induced moods in relation to viewer’s judgment to commercial advertisements. Findings from two studies suggest that program-induced mood systematically influences attitude toward the inserted ad with (vs. without) a 5 s countdown: for the negative-affect program, attitude toward the ad was more positive when the ad was preceded by the countdown than when the ad was not preceded by the countdown. However, for the positive-affect program, attitude toward the ad was more negative when the ad was preceded by the countdown than when the ad was not preceded by the countdown. A similar interaction was found with purchase intent.

Tiffany Venmahavong, Sukki Yoon, Kacy Kim
The Effect of Advertising Concentration on Retailers’ Market and Financial Performance: An Abstract

Advertising is widely recognized as a powerful force for enhancing brand awareness and shaping consumer preferences (e.g., Ailawadi et al. 2009; Tellis, 2005). Companies continue to spend vast amounts of money on advertising every year; the United States alone spent 189 billion dollars in 2015 (Statista, 2016). Despite the consensus that advertising is an effective tool, it is still quite challenging for companies to exactly evaluate and quantify its impact. Therefore, in past decades, both practitioners and academics have made enormous efforts to examine the effectiveness of advertising. Remarkably, even though D’Souza and Rao (1995) find that for a particular advertising campaign timing plays a crucial role in its success, no research has systematically explored how timing could influence advertising effectiveness from a strategic point of view.Using longitudinal data, this study is the first to examine whether advertising timing influences retailers’ performance. By integrating product market and financial metrics, this study underscores the importance of advertising concentration and provides a more comprehensive picture of advertising effectiveness in a retail context. Results suggest that a retailer’s advertising has both immediate and long-term effects, influencing sales in the short term while also having a strong carryover effect. However, merely increasing advertising investments does not enhance shareholder value nor profitability. Advertising concentration, which reflects when a retailer advertises and how it allocates an advertising budget, influences shareholder value and profitability. Retailers that allocate advertising evenly achieve better financial results, and overall advertising expenditures moderate this effect. In comparison to retailers with a large advertising budget, advertising concentration has a greater influence for retailers with low expenditures.

Chi Zhang, Douglas Vorhies
Advertising Expenditures, Negative Corporate Social Performance, and Firm Performance: Does Advertising Orientation Matter? An Abstract

In this study, we investigate the relationship between advertising expenditures, negative corporate social performance, and firm performance. Our empirical analysis seeks to understand the implications of negative corporate social performance for advertising response strategies—namely, annual, corporate-focused, and product-focused firm-level advertising expenditures. Furthermore, we examine the potential of these advertising response strategies for firm-level performance (i.e., profitability and firm value measures).Using a sample of firms with negative corporate social performance between 1995 and 2011, we examine our propositions and find an empirically significant distinction between the use and influence of corporate- versus product-focused advertising on firm performance—in the context of corporate social performance-based crises. More specifically, the results of this analysis indicate a positive but insignificant relationship between negative corporate social performance and all three of our advertising measures (annual, corporate-focused, and product-focused advertising). Additionally, we find that despite the insignificant increase in advertising following negative corporate social performance, advertising spending, more specifically product-oriented advertising spending, is shown to significantly reduce the negative impact of negative corporate social performance on firm performance.Overall, we generate empirical support for the relevance of advertising expenditure-based strategies for the mitigation of nonproduct-related brand scandals in the context of corporate social performance.

Stacey Sharpe, Nicole Hanson
Marketing Strategy and Strategic Environment Performance Sustaining Configurations: A Set-Theoretic Approach: An Abstract

The link between performance outcomes and strategic choices has been the subject of numerous studies (see Mirabeau & Maguire, 2014). The success of any strategy type is determined by the outcomes it produces when aligned with key contingencies (Katsikeas, Samiee, & Theodosiou, 2006). Along the strategic alignment literature, authors conjure the significance of strategy – external environment – fit for superior performance outcomes (Zott & Amit, 2008). In fact, the lack of fit (i.e., misfit) instigates poor performance implications (Yarbrough, Morgan, & Vorhies, 2011).A whole set of parameters, which are external to the firm, blur strategic decision-making (Rosenbusch, Rauch, & Bausch, 2013). Acknowledging this challenge, the objective of this study is to gain an understanding of how strategies and external contingencies commingle in different combinations and interplay in shaping performance outcomes. To explore this phenomenon, this study adopts four strategic environment dimensions, which emerge as contingencies: competitive hostility, market dynamism, complexity, and munificence. As the study sets strategic environment configurations, it proposes a taxonomy of four marketing strategy types: marketing pioneers, marketing followers, efficient operators, and value marketers. To analyze fit, the authors theorize about strategies against the proposed configurations and empirically test the resulting financial performance.The current study applies a multiple-input approach using theoretical and qualitative inputs to develop high-performing configurations. The authors systematically reviewed scholarly work over the period of 1980–2015. To improve accuracy and precision, the authors complemented conventional theorizing with a qualitative input (i.e., theoretical specification by expert raters). The average score across the two inputs is used as a metric for robustly deriving conditional hypotheses.This present study examines strategic environment configurations as an entire pattern of causes rather than a set of independent and isolated predictor variables. To test this assumption, the authors depart from traditional multivariate techniques. Alternatively, they introduce a set-theoretic analytical method—that is, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). fsQCA is uniquely appropriate for testing configurational theory and provides rich insights on the relationship between the configurational parameters and the outcome of interest (Rihoux & Ragin, 2009). Research hypotheses on performance implications and responses from 196 marketing executives lend support to the argument that each strategy type requires unique combinations and conditions of strategic environment parameters for success.

Simos Chari, George Balabanis
The FREE (Firm Resources and External Environment) Framework as an Alternative to SWOT: An Abstract

For more than five decades, SWOT analysis has remained popular with business and marketing strategy educators and practitioners. However, it also attracts severe criticisms from business and marketing strategy academics and practitioners. In fact, some recommendations call for abandoning the use of SWOT for analysis. In this research, we review the literature on SWOT to delineate advantages or uses, disadvantages or concerns, and recommendations or recommended alternatives. On the foundations resource-based (R-B) strategy and resource-advantage (R-A) theory, we introduce a new framework that can be viewed as an alternative to the SWOT framework. The FREE (Firm Resources and External Environment) framework requires analysis in two parts: analyzing the firm’s resources and analyzing the external environment using the five environmental factors (the societal resources on which firms draw, the societal institutions that frame the rules of the game, the actions of competitors, the behaviors of consumers and suppliers, and public policy decisions). A discussion of the advantages of FREE framework over the SWOT framework is provided.

Sreedhar Madhavaram, Shelby D. Hunt, Pelin Bicen
Can Marketing and IT Be Friends? The Impact of Information Strategy, Structure, and Processes on Business Performance: An Abstract

The management of information is critical to customer relationship management and business performance. Marketers are increasingly becoming engaging in information management from inception or being tasked with advanced technology infrastructure decisions that will effectively collect and analyze information. To address the increasing role of information and technology in marketing strategy, the focus of this research is twofold. First, we investigate the impact of uncoordinated information management on the quality of information available. Next, we explore how behavioral (e.g., trust, power, strategic alignment), relational (e.g., collaboration), and resource (e.g., data analytics skills, data decision-making culture) elements impact the role of information governance on firm performance.

Stefan Sleep, Dana Harrison
Perspective Taking and Persuasiveness of Charity Advertising Appeals: An Abstract

Charity advertising is prevalent to appeal to individual donors to boost their contributions to charity (Bendapudi, Singh, & Bendapudi, 1996; Brunel & Nelson, 2000). Surprisingly, very little research effort has been devoted to study the effectiveness of different appeals in charity advertising. Charity advertising varies greatly in the ways it characterizes the charitable causes. Such differences can be parsimoniously summarized along two dimensions – focal beneficiary of charitable actions (self vs. others) and reasons of helping (attain benefits vs. avoid costs) (Bagozzi & Moore, 1994; Bendapudi, Singh, & Bendapudi, 1996; Clary, Snyder, Ridge, et al., 1998). Thus, we can differentiate four common appeals in charity ads: help-self-attain-benefits, help-self-avoid-costs, help-others-attain-benefits, and help-others-avoid-costs. Are they equally persuasive? If not, which one is more effective than others?In this research, we studied the relative persuasiveness of these four charity appeals in the context of volunteerism advertising. We propose the following: (1) a help-self charity ad will be more effective when it highlights benefit-related (vs. cost-related) outcomes of helping, whereas a help-others charity ad will be more effective when it highlights cost-related (vs. benefit-related) outcomes of helping. Our rationale is that ads that adopt different appeals (help-self vs. help-others) can activate contrasting focus of information process and lead viewers to process different types of consequences (benefits vs. costs) differently. (2) This effect will be contingent on viewers’ perspective-taking tendency such that, for individuals who are low in perspective taking, the effect will hold, whereas for individuals who are high in perspective-taking tendency, the effect will disappear.Two experimental studies were conducted in the context of volunteerism advertising to test these hypotheses, and the results were supportive. In study 1, participants were randomly assigned to an experiment with a 2 (help-self appeal vs. help-others appeal) × 2 (attain benefits of helping vs. avoid costs of helping) between-subjects factorial design. Participants read a letter from a charity encouraging college students to volunteer. Four versions of the letters were created and each condition viewed one version. Thereafter, subjects’ likelihoods to sign up for volunteering were measured as one main dependent variable. Study 2 replicated and extended study 1. The design was a 2 (perspective taking, high vs. low) × 2 (frame of reference, help-self vs. help-others frame of reference) × 2 (reasons for helping, attain benefits vs. avoid costs) between subjects fully crossed factorial. Participants’ perspective taking was measured. The other two factors were manipulated as in study 1.

Guangzhi Zhao, Qiyu (Jason) Zhang, Lefa Teng
Political Ideology of Donors and Attribution Messages in Charity Advertising: An Abstract

Two experimental studies demonstrate that advertising messages emphasizing individualistic or structuralistic attribution can have varying effects on people with different political ideologies. We found that liberals tend to more positively evaluate the ad and more likely participate in a charity event when the ad message includes structuralistic attribution (e.g., the society caused homelessness), while conservatives tend to more positively evaluate the ad and more likely participate in a charity event when the ad message includes individualistic attribution (e.g., the homeless people caused their homelessness). We further shows that the ad evaluation—attitude toward advertising—plays a mediating role between the ideology-attribution fit and participation likelihood in the charity event.

Younghwa Lee, Sukki Yoon
Cause-Related Marketing from the Nonproft’s Perspective: An International Comparison: An Abstract

Cause-related marketing (CRM) is a partnership between a not-for-profit organization (NFP) and a company, intended to benefit both parties. This research examined perceptions of CRM for NFPs that do not participate in the practice. NFPs in France, where the practice is less established, were compared to NFPs in North America, where the practice is deeply established.Online surveys of randomly selected NFPs were conducted, resulting in usable responses from 172 NFP managers (or similar position) from France, 341 from the USA, and 295 from Canada, all from NFPs that do not participate in CRM. Risk aversion, market orientation, CRM attitudes, and CRM concerns were examined. Overall, more market-oriented and less risk averse NFPs show a greater propensity toward participating in CRM. This finding underscores the fact that CRM is a marketing activity which carries potential risk, not (merely) a form of philanthropy. Those who are more market oriented appear to perceive greater benefit from taking this risk.The intercultural comparison suggests that French NFPs differ from North American NFPs in several ways. French NFPs are somewhat less trusting of CRM partnerships, with greater concern about exploitation. Additionally, they perceive less mutual benefit from a CRM alliance, have less positive attitudes toward CRM in general, and see less potential for using the business as a resource. These findings may be due to a somewhat less favorable business sentiment overall within France. Alternatively, they could simply reflect that CRM is newer and less prevalent in France; lack of familiarity could lead to a cautious approach to CRM.While differences between French and North American NFPs did emerge, the more important finding is perhaps the lack of difference. In many ways, French, Canadian, and US NFP managers face similar challenges and hold similar views on CRM. Across these countries, lack of resources to pursue CRM was the primary reason for not participating. This is somewhat ironic, as CRM could provide resources that would make the extra effort feasible. Their second concern was finding a suitable partner. Participants also expressed concern over a potential culture clash, negative repercussions from the partnership, and a lack of cultural fit between organizations. These findings suggest that concern regarding potential discord between partners is a prominent barrier toward CRM partnerships.

Debra Z. Basil, Carolina O. C. Werle, Mary Runte
Developing a Scale to Measure Brand-Evoked Nostalgia in Belgium and the United States: An Abstract

Contemporary branding activities by a host of companies demonstrate a managerial interest in nostalgia as a practical marketing tool. Little attention, however, has been paid to measuring the complex and multiple dimensions of this construct. More academic research is surely warranted to develop and validate a generalizable measure of brand nostalgia to help companies gauge and track the nuanced components of nostalgia associated with their brands.We contribute to the literature by developing a rigorously tested, reliable, and valid scale to measure and decouple the multidimensional nature of brand-induced nostalgia across two countries – Belgium and the USA. Following scale development procedures suggested by Churchill (1979) and Devellis (2003), we develop emic (country and market-specific) scales in Belgium and the United States through several iterative studies. By using items common to both emic scales, we then compose a derived etic (universal across countries and markets) scale.

John B. Ford, Altaf Merchant, Anne-Laure Bartier, Mike Friedman
Style of Thinking as Moderator of Drivers of Consumer Brand Identification: An Abstract

Drawing from social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1985), Bhattacharya and Sen (2003) proposed that customers may identify with companies and especially with the brands. Consumers perceive brands as carriers of symbolic meanings, and they use it to achieve their identity goals (Escalas & Bettman, 2009). Based on that, research about consumer brand identification (CBI), defined as a consumer’s perceived state of oneness with a brand (Stokburger-Sauer et al., 2012), has demonstrated its power as a predictor of consumer behavior (i.e., repurchase intention, word of mouth, and symbol passing).However, there is a lack of consensus about the drivers of CBI. One research stream proposed that CBI is a formative first-order construct (Lam et al., 2010); a second research stream proposed that CBI is a reflexive construct based on cognitive variables: brand-self similarity (BSS), brand distinctiveness, and brand prestige (Stokburger-Sauer et al., 2012), but little empirical support was obtained for the predictive role of brand concept (prestige/functional), as a driver of CBI. Also there is a lack of research on the broader cultural context as a driver of CBI.Based on the above discussion, this study has two main purposes. First, we propose an alternative explanation of the relationship between BSS and brand concept (BC). Given that BSS is defined as the degree of overlap between a consumer’s perception of his/her own personality traits and that of the brand (Stokburger-Sauer et al., 2012), we propose that BSS is a mediator variable between BC and CBI. The second purpose is suggesting that customer’s style of thinking (SoT) (Monga & John, 2010) could buffer or magnify the effect of BC on BSS. SoT is relevant because holistic and analytic thinkers detect different kinds of connections between objects, including brand and their own personality traits.Two experiments will be conducted in this study. The first will examine SoT as antecedent of the CBI. A 2 (BC: prestige/functional) × 2 (SoT: holistic/analytic) between-subjects factorial design will be adopted. Experiment 2 will examine the role of BSS as mediator that drives the effect of BC on CBI.This study has theoretical and managerial contributions. From theoretical perspective, this study could provide evidence of CBI as a cognitive second-order construct and that cultural context is a significant driver of CBI. From managerial perspective, this research could provide evidence of how a managerial strategy (BC) impacts a customer’s state (CBI) which is a powerful predictor of customer behavior.

Jose Saavedra Torres, Omid Dadgar, Monika Rawal
Does COO Still Matter? An Examination of Country of Origin Effects on Purchase Intentions Under Recall Circumstances: An Abstract

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, 2015) reported that automobiles were 84% of the first quarter’s total recalled units (which include automobiles, drugs, toys, and food). Indeed, the average number of annual automotive recalls rose 76% (from 339 to 599) in a two-decade period (1994–2013). Product recalls have not only accelerated in pace, but they have also become more widespread. Three decades ago, a product recall attributed to errors in the product design or production process only affected a local area. Today one single product failure can cause great damage on a global scale (Marucheck, 1987; Marucheck et al., 2011). For instance, Toyota’s 2009–2010 acceleration and General Motors’ 2014 ignition switch recalls not only created huge litigation fees but also resulted in billions of dollars lost sales, reduced manufacturing, harmed reputation, a lower stock price, and higher expenses. Moreover, the effects of these recalls not only impact the auto companies but also can be a nightmare for their suppliers, as a defective auto part from a supplier could also be the cause of an auto recall.Further complicating the impact of a recall is the use of foreign suppliers. The country of origin (COO) effect can intensify the damage incurred during a recall. Nagashima (1970) defined COO as: “the picture, the reputation, or stereotype that businessmen and consumers attach to products of a specific country.” Hong and Wyer (1990) indicate that concepts related to COO can affect the interpretation of information about specific product attributes. Thus, COO can serve as a cue that triggers a global evaluation of quality and performance. Moreover, it has been suggested that COO has a negative effect on the global supply chain. For example, some products such as kitchenwares that are “made in China” are perceived to be inferior. However, Kabadayi and Lerman’s (2011) study found that students asking to purchase a teddy bear in an American store do not necessarily prefer a teddy bear made in the USA to one made in China. This result suggests that a negative COO effect can be offset when consumers trust the store selling the product.This study continues work on product recalls by extending it into the domain of supplier country of origin (COO). The authors propose that the impact of a product recall on evaluations of affected brands depends on the severity of the recall as well as the origin of the supplier of parts that resulted in the recall. Results from an experimental study indicate that when a supplier is of foreign origin, brands of moderate quality are disproportionately harmed if the offending supplier is foreign (vs. domestic). However, brands of high quality are insulated from this COO effect. Further, recall severity harms brands with a foreign supplier in the wake of a severe recall only; supplier COO does not matter after a minor recall. Taken together, these results suggest that COO does indeed still matter. Moderate brands should be particularly careful with supplier selection, as both COO and recall severity can have an effect. However, strong brands have the ability to be less selective, as COO is less impactful on recall outcomes.

Jianping Huang, Jeffrey P. Radighieri
Managing Customer Reactions to Brand Deletion: An Abstract

Along with adding new brands and managing existing brands, it is equally important to delete weak brands from the brand portfolio in order to channelize resources toward building brand portfolios comprising strong brands (Shah, 2015; Shah, Laverie, & Davis, 2017). Despite its important strategic role in brand portfolio management, firms are hesitant to delete brands from their portfolios, as they fear losing customers and the challenge of managing customer reactions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a useful and practical guide to managers (based on academic literature and qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 brand professionals) on successfully deleting brands without estranging their loyal customers. Brand professionals were chosen as key informants in these interviews because they work very closely with brands and have experience and in-depth insight into the challenges involved with managing customer reactions during brand deletions.When customers feel emotionally attached with brands, deleting these brands can negatively influence customer satisfaction, attitude toward the brand, firm reputation, brand and firm evaluations, brand loyalty, and brand commitment (Mao, Luo, & Jain, 2009; Somosi & Kolos, 2015; Varadrajan, Defanti, & Busch, 2006) and thereby cause a severe business disruption (Avlonitis & James, 1982). Therefore, it is imperative to consider customers and their reactions to brand deletion while deciding to delete a brand (Shah, 2017 forthcoming).Firms can be classified as B2C (business to customer) and B2B (business to business) based on the nature of customers they serve. Brand deletion in the B2B context may have severe consequences for customer firms (i.e., firms buying from them) and customer-company relationships (Homburg, Fürst, & Prigge, 2010). If a firm undergoing brand deletion provides a timely announcement of the decision, offers a sound explanation of the deletion decision, takes responsibility of providing appropriate financial and/or nonfinancial compensation, and exerts effort to help satisfy its customers’ needs, it is perceived by customer firms as more reliable, sincere, and flexible. Due to this, customer firms’ psychological and economic costs are reduced, thereby improving their overall satisfaction and loyalty after the brand deletion (Homburg, Fürst, & Prigge, 2010).In the B2C context, a loyal customer’s reaction to the deletion of his/her favorite brand can be explained by the stage theory of grief (Worden, 2008) since the customer experiences a loss due to the death of an important entity, his/her beloved brand. If the deleting firm offers a better substitute for the brand being deleted with a prior notice to customers, the customer churn is less because customers experience more satisfaction, loyalty, and commitment to the brand being deleted (Somosi & Kolos, 2015). Furthermore, only notification is not sufficient. It is also important to explain the reasoning behind the deletion decision.This study explores the under-researched area of brand deletion and extends the understanding of customer reactions to brand deletion by synthesizing existing literature with qualitative data. The findings explain the impact of brand deletion on customers, resulting customer reactions to brand deletion, and ways to manage these reactions in the B2B and B2C context. If managers know how to implement a brand deletion such that it generates favorable reactions from customers instead of alienating them, deleting brands will not be a formidable task for brand managers.

Purvi Shah
The Influence of Chief Executive Officers’ Regulatory Foci on Firms’ Advertising, R&D, and Corporate Social Responsibility: An Abstract

This research examines the influence of CEOs’ regulatory foci on their firms’ strategic marketing behavior. The authors propose that CEOs’ degree of promotion focus relative to prevention focus positively impacts their firms’ likelihood of investing in intangible market assets (i.e., R&D, Advertising, and CSR). However, the authors also propose a dark side of CEOs’ promotion focus: a higher likelihood of firms getting involved in corporate social irresponsibility (CSiR). The impact of CEOs’ regulatory foci on firms’ strategic marketing behavior is proposed to be weaker for firms where the power of the marketing department is high. Findings based on observing a sample of 395 publicly listed US firms between 2006 and 2010 provide considerable support for the authors’ hypotheses. These results highlight the link between executives’ regulatory foci and strategic marketing behavior and underscore the positive and negative consequences associated with these foci.

Saim Kashmiri, Prachi Gala, Cameron Duncan Nicol
Co-Designing Active Workplace Social Marketing Campaign: Barriers and Motivators to Sit Less and Stand Up: An Abstract

Sedentary behaviour is a serious issue which causes numerous health issues (Ekelund et al., 2016). In Australia, 80% of sedentary behaviour occurs in the workplace (Mainsbridge et al., 2016) with an average of 7 h per day (De Cocker et al., 2015). Breaking up sedentary time every 30 min is recommended to minimise the health damage (Ekelund et al., 2016). Thus, an effective workplace campaign to reduce sitting and increase physical activity (PA) is urgently required. Social marketing is an effective approach to change behaviours such as sedentary behaviours by using commercial marketing techniques (Lee & Kotler, 2013). However, the use of theory and consumer insight (French, 2010; Truong, 2014) is lacking in social marketing, and there is limited empirical research on sedentary behaviour reduction campaigns (Gourrlan et al., 2016). This paper attempts to fill these gaps by employing a codesign method underpinned by exchange theory. The aim of this paper is to identify the barriers and motivators to change sedentary behaviour which may then be used to develop an exchange offering to increase physical activity in the workplace.Two codesign sessions were held with 13 office workers in Brisbane. This paper focuses on two activities held during the session: (1) sentence completion and (2) campaign development. Guided by exchange theory, participants were asked to write down the first things came in mind when they saw the keywords/incomplete sentences. Groups were then asked to create a campaign which they would participate in. All sentence completion responses were coded into key themes. First, the results of sentence completion identified ‘work’ as the dominant barrier, whereas the most common motivators were ‘needs’, ‘lunch/break’ and ‘communication’. This indicates that office workers are likely to move when they ‘need’ to. However, it also revealed that office workers are motivated to stand up at break time or to engage in social interaction. Second, the four codesigned campaigns reflected consumers’ insight into reducing sedentary behaviour. Results revealed office workers prefer enjoyable activities which also provide tangible rewards or increased socialisation in their work environment. Furthermore, scheduling appropriate time into the work schedule is suggested to recondition workers’ sedentary habits. This study demonstrates that a theoretically guided, innovative formative research method can provide consumer insight to inform planning and development of a social marketing programme.

Haruka Fujihira, Joy Parkinson, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele
The Mechanisms of Punishment on Consumer’s Forgiveness and Trust Repair: An Integrated Causal Attribution Model of Trust Repair

The model presented here could help us to understand consumers’ forgiveness tendency and cognitive reactions to subsequent penalty imposed on unethical corporation after trust transgressions. By analyzing and extending multiple theories and models, perspectives from social cognition and attribution, we created a completely integrated model that described consumer’s trust-recovery mechanism after trust transgressions. The model could be reasonable to explain many quite different consumers’ status of forgiveness and trust repair to trust violation in unethical corporation context. It also provides preliminary knowledge and builds foundation for future empirical research.

Shih Chuan-Feng, Huang Heng-Chiang, Lee Han
An Exploratory Analysis of Consumer Opinions, Ethics, and Sentiment of Neuromarketing: An Abstract

Neuromarketing can be defined as both an innovative research methodology that makes use of neuroscience techniques and as field of study that merges marketing principles and neuroscience theory. As a research methodology, neuromarketing has the potential to detect unconscious processes and activities that are difficult to access through traditional advertising research methods. As a field of study, neuromarketing refers to a link between neuroscience theory (and methods) and marketing techniques. The emergence of neuromarketing as a new field of study has created ethical concerns about the use and misuse of neuroscience technologies, under the premise of advancing the understanding of consumer behavior.The ethical issues concerning neuromarketing research suggest that consumers need more information about neuromarketing in order to understand its implications and to protect themselves from the negligent research behaviors of companies. Thus, taking into consideration the relevant role of consumers in neuromarketing as both participants of the experiments and final recipients of the “benefits” derived from firms’ marketing decisions, an understanding of what consumers think about neuromarketing becomes critical. To examine consumer opinions, a content analysis of neuromarketing blogs and social media sites was selected as the exploratory method to uncover the “voice” of consumers about neuromarketing. Three text-analytics techniques were used to examine the texts, namely, word frequency analysis, story network analysis, and sentiment analysis.The implications of this content analysis of neuromarketing texts from blogs and social media are twofold. First, the three-step methodology used for the analysis of texts represents a helpful tool for marketers and demonstrates the importance of user-generated content (UGC) as a valuable source of consumer information. Conventional wisdom suggests that listening to what customers say and where they are saying it, can help a firm make decisions regarding their brands, products, and services. Marketers must recognize that more effort has to be allocated to social media observation and the analysis of the data provided through these sites.Second, the findings of this research represent the “voice” of consumers regarding the emerging field of neuromarketing. This exploratory study can help neuromarketing research firms, scientists, academics, and marketers understand consumer perceptions, feelings, and attitudes toward neuromarketing. Specifically, this research makes evident that consumer sentiment of neuromarketing is mostly positive; however, some concerns regarding the ethical use of the method still need to be addressed. Therefore, it is critical that government, companies, neuromarketing firms, researchers, and consumer advocacy organizations work together in the creation of regulations, standards, and a code of ethics for neuromarketing.

Cuauhtemoc Luna-Nevarez
Ethical vs. Unethical Advertisements: Evaluation and Recall: An Abstract

This study begins to address the role of those advertisements with an ethical or unethical message. Past research has focused on the role of ethical products or deceptive advertising messages based upon product/service attributes. This research looks at another form of ethical advertising, the role of the message that is independent of the product/service. Those associations of this branded message can impact consumer response and their social judgment of the ethicality of the advertisement. Through an experimental design, with a one-week delay, we note that there are no recall effects based upon the ethical valence of the ad. Those ads judged as unethical were also more negatively evaluated, but the overall evaluation of the ad decreased for both ethical and unethical ads over time. Implications and future research are discussed.

Kevin Lehnert, Mark Kubik
Entering the Performance-Based Contracting Business: An Exploration of Sales-Related Challenges: An Abstract

Market conditions for industrial manufacturers have become increasingly challenging due to increasing competition and saturated markets (Kowalkowski et al., 2015). However, the service business still holds an opportunity to differentiate from competitors (von Garrel et al., 2009). One opportunity is offering equipment-based services, such as performance-based contracts (PBC). Performance-based contracting is a concept in which the supplier is paid based on the realized outcome for the customer, such as in Rolls-Royce’s business model “Power-by-the-hour” (Neely, 2008; Ng et al., 2013). Although this business model is not new, research on this field is still rare (Essig, 2016; Selviaridis & Wynstra, 2015). However, traditional product-based firms who intend to enter the service business need to make several fundamental adjustments in their organization, among others, in their sales approach (Kindström et al., 2015). Thus, our study explores which sales-related challenges occur, if a company enters the PBC business.Our study is based on a qualitative research approach which was realized in problem-centered interviews (Witzel, 2000; Mariampolski, 2001). We conducted 23 interviews with sales managers in Germany, who had experience in managing sales of PBC in six industries (mechanical engineering, printing and copy equipment, industrial gases, compressed air, water treatment, medical equipment). Our data was systematically analyzed with an inductive coding strategy using MAXQDA software, following recommendations of a Grounded Theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).The results of the study were structured in a system of inductively developed categories. In total, we identified 20 challenges of PBC sales, five of which we discuss in this paper: prospecting, requirement exploration, close, post-sales activities, and sales force compensation. Our study indicates that industrial suppliers considering PBC for their business model need to make different adjustments in their sales organization. For example, strategic directions regarding prospecting need to be found (e.g., by defining model customers or target industries which are open for PBC); an explorative requirement analysis needs to be implemented in the sales process in order to develop an optimal solution for a PBC (e.g., by standardized analysis covering all technical and commercial aspects); and the compensation models need to reflect the circumstances of PBC (e.g., by increasing the basis salary in order to reduce sales pressure which is counterproductive for a PBC).

Stefan Ruffer, Tobias Schaefers
Performance Impact of Customer Orientation, Task Interdependence, and Information Sharing in Sales Teams: An Abstract

Team selling is a popular approach of retaining customers of strategic importance in B2B markets. Linking key account management (KAM) practices to team performance outcome has received increasing attentions in team selling and key account (KA) research (Jones et al., 2005). However, the intraorganizational implementation process of key account team selling has not been thoroughly investigated. Due to the complexity of the product offerings, many KA teams are cross functional (e.g., marketing, sales, manufacturing, R&D, etc.) and multi-geographical. Thus, it is a sustainable competitive advantage if managers provide team members with adequate access to information and ensure synchronized communication. However, KA managers often lack authority over fluid team members for functional resources. In addition, the nature of KA team selling has made the data collection difficult (Jones et al., 2005). Thus, although the importance of internal alignment in KAM implementation is widely recognized, extant research mainly focuses on qualitative approach but lacks of quantitative work.To fill this gap, we developed a moderated mediation model investigating the impact of internal alignment on team performance from information sharing perspective using a multilevel data set. We identified two key drivers (i.e., customer orientation and task interdependence) of a team member’s formal information sharing and examined their impacts on team effectiveness. The model also considers the moderating effects of the team-based professional control and investigates to what extent this managerial moderator may affect the set of relationships.The results of a multilevel data set from 115 members of 37 key account teams demonstrate a positive impact of customer orientation and task interdependence on formal information sharing. We observe a positive interaction between team-level professional control and formal information sharing on team satisfaction but a substitute interaction between team-level professional control and task interdependence. On one hand, when team-level professional control is high, a KA sales team member with high degree of formal information sharing with his/her counterparts perceives higher team satisfaction than that with low formal information sharing. However, on the other hand, such team-based informal control exerts a dysfunctional influence on the positive effect of task interdependence on formal information sharing. When the shared perception of professional control is high, the marginal value of formal information sharing decreases if the task interdependence is high. When team-level professional control is low, if the level of task interdependence is high, formal information sharing increases. Thus, managers need to evaluate the marginal benefit resulted from task interdependence and team-level professional control, respectively. In the meantime, they need to be cautious of encouraging both simultaneously, due to their potential declining effect in formal information sharing.

Christine Jaushyuam Lai, Ying Yang
Cross-Border M&A: Implications for Marketing Capability: An Abstract

Firms from emerging countries have become significant players in cross-border mergers and acquisitions in recent years. The two main motivations of emerging country firms for acquiring firms from developed countries are strategic resource seeking and fast entry to foreign markets (Nicholson & Salaber, 2013; Deng & Yang, 2015). The paper investigates the impact of such acquisitions on the marketing capabilities as well as the overall firm performance of acquiring firms.This study examined 34 M&A deals by manufacturing firms operating in various industries located in the BRICS countries, with the target firms located in developed countries. The study focused on three input variables, namely, brand equity, customer relationship expenditure, and marketing expenditure, and two output variables, namely, sales turnover and inventory turnover.The analysis used a combination of two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) and DEA window analysis. The first-stage examined the input-output data to measure marketing capability, and the second-stage investigated firm performance using the first-stage outputs as inputs (Wang et al., 2010). This study combined the two-stage DEA model with DEA window analysis in order to examine the impact of marketing capability on overall firm performance over time (Kao & Liu, 2014). A CRS (constant returns to scale) model was utilized.The DEA window analysis for the first stage showed that the mean marketing capability scores improved following the acquisition, but the paired sample t-test demonstrated that the marketing capability of the merged firms actually improved. The 2-year mean marketing capability score rose from 0.4213 in the premerger years to 0.5433 in the post-merger years, a statistically significant growth of 29%. The second stage of the DEA window analysis showed that the mean scores for overall firm performance improved following the acquisitions. Furthermore, the paired sample t-test demonstrated that the improvement in performance of the merged firms was statistically significant. The 2-year mean firm performance score rose from 0.2747 in the premerger years to 0.3766 in the post-merger years, equal to a growth of 37.1%.In sum, the results of this study demonstrated that both the marketing capability and overall firm performance of the acquiring firms from emerging markets improved following the acquisition of firm from developed countries.

Mahabubur Rahman, Mary Lambkin
Radical Multicultural Marketing: Examining the Communication Strategies Used by Multicultural Marketing Agencies: An Abstract

Developing innovative communication strategies is crucial for marketing agencies to survive. Traditional marketing tends to rely on the conventional structure of market research, advertising and planning teams. However, marketers are beginning to take more drastic approaches in ensuring they differ from their competitors. As Sam Hill and Glenn Rifkin (1999) indicate, this form of radical marketing is not only about innovation (Hayes, 2000). Rather, radical marketing is defined as the new and sometimes aggressive ‘techniques and approaches’ (ibid) that marketers use to target their audiences. Within this paper, I examine the strategies used by multicultural marketing agencies to communicate with multicultural audiences. The past two decades have seen a rapid increase in the development of multicultural marketing agencies, specifically targeting niche cultural groups (Edwards, 2014). The main research question asks ‘how do the strategies used by multicultural marketing agencies differ to traditional, general market agencies?’ In addition, this paper aims to explore a gap in research specifically for multicultural marketing, examining whether these developing strategies are too aggressive in attempting to tap into cultural sensitivities.This paper applies Pierre Boudieu’s (1980, 1986) concepts of cultural capital and habitus. As I later analyse, these theories can be used to examine the behaviour of marketers and how they implement their skills and experiences when creating communication strategies. Through semi-structured interviews with 32 multicultural marketing practitioners, this paper examines two key findings from the collected data. I firstly examine how ‘lived experiences’ impact on how these practitioners connect with their specialist audiences. I expand upon existing studies, analysing the new lengths multicultural marketers are going to. In contrast, I explore how some marketers justify their existing cultural capital as being enough to develop communication strategies. I conclude by discussing whether there is a future for multicultural marketing agencies, in an industry where innovation is expanding into new markets.

Nessa Adams
Task Master or Task Novice: An Abstract on a Strategic Decision-Making Experiment

Experienced managers have long been trusted to make important decisions over less experienced staff, yet not all decisions are the same. Some decisions (decomposable tasks, e.g., mathematical problems) can be broken down into smaller parts, but others (non-decomposable, e.g., the quality of artwork) are more difficult to break down into their constituent parts. The literature remains divided over the superiority of expertise in relation to such tasks, especially when individuals are encouraged to use different analytic methods (intuitive, critical, or introspective). This study throws further light on decision-making by conducting an experiment using two samples: (1) senior advertising and marketing managers (experts) and (2) a cross section of consumers (novices). These two samples were set two strategic advertising tasks: print advertisement quality evaluation and advertising channel selection, both common tasks in marketing communications practice. Respondents performed these tasks under experimental conditions manipulating the analysis method. The findings suggest managers have significant advantage when it comes to decomposable tasks, yet they have no advantage over novices with non-decomposable tasks. Also, those afforded an introspective analysis performed poorer in non-decomposable tasks, but this effect disappears with decomposable tasks. We close with some implications for future research.

Kirk Plangger, Douglas West
Self-Affirmation of Narcissists on Social Media: A Study Proposing a New Method of Categorization on Facebook Ads

This paper explores the possibility of creating a new category of Facebook ads based on the personality of the user. The introduction of social media channels such as Facebook has provided a new platform for performing self-affirmation theory tests and related behavioral studies. This paper is based on the subsidiary hypothesis that while self-affirming themselves, Facebook users disclose information about their personality. A lexical analysis of each user’s Facebook posts can therefore be used for the purpose of profiling the user. The analysis and categorization of users’ posts based on their behavioral and personality traits can potentially assist marketers interested in targeted marketing to reach a specific audience through this powerful online channel. Hence, this study proposes an innovative method that measures narcissistic personality by analyzing a user’s Facebook posts.

Mario Cassar, Amir Dabirian, Hoda Diba, Jirka Konietzny
You’ve Got It! Pronouns Increase Self-Referencing and Engagement on Facebook: An Abstract

Producing engaging brand-to-fan communications is critical when marketing on social networking sites such as Facebook. This research conducts a textual analysis of brand-to-fan interactions on Facebook and finds that consumer engagement is enhanced when second-person pronouns (e.g., “you”) are included in brand posts. A behavioral experiment confirms this relationship and identifies consumer self-referencing as a mediator. These results offer managers a subtle approach for increasing consumer engagement with brand communications on popular social networking sites such as Facebook.

Ryan Cruz, James M. Leonhardt
The Effects of Holistic Thinking Style on Attitude Toward Innovative Design: Role of Value Presentation: An Abstract

Innovative product design generates higher consumer interests than generic design, which increases a chance to make a better financial performance in the marketplace by adding value and improving consumers’ perception on a product (Bloch, 2011; Rubera, 2015). Thus, it is critical to understand what influences the way that consumers evaluate innovativeness of product design. As one of the important factors in design evaluation, this study investigates how a personal thinking style, either holistic or analytic, can influence consumers’ evaluation of innovative product design as well as their attitudes toward design innovativeness. The effects are examined through three studies when various design values (e.g., visual, semantic, or symbolic) are present.Study 1 examined how different thinking styles influence consumers’ general preference on innovative product design (n = 126). The results showed that holistic thinking style increases positive consumers’ perceptions toward an innovative product design (F(1124) = 36.10; β = 0.48, p < 0.01). Study 2 examined if holistic thinkers have more positive attitudes toward innovative product design. Participants were tested in a 2 (thinking style: analytic vs. holistic) × 2 (product category: electronic vs. non-electronic) between-subjects design (n = 257). In the result, holistic thinkers (vs. analytic thinkers) showed more positive attitudes toward the innovative product design (Mholistic = 4.9 vs. Manalytic = 4.4; F(1253) = 4.6, p < 0.05). Finally, study 3 investigated how value presentation (e.g., semantic or visual aesthetics) influences the attitude toward innovative design among holistic thinkers with a 2 (value: visual vs. visual and semantic) × 2 (thinking style: holistic vs. analytic) between-subjects design (n = 140). The results showed that the attitude toward innovative design was more positive when semantic value were present along with visual aesthetics than when no semantic value was provided (F = 8.33, p < 0.01). The results also supported that presenting both semantic and visual values more positively influences the attitude toward innovative design (β = 2.43, p < 0.01) than presenting only visual aesthetics. The effect was higher for holistic thinkers (β = 2.08, p < 0.05) than analytic thinkers.In sum, the results suggest that holistic thinkers exhibit more positive preference on innovative product design. Meanwhile, holistic thinkers’ positive attitudes improve more when both semantic and visual values are provided than when only visual aesthetics are present. It is comparable to analytic thinkers who had no significant difference in their attitudes by different design values presented to them. The results contribute to a body of design literature and suggest practical implications to managers on the role of value presentation in improving innovative design perception among consumers.

Junghwa Jenny Hong, Kyung-Ah Kay Byun
Sensory Similarity: A Physical Product Perception in Online Context

Research in marketing recently demonstrated that touch-based devices lead to higher product evaluations when compared to traditional interfaces (Brasel SA, Gips J, J Consum Psychol 24(2):226–233, 2014; Shen H, Zhang M, Krishna A, J Market Res 53: 745–758, 2016). In this research, we aim to better understand the impact of sensory similarity related to product tactile cues, of which we focus on the tactile experience, on product evaluation. We define sensory similarity as the extent to which an indirect sensory experience mimics a traditional in store sensory experience with the product. With two experiments, we show that in online environment, the interface touch is not considered as a diagnostic, but consumers’ experience is enhanced with online tactile stimulation. Yet, we also show that direct tactile stimulation becomes a piece of information when textures are unfamiliar. Based on previous researches on the absence of direct product touch in online environments, we bring another point of view regarding the way of stimulating touch via interfaces (Schlosser A, J Consum Res 30(2):184–199, 2003).

Margot Racat, Sonia Capelli, Danilo Dantas
Who Regrets More After a Choice? The Role of Dialectical Thinking: An Abstract

The feeling of regret after a choice can have a prolonged impact on consumer subsequent choices (Patrick, Lancellotti, & Hagtvedt, 2009; Tsiros, 2009). While ample research has investigated antecedents of post-decision regret, most studies have focused on features of choices (Sagi & Friedland, 2007; Tsiros & Mittal, 2000). In this research, we examine how cognitive style (i.e., dialectical thinking) influences information processing strategies and post-purchase regret in a context characterized by trade-offs among decision alternatives.Dialectical thinking is characterized by a high tolerance for contradictions, a tendency to regard things as changeable, and a tendency to view things in the world as connected (Peng & Nisbett, 1999). These characteristics of dialectical thinkers significantly influence how they process information. Highly dialectical thinkers automatically seek out and process both positive and negative information. They are more accepting of contradiction, while low dialectical thinkers tend to avoid contradictions. We propose that this advantage may actually negatively influence post-decision experiences. Thinking more comprehensively can lead to more regrets when contradictory information (the strengths and weaknesses of options in a trade-off) is present. We demonstrate this negative effect of thinking dialectically in five studies by manipulating dialectical thinking (study 1) or measuring chronicle dialectical thinking tendency (studies 2, 4, and 5). The effect exists in both the lab setting (studies 1–2, 4–5) and everyday shopping experience (study 3). We also find that confidence in the decision drives this effect (studies 4 and 5). Attention to both strengths and weaknesses of an alternative makes the tradeoff salient and the weakness more memorable. Highly dialectical thinkers tend to process and use more product attributes in their decision-making, are more likely to recall weak attributes, and tend to experience lower decision confidence. As a result they feel more regretful.The research contributes to the literature of dialectical thinking and decision-making. We provide direct evidence for how highly dialectical thinkers differ from low dialectical thinkers in the processing of trade-off information and demonstrate that comprehensive knowledge of a non-dominated option leads to lower confidence and more regret.

Rongrong Qiu, Lan Xia, Xiucheng Fan
More than a Black Eye! The Effect of Violence Exposure in Anti-IPV Campaigns: An Abstract

Conceptualized as any physical, psychological or sexual harm by a current or former partner, intimate partner violence (IPV) directly affects one in three women (Walters, Chen & Breiding, 2013). This scenario led the World Health Organization (WHO, 2014) to state intimate partner violence as a global and severe public health issue. Over the last decades, governmental organizations, antiviolence associations and private corporations have put considerable effort into antiviolence campaigns to tackle IPV (Keller & Honea, 2015). One of the primary goals of these campaigns is to raise society awareness about IPV severity and motivate people to engage in the fight against IPV. To attracting viewers’ attention, campaigns commonly use images with strong violence content (victims with physical bruises and with a sad or fearful face) to show the consequences of an IPV episode. These pictures are used to present viewers an unknown reality, increasing empathy and their engagement in the fight against IPV.This research shows that the strategy of portraying violence can backfire antiviolence campaigns goals. Although images portraying victims with violence marks can indeed increase people attention to the ad, it can also reinforce the belief that IPV means physical aggression. Showing severe physical IPV consequences, despite importance, is distorted from the majority of IPV episodes, which do not involve physical but psychological harassment. This narrow presentation can lead to a biased view that IPV is mainly punctual episodes of strong physical harm; we call it the “not punch = not IPV” belief. Additionally, victims’ image with severe bruises and a hopeless face can increase people’s labels towards victims, such as weak, submissive and with an extremely dysfunctional family environment; we call it the “battered woman stereotype”. This stereotype can lead viewers to isolate victims as women that have some particular characteristics, increasing with that their perceived distance to the victim identity (Zalava, 2010). More importantly, it can decrease people’s perception of IPV severity and their susceptibility to suffer from it.In the research that follows, we present four studies supporting that the portrayal of violence can increase IPV stereotypes and backfire anti-IPV ad goals. We initially show the dimensions of the stereotype towards IPV victims and further investigate the influence ads portrayal of violence on these judgments. Studies 1a and 1b show the different dimensions (e.g. appearance, personality, social environment) that victims are (miss) judged. Study 2, a quasi-experiment field study, and study 3, a lab replication, show that the portrayal of violence in antiviolence campaigns can reinforce the “battered woman stereotype” and the “not a punch = not IPV” belief. We also demonstrate that showing an ad with violence can lead to lower perceptions of IPV severity and susceptibility. Finally, study 4 shows that the presence of violence in an anti-IPV campaign can mine victims’ intention to talk their violence episode for fearing they will be stigmatized or for not identifying themselves as victims.

Amanda Pruski Yamim, Adilson Borges
Integrating Social Media into Health-Care Marketing: An Abstract

Social media are becoming an important tool for building and sustaining relationships among people and groups (Kanter & Fine, 2010). Compared to traditional websites used for one-way sharing of web content, social media allow users to create, update, and exchange web content in an interactive way (Chun, Shulman, Sandoval, & Hovy, 2010). Research on social media marketing has grown rapidly in the business literature.Meanwhile, more and more nonprofit organizations (NPOs) started using social media for marketing purposes. NPOs provide services that are not economical in either the for-profit market or the government services industry (Hill & Lynn, 2009; Rosenbloom, Kravchuk, & Clerkin, 2009). They bring people together to collaborate and achieve the common good and to advocate and influence policy makers through mobilizing constituencies (Guo & Musso, 2007; Guo & Saxton, 2014; Lipsky & Smith, 1990). In order to fulfill these missions, NPOs need to use advanced social media strategies to help raise money, mobilize volunteers, raise awareness, persuade decision makers, and encourage positive behavior changes (Miller, 2010). However, a comprehensive literature review indicates that the effectiveness of social media use by NPOs lacks systematic investigations and most studies have focused on human services NPOs. The proposed study intends to fill this gap and explore the integration of social media into the marketing efforts of health-care nonprofit organizations (HCNPOs).We conduct a survey of 1950 HCNPOs in the state of California. The list of HCNPOs is collected from the Urban Institute National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS). The sample includes HCNPOs with different revenue sizes ranging from below $25,000 to above $10 million. We conduct an e-survey through SurveyMonkey® Pro. An IRB approval is obtained before distributing the survey.Since this study is largely an exploratory research that tackles a new problem, we expect to discover a range of specific social media marketing strategies used in the NPOs and estimate their impact on organizational effectiveness. The findings of this study not only contribute to the literature but also provide valuable resources for nonprofit practitioners to successfully implement social media initiatives and help them improve the effectiveness of their organizational performances.

Rui Sun, Bing Xu
Patient Safety and Employee Word-of-Mouth Communication: An Abstract

In this paper a framework for marketing patient safety through positive employee word-of-mouth is developed. The culture of patient safety is an important aspect of hospital quality (Cohen, Eustis, & Gribbins, 2003). In the extant literature employee involvement has not been discussed as a factor that may influence the culture of safety. Employees who believe in the integrity of their organization are much more likely to recommend it via word of mouth (Bendapudi & Berry, 1997). It follows that this relationship may extend to other areas that include the promotion of patient safety. This may involve employee communication to both patients and other publics. The importance of interpersonal relationships between front-line personnel and customers is documented in the literature (Beatty et al., 1996; Price & Arnould, 1999) and can lead to improving customer perceptions and satisfaction (Bendapudi & Berry, 1997). This personal bond may be more important in services as they are more difficult to convey to customers. In particular, healthcare services are difficult for customers to comprehend, and thus communication from employees may promote the quality of a healthcare service better than traditional advertising or promotional methods (Erdem & Swait, 1998).Word-of-mouth communication (WOM) is well documented in the literature and is defined as an oral, person-to-person communication that the receiver recognizes as noncommercial (Buttle, 1998). It has been shown that WOM communication can be more influential on behavior than other communication forms due to source credibility (Day, 1971; Herr et al., 1991; Sheth, 1971). It also has been shown that customers that are influenced by positive WOM may provide WOM referrals to others (Coţiu et al., 2014; Drevs & Hinz, 2014). The notion of employee involvement and patient safety represents an extension of the WOM literature; however, there is no reason to believe that in this context it performs any differently. It is hypothesized to have a positive effect on the perception of patient safety, in the same manner that is has been documented to positively influence other forms of customer perceptions (Ennew et al., 2000; Kim & Gupta, 2012). Findings from this study will enable hospital managers to implement WOM communication as a marketing tool that can improve patient safety perceptions.

Soumya Upadhyay, Thomas L. Powers
Does Customer Co-Creation Really Produce Value? An Abstract

The traditional marketing perspective focuses on the understanding of providers’ activities by showing how they can achieve maximum production efficiency and generate high profits. Consistent with this thought, prior research focuses attention on the purchase decision made by customers rather than the active role customers play during both purchase and consumption processes. In contrast to this view, more and more research suggests that customers and firms, both together and separately, play important roles in creating gratifying experiences (Babin & James, 2010). Thus, through the lens of service, marketing recognizes the role of customers as potential co-creators of value (Ranjan & Reed, 2016; Vargo & Lusch, 2004, 2008).However, customer participation should be studied carefully. From a firm’s prospective, customers can be seen as either productive producers or unwanted trouble makers (Kohtamaki & Rajala, 2016; Lovelock, 1994). That is, customer participation can sometimes generate undesirable consequences with the result being a denigration of value or net negative value for the consumption experience. The purpose of this research is to address the following research questions: How do customer co-creation activities influence customers’ perceived service quality and value? In particular, as consumers are motivated by the pursuit of utilitarian value or hedonic value, does the active role of the customer in creating value change? Are service-quality-value relationships similar when the customer experience involves an experientially driven transaction versus a functionally driven transaction?Structural equation modeling (SEM) was adopted to conduct tests of the measurement model and a structural model that involves the integration of the relevant propositions. LISREL 8.80 (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993) was employed for data analysis in the current study. The results show customer participation (codeveloper) displays a significant effect on service quality. However, customer participation (information sharing) does not show any significant effect on service quality. Next, service quality significantly impacts both perceived hedonic value and utilitarian value. In addition, the results suggest customer participation (information sharing dimension) negatively affects service quality in the experiential group, but it does not affect service quality significantly in the functional group. Service quality significantly influences hedonic value and utilitarian value across both experiential and functional groups, but the path effect sizes are stronger in the experiential group.This study contributes to the literature by (1) demonstrating conditions under which customer co-creation does not generate positive outcomes, and (2) presenting that the impact of customer co-creation on customer experience may depend on the type of transaction (experiential versus functional transaction).

Weiling Zhuang, Barry J. Babin
Purchase Quantity Restrictions: Good or Bad? An Abstract

Retailers often promote products at a discount with a requirement to buy more than one unit of the product. An example of such a practice is Domino’s two medium pizzas for $5.99 each, when you buy minimum two pizzas. A research question then is how do consumers evaluate such promotions with minimum purchase quantity requirements? Based on research on reactance, we argue that with promotions such as “must buy minimum 4,” consumers feel coerced into buying multiple units of the product, leading to a reactance. The reactance manifests in a scrutiny of the restrictive components of the deal leading to a focus on the price information rather than using the promotion itself as a signal of value (Suri & Monroe, 2003; Sheng et al., 2007). Hence, we predict that:H Minimum purchase quantity restrictions decrease the perceived transaction value, in turn, leading to a decrease in perceived acquisition value.Study 1 Ninety-six participants from Amazon’s Mechanical Turks participated in a single factor (one shirt vs. two shirts vs. one shirt – buy minimum two) between subjects design. Controlling for the price and quality across the conditions, we measured the value derived from acquiring the product (acquisition value) and the value derived from the financial terms of the deal (transaction value) and purchase intention adopted from Grewal et al. (1998). Results indicated that transaction value was lowest for the “buy minimum two” (M = 5.39) followed by the “single shirt” (M = 6.23) and “two shirts” conditions (M = 6.63). There was a significant difference between “single shirt” and “buy minimum two shirts” (t = 1.89, p = .06) as well as between the “two shirts” and the “buy minimum two shirts” conditions (t = 3.48, p < .01). Similar results were observed for acquisition value. Results from the serial mediation analysis suggest that the overall serial mediation path was significant (β = .19; CI, .03–.37). Thus, transaction value and acquisition value serially mediate (in that order) the effect of restrictive price promotions on purchase intention.Study 2 We conducted a second study to examine whether the same effects hold when (a) participants are not given a goal to buy certain quantity and (b) when minimum purchase quantity requirement is raised. Ninety participants from Amazon’s Mechanical Turks participated in a single factor design with three conditions – one shirt vs. four shirts vs. one shirt – must buy minimum four. Results from serial mediation analysis revealed that transaction value mediated the effect on purchase intention (β = −.13; CI, −.37 to −.02). The overall serial mediation path was also significant (β = −.35; CI, −.75 to −.10). Findings from these two studies suggest that (a) transaction value is a strong predictor of purchase intention when minimum purchase quantity restrictions are placed and (b) a decrease in transaction value leads to a decrease in acquisition value which ultimately explains the lower intent to purchase.

Siddharth Bhatt, Srinivasan Swaminathan, Rajneesh Suri
A Comparison of Brand Loyalty Between On-the-Go and Take-Home Consumption Purchases: An Abstract

This paper compares consumer behavioral brand loyalty in purchasing for on-the-go and for take-home consumption. The study uses two consumer packaged goods datasets from the UK. The first dataset contains actual consumer repeat purchasing of soft-drink brands for on-the-go consumption. The second dataset contains actual consumer repeat purchasing of the same brands for take-home consumption. Using polarization index as a behavioral loyalty measure, estimated from the Beta Binomial – Negative Binomial Distribution, the study finds that consumer loyalty to brands is markedly higher in purchasing for on the go consumption than for take home consumption.

Giang Trinh
The Role of Brand Strength and Customer Satisfaction in Explaining Store Loyalty: An Abstract

This paper aims to explain loyalty with customer satisfaction as well as with a brand performance index that represents the strength of the retailer’s brand in the grocery setting and in a market under recession. The study is based on data collected through a telephone survey from 2000 participants responsible for the household grocery shopping with a quota of 250 respondents from each of the leading grocery retailers in Greece. A formative measurement model was developed, and the collected data were analyzed using partial least square path modeling.The findings confirmed that the strength of the retailer’s brand has a direct positive impact on loyalty and thus is a strong predictor of loyalty. Results also confirmed the direct positive impact of customer satisfaction to brand strength and loyalty. It is also suggested that the expectations and the perceptions toward the retailer’s product offering are the most important drivers of customer satisfaction and loyalty. Interestingly, the effect of indirect impact of expectations to customer satisfaction is greater than the direct effect. Furthermore, the study has proved the importance of the functional store attributes to customer satisfaction and loyalty in the grocery store setting.Even though the study has confirmed the effect of the retailer’s brand strength and of customer satisfaction on loyalty, this cause-effect relationship is more complex. A limitation of this study is that it is exclusively undertaken in the Greek grocery industry, although it includes grocery companies with different characteristics and strategies. In addition, respondents were asked to respond for the retailer overall, but their responses might be influenced by their experience with a specific store of the retailer. Future research to explore the findings from this research in other countries and in other industries is necessary. In addition, further analysis should be made in order to identify if there are significant differences among the different grocery retailers that were included in the sample. Also, the construct of brand strength should be conceptualized as a second-order construct since it will facilitate understanding of the formation process.The author believes that the findings provide useful and relevant insights that are applicable to both academics and retail marketing professionals in the important and complex issue of customer loyalty.

Paraskevi Sarantidou
The Effect of Gender Differences on Online Shopping Payment Methods: An Abstract

This study examines the gender effect on consumer attitudes toward payment methods of online shopping. One of the main goals of this study is to close the gap left by previous studies’ failure to address critical factors that may affect consumer online shopping behavior. It has been proven that men and women process information differently, mainly because women tend to engage in more detailed, elaborative, and comprehensive information processing compared to men (Dubé & Morgan, 1996; Meyers-Levy, 1989).Hence, what happens to male vis-à-vis female attitudes and behavioral intention when they face the two main payment methods, online payment methods and cash on delivery (COD), for online shopping? What are male and female consumers’ attitudes toward the effect of perceived risks on online shopping intention? These are challenging questions, which have seldom been explored by previous works that have investigated online shopping. This paper explores gender preferences, primarily to represent an interesting case of providing online payment methods to address these preferences.Empirical analysis uses data from 526 valid Chinese consumers’ responses to a questionnaire. Forty-five percent of the respondents were male. After make sure that data have no problems with common bias variance, reliability, and validity we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to perform multigroup analysis. The empirical results show four hypotheses are not rejected, and one hypothesis is rejected.The empirical results present that both male and female consumers show their high concern about the importance of cash on delivery (COD) and perceived risks when shopping online; especially female consumers pay more attention to these two factors than their male counterparts. Female consumers express a low confidence about online payment methods comparing to male consumers. In addition, it was found that when female consumers recognized perceived risks, their online shopping intention was lower than male consumers. The critical finding of our study is that gender influences consumers’ attitudes toward payment methods, perceived risks, and online shopping intention in online shopping.

Mahmood Awan, Han Chiang Ho
Consumer Reactions to Low vs. High Levels of Customization: An Abstract

Customization provides added value and customers pay higher prices for customized products (Piller & Müller, 2004). The study presented here examines effects of low and high customization levels (4 vs. 12 customizable attributes) on preference fit, pride, effort, and confusion (variables linked to the customization process) and product evaluation and purchase likelihood (consumer response variables) for two product categories (granola, running shoes). A further differentiation is made between offering customization only and letting the participants choose between the customization and a standard option.Pride and preference fit represent positive effects related to customization (Franke & Piller, 2004; Franke et al., 2010; Schreier, 2006). Higher preference fit and stronger feelings of pride create higher product value for customers (Schreier, 2006) and increase the purchase likelihood. Customizing many attributes can even intensify pride and preference fit (Dellaert & Stremersch 2005). This effect is likely to occur independently of whether a standard option is or is not available. Perceived effort (Franke & Piller, 2004; Franke et al., 2010) and confusion related to the complexity of the customization process (Dellaert & Dabholkar, 2009; Dellaert & Stremersch, 2005; Franke & Piller, 2004; Huffman and Kahn 1998) represent negative effects that trigger negative consumer reactions. A higher customization level intensifies perceived effort and confusion when no standard option is available. If consumers can choose between a standard and a customized option and opt for the customization, they want to spend additional effort. In this case, a higher customization level is unlikely to have negative effects. Thus, if no standard option is available, the negative effects of a higher customization level outweigh the positive ones and lead to less positive consumer reactions. If a standard option is available and if people opt for the customization, a higher customization level has positive effects in terms of preference fit and pride, but no negative effects in terms of effort and confusion.The sample consists of 365 respondents who customized a product. In the “customization only” condition, respondents saw the customization scenario, customized their product by writing down the chosen attribute levels, and completed all measures. In the “standard option vs. customization” condition, respondents first indicated their choice and then went on with the respective option (same procedure and measures as described before). In the “customization only” condition, more customizable attributes lead to higher preference fit and pride but also to higher perceived effort and confusion as well as to less positive product evaluations and a lower purchase likelihood. In the “standard option vs. customization” condition, a higher customization level again leads to higher preference fit and pride, but has no longer effects on perceived effort and confusion. Thus, consumers who customize a product, but could choose a standard version, have no longer the impression that customizing more attributes means more effort and is more confusing. The effect on product evaluation and purchase likelihood is now positive. Thus, effects of the customization level depend on whether people can or cannot select a standard option. Marketers who only offer a customization tool should limit the number of customizable attributes in order to avoid negative effects on product evaluation and purchase likelihood. If marketers want to profit from positive effects of a high customization level, they should additionally offer a choice of standard options in order to limit negative effects and to produce more positive product evaluations and higher purchase likelihoods.

Silke Bambauer-Sachse
Big Data-Driven Marketing: An Abstract

Customer information plays a key role in managing successful relationships with valuable customers. Big data customer analytics use (BD use), i.e., the extent to which customer information derived from big data analytics guides marketing decisions, helps firms better meet customer needs for competitive advantage.This study addresses three research questions:1.What are the key antecedents of big data customer analytics use?2.How, and to what extent, does big data customer analytics use influence firm performance?3.Is competitive advantage, if any, achieved through big data customer analytics use contingent upon its prevalence within an industry?Drawing primarily from market information use theory, we advance a theoretical framework to examine how informational and organizational factors act to enhance big data customer analytics use, which in turn influences customer relationship and financial performance. More specifically, we identify and show how information quality (IQ), big data analytics culture, and customer orientation act as key antecedents of big data customer analytics use, which in turn is the critical mechanism to achieve superior CRM outcomes. Finally, we investigate whether the performance implications of big data customer analytics use vary depending on the prevalence of big data customer analytics use in the firm’s industry.Empirical findings from a survey of 301 senior marketing executives, representing large US-based firms in B2C industries, support our conceptualization of the performance outcomes and antecedents of BD use. First, the results highlight that the characteristics of the customer information (IQ) and the characteristics of the user organization (customer orientation and big data analytics culture) strongly predict BD use. The findings also reveal the relative importance of different customer information characteristics to marketing decision-makers. Second, the results confirm BD use as a key predictor of firm performance and, more specifically, that big data customer analytics use primarily influences financial performance indirectly via customer relationship performance. Third, this study suggests that the performance impacts of BD use are highly contingent on its prevalence among industry rivals.

Samppa Suoniemi, Lars Meyer-Waarden, Andreas Munzel
Comparing Lab, Virtual, and Field Environments in Sensory Product Acceptance Testing: An Abstract

Sensory marketing research has recently attracted massive attention in theory and practice. Every year, companies spend billions of dollars on the sensory evaluation of food products, particularly in the contexts of new product launches and sensory product differentiation. Such experimental sensory test procedures are typically conducted in highly controlled sensory labs and involve a segmentation of acceptance ratings in order to disclose consumer groups that differ significantly regarding their preferences for various sensory experiences (Ernst et al., 2010; Moskowitz & Rabino, 1994). Such segmentation then constitutes the starting point for shaping market segmentation strategies (Armstrong & Kotler, 2017; Wendin et al., 2015). Despite all these efforts, food product marketing failure rates are approximately 50% (Ogawa & Piller, 2006; van der Panne et al., 2003), which calls into question the validity of the clustering solutions and sensory test carried out in lab environments (Carbonell et al., 2008).Recent research has started to investigate whether virtual consumption environments allow mimicking expensive and time-consuming field acceptance tests in lab experiments (Bangcuyo et al., 2015; Kim et al., 2016). While these studies offer important insights for sensory marketing research, they do not allow for any conclusion as to whether results from virtual consumption environments correspond to those generated in real settings. Addressing this gap in research, our study is the first to compare the results of a consumer acceptance test conducted in (1) a sensory lab, (2) a virtual consumption environment, and (3) a field setting. Our analyses show that segments derived from answers in the virtual coffeehouse better correspond to the segments derived in the real coffeehouse than those derived in the sensory lab. This finding is robust with regard to varying segmentation algorithms, segment numbers, and preprocessing strategies for acceptance ratings. Considering that researchers and practitioners routinely rely on clustering of acceptance scores in an effort to disclose consumer groups that significantly differ in their preferences, our findings are compelling for improving sensory marketing research.

Marcel Lichters, Robert Möslein, Marko Sarstedt, Andreas Scharf
The Influence of Place Attachment and a Certification of Event Sustainability on Residents’ Perceptions of Environmental Impacts and Event Support: An Abstract

Hosting events has become an important tool in stimulating tourism development for local communities. A growing corpus of studies examines different ways of evaluating the environmental sustainability of events using concepts such as the ecological footprint, event greening, and event legacy planning. Existing studies on the environmental impacts of mega events do not consider how residents perceive a certificate of environmental sustainability (CES) and whether such perceptions have an impact on how they evaluate the environmental impacts of the event. Also, despite some studies examining the relationship between tourism impacts and place attachment, no studies have yet established whether place attachment of residents accentuates or attenuates perceptions of environmental impacts of a mega event and the perceived benefits of a CES.A theoretical model with five constructs, place attachment (PA), positive environmental impacts (PEI), negative environmental impacts (NEI), perceptions of CES (PCES), and event support (ES), is developed using social exchange theory (SET). The main objective of this study is to assess whether the perceived benefits of an event’s endorsement with a certificate of environmental sustainability (CES) mediate the relationship between residents’ perceptions of environmental impacts and their support for the event.A survey of residents of Milan during 2015 the World Expo led to 449 useable questionnaires that were analyzed using PLS-SEM. The two-step procedure for PLS model analysis and interpretation was used, where first, the measurement model was assessed for reliability and validity followed by an assessment of the structural model. The findings indicated that place attachment (PA) has a positive relationship with positive environmental impacts (PEI) and negative relationship with negative environmental impacts (NEI). PEI has a positive relationship with perceptions of a CES (PCES). PA has positive influence on event support similar to PCES. The partial mediating effect of PCES on the relationship between PEI and ES is supported. The partial mediating effect of PCES on the relationship between NEI and ES is also supported. The findings have both theoretical and managerial implications.

Girish Prayag, Marcello Mariani, Andrea Guizzardi
Review Richness: How Online Consumer Review Information Content Shapes Persuasion Through Review Richness: An Abstract

Online reviews are a critical electronic word-of-mouth source: firms with helpful reviews are thought of as providing better value, and consumers trust and use reviews to make purchase decisions. Accordingly, research has explored how review features, such as length and valence, influence how persuasive a review is. However, an implicit assumption in the literature is that review length can be used to proxy for how much information is in a review. Yet, two reviews of equal length may contain different amounts of information. To relax this assumption, we conceptualize and propose a new measure of review information content termed “review richness” and an ancillary review complexity measure, constructed based on Shannon’s entropy. These measures rely on constructing a lexicon that represents the distribution of words consumers most often use in a category, which reveals words that are often repeated (and thus carry little new content) and words that are more uncommon, providing review readers with more information. Results indicate that review richness is a significant predictor of review helpfulness, particularly for purchases with high expected risk. In terms of predictive ability, adding review richness to a helpfulness model is equivalent to half the predictive ability of review length. Therefore, review richness is a metric that should be included in predictive models of review helpfulness to identify which reviews are most persuasive to review readers.

Yiru Wang, César Zamudio
An Abstract on AEL as a Fundraiser’s Relationship-Building Tool

Building a relationship with a major gift donor is an important form of fundraising for a nonprofit because the financial gift is large, and it is generally a more effective use of solicitation of dollars than short-term low-dollar amount contributions (MacMillan, Money, Money, & Downing, 2005). When this strategy is employed, the role of the fundraiser becomes that a relationship manager tasked with building trust and developing mutual goals with the donor through effective communication. Over the past decade, the emphasis on building and continually nurturing the relationship between major donors and nonprofits has been prominent in the literature (Burnett, 2002; Schervish, 2005). The importance of good communication and particularly listening on the fundraiser’s part is widespread through major donor case studies but tends it to be anecdotal in nature rather than treated as an important construct that deserves empirical investigation from a fundraising point of view (Breeze, 2011; Burnett, 2002; Schervish, 2005). In the fundraising literature, only one study has empirically investigated the role of listening as a part of good communication between the nonprofit and donor, and it was found to be positively related to higher levels of trust and nonmaterial benefits (MacMillan, Money, Money, & Downing, 2003).A key to developing healthy long-term relationships in B2B sales has been directly linked to effective listening by the salesperson. More specifically, when salespeople effectively listen, buyers are more likely to trust them, perceive higher levels of relationship quality, and ultimately are more likely to buy from the salesperson in the future (Drollinger & Comer, 2014; Pryor, Malshe & Paradise, 2013; Ramsey & Sohi, 1997). When salespeople are poor listeners, buyers tend to rate their relationship quality lower as well as levels of trust, and they also indicate less intention to work with them in the future.Burnett (2002) and others have encouraged fundraisers to adapt best practices from marketing to fundraising. In this paper active empathic listening will be employed as a possible method that if used by fundraisers will help them in their efforts to connect in a meaningful way with major donors. Getting to know the major donor through the practice of active empathic listening or AEL is proposed to enable the fundraiser to work with more accurate information regarding the donor’s motivations, interest, and desires as well as instill a sense of trust and genuineness between both parties. The purposes of this paper are to outline active empathic listening (AEL) and explain the impact that the use of AEL will have if it is used and what may go wrong if it is not used in the major gift decision-making model (Knowles & Gomes, 2009).

Tanya Drollinger
I Don’t Think It’s Real: Exploring the Genres of Reality Programming: An Abstract

Various issues regarding television viewership have been studied in the marketing literature, including media violence (i.e., Shanahan et al., 2003), children’s programming (i.e., Wright et al., 2005), and advertising regulation (i.e., Calfee & Ringold, 1994). Viewers have increasingly turned their attention to a new genre of television entertainment – reality television (“TV”). Reality TV is characterized by the concept that ordinary people, as opposed to professional actors, serve as the main characters of a television program (Reiss & Wiltz, 2004).Although reality TV is highly contested among viewers and the media, it is unclear how viewers perceive the realism of these programs. Thus, it is imperative for the marketing and public policy literature to consider whether reality TV should be regulated for consumers’ protection. The purpose of this exploratory research is to begin to understand consumer perceptions of reality shows, with an emphasis on perceived realism and skepticism. By understanding these antecedents, marketers can better understand the implications of this programming within the nature of public policy.Two exploratory studies (survey and experiment) addressed the following research questions:1.How do consumers’ perceptions of realism and skepticism in reality programming relate to their need for potential regulations of this programming?2.How do consumers view the need for broadcaster or government regulation of reality TV?3.Do the subgenres of reality television effect perceptions of realism, skepticism, and need for broadcaster or government regulations?The results of these studies shed light on the importance of consumer perceptions of reality TV programs. Study 1 examined how consumers view the role of perceived realism as it relates to skepticism, while study 2 applied this model to four subgenres of reality TV shows.Despite their popularity, reality shows have received little attention in the marketing literature. These exploratory studies seek to better understand how the concepts of perceived realism and skepticism serve as predictors of the need for public policy. As reality shows become increasingly prevalent on network and cable television stations, the idea of scripted reality shows may become a notion of the past, and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) may consider creating regulations to control the realism of these programs. However, it appears that viewers favor broadcasters’ regulation of reality shows instead of government regulation.

Christine M. Kowalczyk, Alexa K. Fox
Automation in Credit Card Repayment: A Friend or a Foe? An Abstract

With an average of $880 billion of revolving debt in the USA, it is no surprise that policy developers seek to remedy the global credit card debt problem. Credit card issuers across countries now offer automated payment facilities online to ensure that consumers commit to regular repayments. However, insofar it is unclear whether repayment automation leads to better financial decisions.The current research makes three contributions. First, our study raises public awareness about the negative effects of automated payments on credit card repayments. Contrary to the established assumptions that autopay helps consumers to manage consumer finances, our experiment unanimously shows that autopay facilities reduce the amount of credit card repayment. Second, our study offers a contemporary and relevant insight into the consumers’ online credit card management, which is distinct from its offline counterpart. Specifically, in an online environment, consumers can process information on their credit card and savings almost simultaneously. For example, some consumers may access credit and savings accounts in different browser tabs, while others who own credit and savings accounts from the same institutions may be able to access both accounts within the same webpage. Finally, our study enriches understanding of individual differences in repayment decision behaviour. Our results indicate that certain attitudinal tendencies to credit cards heighten the effect of autopay on repayment, but this effect is intensified when the context involves those with low level of savings.

Sandra Awanis, Ahmad Daryanto
A Financial Leap of Faith: Government Funding for Community CSR and Sustainability Initiatives: An Abstract

Central and regional governments in the UK employ mechanisms to promote ethical business behaviours through a combination of mandatory tools (regulations, directives, and laws) and voluntary approaches (including public interest promotion and funding for targeted initiatives). Focusing on the provision of government grants for voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) or sustainability-related initiatives, this research details a nationally funded project that harnesses the support of ‘industry-led’ employers, with an aim to enhance the employability skills of young people (Scottish Government, 2014). The ‘Developing the Young Workforce’ (DYW) initiative has an associated government-backed standard, ‘Investors in Young People’ (IiYP), which (when achieved) publically identifies an organisation with internationally recognised good practice (IiYP, undated) and provides a marketing tool by which companies can directly promote their ethical credibility. Highlighting the DYW initiative and associated IiYP standard as examples of government-backed targeted initiatives, the research explored theories related to CSR and sustainability and the perspectives they present in the debate regarding the relationship between business behaviour and society.This exploratory study utilised a qualitative methodology involving focus groups to gain the opinions and involvement of business leaders based in a predominately rural region. Three focus groups attended by 31 senior manager participants were held, before volunteers for a formal DYW Industry Group Board were sought, to which 15 business-based representatives responded. The formal 22-member, cross-sector, DYW Industry Group Board was created when seven public sector representatives (from the education sector, skills developers and the local council) were added. Subsequently, a fourth focus group was held to plan the aims and objectives of the funding bid and to seek volunteers to write the necessary documentation.The research found that terminology was key when communicating the benefits of government-funded community-based initiatives to the business sector, with ‘sustainability’ gaining a more positive reaction than CSR. Hence, encouraging senior managers to view involvement with government-funded initiatives as part of their strategic planning was more productive than presenting it as engaging in extra activities beyond their core business functions. However, there was a lack of credible industry-led leadership willing to take on the task of writing the bid documentation. Therefore, this research examines the skills-based barriers to the successful attainment of government funding for companies in predominately rural regions, compared to counterparts in urban areas. Recommendations on action to address weaknesses in government-funded activities designed to encourage strategic CSR and sustainability are offered.

Heather F. Ross
A Framework to Monitor Corporate Sustainable Development in Supply Chains: An Abstract

The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) defines sustainable development as intergenerational well-being, highlighting transformational and long-term change, rather than short-term planning cycles and strategies. The objective is to describe and apply a framework for the measurement and assessment of sustainable development in supply chains. A case study approach of a Scandinavian company that is well-known for its efforts in connection with sustainable development of business practices was therefore applied. The company’s dedication and commitment to sustainability is outstanding, extending far beyond mere compliance with existing laws and regulations.Based upon the empirical findings, the assessment scheme indicates that higher or lower scores impact differently on corporate sustainable development in different supply chains. The assessment criteria (i.e., higher or lower scores) are not necessarily mutually contradictory, but other managerial implications are revealed, depending on what is at stake in supply chains. The assessment scheme reported therefore stresses an asymmetric approach and interpretation, rather than a symmetric one, in order to manage the managerial implications of corporate sustainable development.The current case study provides a basic framework for corporate sustainable development that offers insights into the managerial implications across economic, social, and environmental aspects in connection with business sustainability in supply chains. Nevertheless, the current case study offers at least three opportunities for further research in terms of corporate sustainable development in supply chains. One clear option is the application of the framework reported here in other companies and industries. Another is an exploration among several companies within the same industry, in search of similarities and differences with regard to sustainable development. A third approach is to continue exploring sustainable development in supply chains, taking into account the economic, social, and environmental aspects in future research.

Göran Svensson, Nils Høgevold
Providing Value to SMEs and Their Stakeholders Through Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives: An Abstract

The business case for CSR refers to “the arguments or rationales supporting or documenting why the business community should accept and advance the CSR ‘cause’” (Carroll & Shabana, 2010, p.86). The business case yet has “neither been made nor discredited” (Barnett, 2007, p.795) despite extensive research. Although numerous studies report evidence that a firm’s CSR action may positively affect some dimension of its competitiveness, the results do not provide substantive evidence for a clear link between CSR actions and firm competitiveness. This research aspires to further examine this relationship by focusing on small and medium enterprises recognizing SMEs’ collective importance for every country’s economy and their underrepresentation in CSR research; CSR research has traditionally been associated with large companies, but SMEs operate with different characteristics, processes, and functions than larger firms.We attempt to shift the question from if CSR works (i.e., contributes to firm competitiveness) to when it works. The central hypothesis of this paper is that when stakeholder demands and CSR actions are aligned, then these actions will offer more to the firm’s performance than an ad hoc chosen CSR action would. We conceptualize this by arguing that the importance (salience) of a given stakeholder will positively moderate the relationship between the CSR action(s) addressing this stakeholder and firm competitiveness. Through a quantitative survey of 140 SMEs, we test for the link between CSR actions and financial performance and also how the affected stakeholder’s salience moderates this relationship. We find and report conclusive evidence that CSR actions lead to financial performance of SMEs, albeit not all actions equally: a number of regression models were estimated, where the dependent variable was competitiveness, and the independent variable was CSR performance while the models also addressed the moderating role of stakeholder salience (the cumulative sum of power, urgency, and legitimacy) and, separately, that of proximity.This study can help policy makers and practitioners to improve and reconsider their efforts to facilitate SME CSR participation. Educating SMEs on the potential business benefits from CSR and encouraging them to shift their choice of CSR strategy from ad hoc criteria to a profit-maximizing stakeholder management strategy can motivate more firms to implement CSR actions.

Solon Magrizos, Eleni Apospori, Marylyn Carrigan
Embedding CSR in the Firm’s DNA, The Case for Strategic CSR in Emerging Markets: An Abstract

Building on insights from stakeholder and social capital theory, we investigate into the conditions and processes through which the subsidiaries of MNEs in emerging markets create organizational value by leveraging strategic CSR. Seeing how current research is almost exclusively dominated by confirming the link between social responsibility and financial performance, with our study, we plan to depart from this debate to look at broader value-creating parameters. From this perspective, we apply a tailored designed survey method to focus on Romania, one of Eastern Europe’s emerging economies. This research contributes to marketing and international business literature by advancing the knowledge on the determinants and the stages of deploying strategic CSR (formation, implementation, and control). We also highlight the neglected role of the MNE-subsidiary relationships in understating CSR in emerging markets.

Cezara Nicoara, Dayananda Palihawadana, Matthew Robson, Constantinos Leonidou
E-Mobility Marketing: Standardization or Specialization

New sustainable mobility solutions are necessary to counteract global problems like traffic-related pollution and climate change. E-Mobility is one major driver in this circumstance. As prices are still high and the markets are behaving observant, car manufactures have to develop global standardized e-mobility solutions in order to serve low volume-driven markets worldwide with the same e-cars and marketing strategies (Plötz et al., Transp Res A Policy Pract 67:96–109, 2014). But is one strategy really suitable for all car drivers worldwide? Do car owners from different cultures perceive e-mobility driving experience in a similar way? We addressed this question by conducting a user experience study with three testing groups from Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark on site. Using an Associative Group Analysis, subjects were asked about their free and standardized associations as well as their weightings and evaluations to performance dimensions of e-cars before and after driving a series e-car. Analyzing similarities and differences between German, Dutch, and Danish car drivers, we outline managerial recommendations to OEMs acting on international automotive markets. Results indicate that test drives lead to improved perceptions regarding e-mobility.

Marc Kuhn, Sarah Selinka, Natalie de Jong
Is Online Sharing and Word of Mouth More Prevalent Among Collectivist Consumers?

The growing importance of user-generated content in the form of online sharing and word of mouth (eWOM) is widely recognized among marketing scholars and practitioners. The present research examines how the cultural dimension of collectivism influences consumer sharing and eWOM on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook). The results provide initial evidence of a positive relationship between collectivism and eWOM and inform practitioners on how to increase consumer sharing and eWOM on social networking sites.

Todd Pezzuti, James M. Leonhardt
Examining Online Chinese Buyer-Seller Relationships, Understanding E-Guanxi: An Abstract

Guanxi, defined as a close and pervasive interpersonal relationship, is a key component of buyer-seller transactions in China (Fan, 2002; Ou, Pavlou, & Davison, 2014). Guanxi facilitates positive business outcomes by lubricating business relationships with personal social connections. The unique role of guanxi in China’s social and business life is well known (Ou et al., 2014). The existing literature on guanxi has largely focused on the institutional governance and B2B aspect of this concept (Yang & Wang, 2011). However, guanxi may refer to buyer-seller relationships established during online exchange, i.e., e-guanxi. This process need not be the transaction itself; rather, it entails activities that enhance relationship building and rapport fostering. Although e-guanxi should differ from traditional offline guanxi due to the unique opportunities and constraints of online environments, i.e., the physical and temporal separation among online buyers and sellers precludes face-to-face social interaction and development of mutual affection, key elements of traditional guanxi (i.e., reciprocity, affection, and trust) could also pertain to the formation of e-guanxi (Yen, Barnes, & Wang 2011; Ou et al., 2014). If present, e-guanxi should function similarly to traditional offline guanxi; hence, it should facilitate positive marketing outcomes between e-buyers and e-sellers. Traditionally, guanxi has been crucial to customer satisfaction in offline contexts (Leung et al., 2005). As guanxi implies an affirmative ongoing relationship perceived positively by both parties to a buyer-seller dyad, the same effect should pertain in online environments. Extant literature also suggests guanxi can be improved or fostered through increased social interaction frequencies (Lee & Xu, 2001; Seligman, 1999; Yen et al., 2011). For example, in traditional offline contexts, meal gatherings and social events trigger communication among event attendees. Although face-to-face communication is unlikely to occur in online environments, computer-mediated communication technologies such as AliWangWang will likely facilitate that communication process and lead to e-guanxi formation (Ou et al., 2014).

Wenkai Zhou, Michael R. Hyman, James M. Leonhardt
Uber and the Sharing Economy, Changing Strategies and Global Markets: An Abstract

The purpose of this case-based research is to investigate Uber and its global markets and changing strategies in the sharing economy and transportation networks and logistics services industry. Uber is a part of the sharing economy as well as transportation network and logistics services industry and carries a unique business model. Uber and its competitors often seek business models which are synonymous with collaborative consumption. First introduced in 2009, Uber has become an ambitious and aggressive firm regarding its global operations and operates in over 400 cities in 60 countries.As expected, Uber has gone through major changes to become a global brand in the taxi-hailing industry. The company pursued a simple strategy based on its apps and consumer convenience. Behind Uber’s early successes, we find organizational blunders, managerial mistakes, and growth hurdles. Uber can pursue growth and expansion if quality and service is maintained by the company. Also technology plays an important role in the digital economy. As of 2017, the company clearly enjoys its distinct brand image and good visibility in the USA and international markets. Within the areas of international marketing, evolutionary growth, and global strategies, the case analyzes and discusses the Uber brand and its current and future potential. At the same time, regulators in global markets will continue to investigate the company because of its business model, corporate networks, and questionable labor practices.

Syed Tariq Anwar
A Study on the Relationship Between BOP Orientation and Firm Performance: An Abstract

A large proportion of the population in developing countries have low incomes and resources, are illiterate, and inexperienced with consumption (Prahalad, 2006). Scholars label this group of people as the bottom of pyramid (BOP) consumers (Prahalad, 2006). As competition intensifies for the middle- and high-income consumers and sales growth slows as a result, more companies switch gears to pursue the BOP consumers, who are enormous in number but deprived of both income and literacy, thus presenting both challenges and opportunities for marketers (Nakata & Weidner, 2012). However, beyond the insights on the external market opportunity and the costs and risks of serving the BOP consumers, extant literature offers little knowledge about the internal firm capability, which allows firms to capture the opportunity while reducing the costs and risks. This paper aims to address the above research gaps. Based on the strategy tripod view (Peng et al., 2008, 2009; Peng, 2009), we structure and test a conceptual framework that delineates the performance impact of the firm capability to serve the BOP population (BOP orientation) and how the effect varies across both the institutional environment and the task environment in China, the world’s largest emerging market. From the strategy tripod view (Peng et al., 2008; Peng et al., 2009), firm resources or capabilities, institutional factors, and industry conditions join forces to determine firm strategic choices and market performance. This theoretical lens parallels Oliver’s argument (1997) that firm heterogeneity and competitive advantages primarily depend on how firms manage the institutional context of rent-generating resources and capabilities. Extending this proposition, we contend that firms’ capability to serve the BOP consumers (BOP orientation) in both the institutional environment and the industrial environment creates variations in firm performance in emerging markets. Following prior research on emerging market, we focus on the unique institutional environment of government support and legal inefficiency in the world’s largest emerging economy, China (Fang, 2011; Li & Atuahene-Gima, 2001; Sheng et al., 2011), and the industry conditions of competition intensity and technological turbulence (Jaworski & Kohli, 1993; Porter, 1985; Suarez & Lanzolla, 2007). Based on the strategy tripod view, we aim to first examine the direct effect of BOP orientation on firm performance and second the advantages and limitations of this firm capability in contributing to firm performance under different institutional and industrial environments. We used multi-informant survey method to collected data from 296 Chinese manufacturing firms to test the hypotheses. We find that BOP orientation exerts a positive effect on firm performance, and such effect is contingent on both the institutional environment (government support and legal inefficiency) and the task environment (competitive intensity and technological turbulence). Specifically, both government support and competitive intensity enhance, whereas legal inefficiency reduces the positive effect of BOP orientation, and technological turbulence has an insignificant influence on the effect of BOP orientation. These contingent effects essentially reveal the opportunities and the challenges faced by firms targeting the BOP market.

Fengxia Zhu, Zelong Wei, Yongchuan Bao
Resource Advantage Theory, Service Dominant Logic, and Healthcare Consumer Experiences: An Abstract

Resource advantage theory (RAT) and service-dominant logic (SDL) both endorse the use of operant resources and service skills as a means to formulate, create, and maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace (Hunt, 2002; 2004; Vargo & Lusch, 2004). Healthcare administrators wishing to deliver operant resources must first have an understanding of the attributes that lead to satisfaction in the healthcare context in which they compete. Higher-order constructs such as measuring satisfaction, value, empathy, and sacrifice sensitivity in healthcare are in stark contrast to most satisfaction surveys in healthcare which instead focus solely on patient perceptions of room cleanliness, courtesy of staff, taste of food, and perception of attentiveness to needs (Joiner & Lusch, 2016). While these need to be present in a healthcare context, what is missing is the operant resources that could lead to satisfaction such as value, empathy, and sacrifice. This research seeks to investigate this gap by using SEM to test relationships between satisfaction, value, empathy, and sacrifice in clinical and hospital settings.Results provide strategic direction for hospital marketers with respect to what resources to provide to patients across two contexts (i.e. clinic and hospital). In the clinical setting, evidence points to the importance of the relationship and the experience as seen by the stronger relationship between empathy and satisfaction and the insignificant result between utilitarian value and satisfaction. The insignificant result is interesting in that many clinics are spending resources to make the process of attaining healthcare more efficient. Our evidence suggests that a more beneficial operant resource in the clinical context would be investing resources into enhancing the patient experience and training for empathy and relational aspects of the service experience.Operant resources in the hospital context suggest utilitarian value as a strong driver of satisfaction. Often people go to hospitals for emergencies or surgeries, so the ability to efficiently deliver the task of healthcare becomes paramount in this context. The ability to deliver relational elements and understanding through empathy and hedonic value are also seen as important in the hospital setting, but the role of empathy is more important in the clinical setting. Finally, the role of sacrifice in the healthcare setting can be difficult for patients to understand given the complexity of the healthcare system. While moderation showed the results as equal, the fact that we see some significance in the hospital setting while insignificant in the clinic setting is of interest for discussion. Perhaps either the emergency aspect of hospital visits plays a role in selecting a hospital or the sacrifice of paying a higher deductible or out of pocket expense for a hospital versus a clinic plays a role.

Kevin W. James, Kerri M. Camp, Janna Parker
Improving Personal Hygiene and Water Conservation Among South African Children, a Pilot Test of Knowledge and Attitude Change: An Abstract

Dental hygiene and bathing are two of the most important hygiene behaviours that are essential for good health. However, over use of water can create water scarcity. This paper reports an evaluation that was undertaken for a trial programme delivered in a school setting. A mixed method approach was used to evaluate the programme combining a repeated measure survey design and a narrative written by programme participants. A total of 14 children participated in the programme from one poor community in South Africa, and data was collected from 9 students in the target age bracket primary school students 6–12 years of age.The children participated in a range of taught and participatory activities relating to hygiene, water origin and consumption. After this participatory activity, the children were told about the importance of water conservation, and the methods to save water were reiterated in the lesson. This study had three research objectives: (i) to determine the teeth brushing and bathing behaviour of children living in a poor community in South Africa, (ii) to determine whether a 1-day education day could result in positive knowledge and attitude change and (iii) to determine whether a narrative study can extend evaluation for school-based programmes. Combining these objectives, this study aimed to increase positive hygiene behaviours such as brushing teeth and bathing while encouraging water conservation behaviour. This pilot has made several practical and methodological contributions to the field of social marketing. It uncovered a lack of knowledge among children living in a poor community in South Africa with regards to knowing how often and for how long they should be brushing their teeth and showering, providing important insights for water saving initiatives. Second, this study further supports the effectiveness of programmes delivered in school settings in achieving knowledge and attitudinal change which are important precursors for behavioural change. Given time and cost efficiencies, school-based programmes can offer in contrast to community-based programmes (McBride et al., 2004); social marketing programmes targeting 5–18-year-olds should consider school-based settings. Finally, this study indicates that thematic analysis of children’s narratives can provide a target audience centred understanding of key messages received by programme participants.

David Schmidtke, Alice Baker, Mohammad Kadir, Julia Baum, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele
Money Isn’t Everything?! Investigating Public Policies to Engage Energy Efficiency in Private Homes, An Empirical Analysis on Consumer Motives: An Abstract

In several countries, public policy measures aim to promote energy efficiency in private homes through energetic refurbishment (e.g., Dixon et al., 2010; Grubb, 2014). For private homeowners, they offer, e.g., affordable loans, credits, and subsidies to shorten the time frame for amortization. The current debate in the scientific literature criticizes that the supporting programs suggest that energetic refurbishment decisions are purely shaped by economic motives and rational thinking alone (Albrecht & Zundel, 2010; Novikova et al., 2011). As the anticipated positive effect of public policy measures lags behind all expectations and activation strategies seem to fail, other relevant determinants and motives in the decision-making should be considered. The aim of this study is to explore additional, possibly hidden motives shaping the decision of private homeowners to conduct energetic refurbishment to their single-family homes. Further, we try to make a contribution to existing theoretical frameworks to enlarge the present economically driven sight in the scientific debate.For gaining a thorough understanding of both the decision-making process and the motives, we chose a qualitative-explorative research approach (Maxwell, 2005). We conducted 14 semi-standardized in-depth interviews with homeowners under the condition that they all executed energetic refurbishment measures to their single-family homes within the last years to draw conclusions on conscious and unconscious motives (Craig & Douglas, 2001). To control for external validity (Cook & Campbell, 1979), six semi-standardized in-depth interviews with experts for energetic refurbishments were conducted. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Subsequently, we used the software MAXQDA for qualitative content analysis and inductive coding (Kuckartz, 2009) to structure the high complexity and specificity of the individual statements.Our results reveal two major categories of motives toward the decision of energetic measures: (1) rational and economic and (2) emotional and attitudinal motives. We found evidence that emotional- and attitude-based motives (e.g., quality of living, well-being) have to be considered as equally important as purely rational economic motives (e.g., financial savings). Moreover, owners of single-family homes do not align their decision on a single motive but more on a whole set of different motives that can be described as rational as well as emotional. From a theoretical point of view, our results are in line with the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975).We draw several implications for future research and practitioners to focus more on noneconomic aspects in designing policy measures to sustainably activate homeowners for energy efficiency.

Moritz vom Hofe, Paul Baginski, Hartmut Holzmüller
Short- and Long-Term Consumer Reactions to Promotions: An Abstract

Previous research on effects of promotions provides the notion that consumers’ purchase intentions are often higher during the promotion period (Ailawadi & Neslin, 1998; Grewal et al., 1998), but that promotions can have negative long-term effects on sales (Cheng & Monroe, 2013; DelVecchio et al., 2007). Thus, when evaluating the overall effectiveness of promotions, it is important to examine both short- and long-term consumer reactions (Mela et al., 1998). Literature on effects of promotions has often focused on effects on changes (reductions) of consumers’ price beliefs (Bambauer-Sachse & Massera, 2015; Chandrashekaran & Grewal, 2006) without examining how these reductions influence both short- and long-term consumer reactions in terms of purchase intentions. The objectives of this study are to examine consumer reactions to promotions in terms of purchase intentions during the promotion and when the promotion is over and to explore whether reference price reductions and reductions of consumers’ willingness to pay mediate these effects. This study contributes to research on consumer reactions to promotions by examining purchase intentions during the promotion and when the promotion is over and by providing insights into direct and indirect effects of possible drivers (reference price reductions and reductions of willingness to pay) in this context.We varied the promotion type (percentage off, gift), the test product (low price, socks; high price, winter jacket), and the discount level (low, 10%; high, 50%) to generate variance in the reduction of the reference price. The sample consisted of 468 respondents who filled in an online questionnaire. Before seeing the promotion, the respondents saw an ad of the test product without price information and had to indicate their reference price and willingness to pay. Afterwards, they were shown the test ad with the respective promotion (percentage off, test ads with regular price, reduced price, and saving; gift, test ads with regular price and value of the gift) and had to provide their reference price and willingness to pay again. Next, purchase intentions during the promotion were measured. Finally, the respondents were shown an ad displaying the test product at the regular price without any promotion, and they had to indicate their purchase intentions with regard to this situation.The results confirm the basic assumptions that consumers’ reference price and willingness to pay are reduced after contact with the promotion and that purchase intentions are lower when the promotion is over than purchase intentions during the promotion. Furthermore, the SmartPLS results show that reference price reductions do not directly affect purchase intentions during the promotion and purchase intentions when the promotion is over, but the reduction of consumers’ willingness to pay is driven by reference price reductions and has in turn such direct effects. Thus, marketers should develop strategies to re-establish high levels of willingness to pay and maintain high purchase intentions when the promotion is over because the reduction of consumers’ willingness to pay after exposure to a promotion has both positive effects during the promotion period and negative effects when the promotion is over.

Silke Bambauer-Sachse, Laura Massera
Does “Hot” Lead to “Not So Hot?” Sexy Images, Indulgent Consumption, and the Impacts of Gender and Self-Construal: An Abstract

The cliché “Sex Sells” is apparently held in high esteem by advertisers who rely on the use of the sexy images as a marketing strategy not only in commercial marketing but also in social marketing. Previous research on the use of sexual imagery focused on its impacts on advertising persuasion, ignoring the consumer’s subsequent behaviors following exposures to sexual imagery. This article not only investigates how exposure to sex cues may evoke indulgent consumption/choice in an unrelated context but also explores the influences of gender differences and self-construal.Four studies were conducted. We found that simple exposure to sexy images may enhance an individual’s indulgent tendency in a subsequent, unrelated context. Before examining such causal relationship, Study 1 demonstrated a positive correlation between sex cue and indulgence through a secondary data, suggesting valid phenomenon in reality. Study 2 incorporated gender as a moderator and uses a choice between utilitarian and hedonic gift voucher as the dependent measure. Sexy images are presented through jean catalogs. Study 3 considered both gender and self-construal as moderators and employs chocolate consumption as the dependent measure. Sexy images were manipulated through video stimuli. Self-construal was assessed through a self-construal scale. Study 4 distinguished two types of sexy images (gratuitous sex and romantic love) and employs a choice between two types of auto expo tickets as the dependent measure. Self-construal was manipulated through a priming task. Sexy images were presented in perfume ads. Across four studies, we demonstrated the existence of the priming effect of sexy images, in which exposures toward sexy images are associated with the increased indulgent consumption in a subsequent unrelated context behavior. Impacts of sex cues are boosted when people who are exposed to sex cues are men and/or independent self-construal. Women with interdependent self-construal also demonstrate strong indulgent behaviors after exposures to sex cues with romance.This research contributes to the sex literature by (a) demonstrating subsequent indulgent consumption after sex cue exposure and (b) identifying the boundary conditions in which this effect might occur. This investigation also contributes to the reward processing literature, which has received recent attention, by demonstrating that motivational mindsets such as sex can have unique effects on consumer choice. Furthermore, this research contributes to the indulgent consumption literature by identifying another important factor in indulgent consumption and showing its effects across multiple contexts. Finally, it shows that different sexual imagery may have the dual impacts of both decreasing and increasing indulgent consumption, depending on individual differences in gender and self-construal. This research integrates three important research streams to provide new insight on sexual imagery and its incidental effect on indulgent consumption.

Xing-Yu Chu, Chun-Tuan Chang, Shr-Chi Wang
Gender, Emotions, and Judgments: An Analysis of the Moderating Role of Gender in Influencing the Effectiveness of Advertising and Pricing Tactics: An Abstract

There is an increasing theoretical and empirical evidence that gender affects consumers’ responses to marketing strategies. In the current study, we examined the influence of gender on the efficacy of two of the most important elements of the marketing mix, namely, the effectiveness of advertising and pricing strategies. Building on selectivity model (Meyers-Levy & Maheswaran, 1991; Meyers-Levy & Sternthal, 1991), we hypothesized that compared to men, women are more likely to process the information systematically and pay attention to details. Furthermore, we posited that such predisposition should increase women’s likelihood of identifying deceptive marketing strategies and reduce their susceptibility to such strategies. The results of three empirical studies showed that compared to men, women are (A) more likely to pay attention to details, (B) more likely to identify and negatively react to deceptive advertising claims, and (C) less likely to be influenced by the signaling effect of high prices.Our studies make several theoretical and practical contributions. First, the findings illustrate the moderating role of gender on consumers’ price-quality perceptions. If men are more likely than women to use price to judge the quality, they will be less price sensitive. This is because of the dual role that price plays in influencing consumers’ perception of deal value (Zeithaml, 1988). Therefore, our findings suggest that a price signaling strategy will be more likely to increase revenues and profit when the target market is men rather than women. Second, our findings provide further support for selectivity model by showing that men and women adopt different thinking styles to process the available information in making product judgments. Third, our study shed more light on the role of gender on the effectiveness of different advertising tactics. Finally, our results have important practical implications. Our analysis suggests that different (even opposite) pricing and advertising strategies should be used for brands that could use gender as a segmentation variable.

Vahid Rahmani, Elika Kordrostami
Influence of Social Context on Consumption in the USA: An Abstract

The present study explores co-consumption—consuming in a social context—in the USA. It takes advantage of publicly available, individual-level survey data on time use and presence of others, as well as utility models. The activities of interest include shopping for two types of goods and exposure to varied media. Simultaneous equation models help capture the endogenous relationship between the utility of (a) spending waking time on any given activity and (b) sharing this time and activity with others. Overall, individual utility does not change with respect to the average when the utility-generating activities are using media, or shopping. The utility of sharing time and activity with others though does increase while shopping—especially for durable goods and clothing (DG&C), watching theatrical movies and television, as well as listening to recorded or streamed music. Listening to radio has negative effects, especially after 2010. Historic trends reveal that, in the otherwise “individualistic” USA, co-shopping for DG&C has been growing (representing 70% of minutes spent shopping in 2015) and co-shopping for groceries has been stable (51%), whereas media co-exposure has had a weak tendency to decrease but remains high for television (52%) and theatrical movies (95%).

José-Domingo Mora
Revealing the Young People’s Cognitive Structure of Sharing Video Online: An Exploratory Research: An Abstract

Associated with the technology progress, mobile devices have gradually changed our lifestyle from outdoor activities to electronic leisure (e-leisure) activities (Santharam, 2014). Owing to the rapid development and popularization of world internet, more and more young people use mobile phones for online leisure behaviors, especially connecting to video-sharing websites. Although there are many platforms or communities supporting video sharing such as YouTube, Vine, Twitch, Instagram, and Facebook, the youth may encounter some barriers of using these video-sharing websites or applications (apps) via their smartphone. Such barriers may reduce the youth’s willingness or limit their participations in video-sharing activities. For marketers or designers of video-sharing websites/apps, it is important to know what kinds of barriers users encountered, in order to overcome barriers to attract more users participating the e-leisure activity and increase operating profits accordingly.This study, based on leisure constraints theory and means-end theory, aims to understand young people’s cognitive structure of using video-sharing websites/apps, especially when they encounter e-leisure constraints. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed to collect data. Sixty one-on-one in-depth interviews were content analyzed to design the survey questionnaire. A total of 514 valid samples were collected for hierarchical value map (HVM) construction. By comparing the full HVM versus the e-leisure constraints HVM, the analytical results indicate that the importance of attributes, consequences, and values for the young people using video-sharing websites/apps is quite different. “Unable to resume the video after leaving the screen,” “creating playlist,” “providing movies,” and “location restrictions” are extremely important features that influence the willingness of such users with high e-leisure constraints to participate in e-leisure activities. By understanding the differences between these two HVMs, it is possible to provide marketers or designers with valuable insights for website/app design and marketing strategies.

Chin-Feng Lin, Chen-Su Fu
User-Generated Advertising, The Effects of Consumer-Created Brand Videos on Brand Attitudes: An Abstract

Technological advances and social media facilitate the public’s creation and broadcasting of their own brand-related material. In doing so, they are performing marketing functions traditionally carried out by firms. To that end, brands are no longer wholly in control of their marketing and advertising content.This study aims to evaluate the effects of user-generated advertising (UGA) on attitudes towards the Ad (Aad), brand (Ab), as well as the relationship between Aad and Ab, and to evaluate the effectiveness of firm-generated advertising (FGA) as compared to UGA. Furthermore, it provides marketing practitioners with an explanation of UGA effectiveness and recommendations on how to manage this phenomenon.The study was conducted in three stages. First, a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 230, brand-related UGC videos from YouTube in order to obtain information about the characteristics of the branded-video population. This involved the analysis of video features in relation to the brand, creator’s position, the use of advertising appeals (i.e. emotional or rational) and advertising techniques used.Second, from the videos analysed, a sample of 25 videos were selected and validated through a panel of expert judges to confirm their valence as positive, negative or neutral with regard to the brand advertised. The valence was defined by way of an analysis of the overall tone of the video, the degree of brand satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the video creator, whether the creator recommended the brand to others and if the video parodied or ridiculed the brand.Finally, from the videos approved by the judges, a global, low involvement and often advertised brand was chosen for an Internet-based self-completion questionnaire conducted on a convenience sample to ascertain the effects of UGA and FGA on Ab. This rationale also considered that participants’ attitudinal responses may depend on existing cognitive-based assumptions about the brand.The research findings reveal that exposure to UGA has an effect on attitudes towards Ab and Aad, making them considerably more negative. With regard to the valence of the videos, exposure to negative UGA resulted in the lowest scores in participants’ Ab and Aad. Conversely, exposure to firm-generated advertising (FGA) had no effect on participants’ existing attitudes Ab and produced positive Aad.

Paulo Mora-Avila, Ria Wiid
Exploring the Role of Audience Participation and Para-social Interaction on Endorsement Effectiveness in Vlogs: An Abstract

In spite of its relevance and importance, scholarship that focusses upon the effectiveness of endorsements in vlogs (blog that uses video as its communication medium) is understudied. This study examines the effectiveness of brand or product endorsements in vlogs with a specific focus upon YouTube as a vlogging platform. Specifically, it assesses how the interactive effect of audience participation and valence influences perceived credibility of the vlogger and consequently results in an effective vlog endorsement. The study explores how perceived credibility of vlogger as a source of brand-related information is constructed and how it affects the effectiveness of the brand- and product-related content published by the vlogger. The study also explores how para-social interaction acts as a mediator to the above relationship.

Juha Munnukka, Devdeep Maity
Technology-Based Self-Service (TBSS) Innovations in B2B Settings: An Abstract

Contemporary services innovations regularly come embedded in both information technology (IT) and organizational arrangements. (Ostrom et al., 2015, page 127) capture this current trend: “The context in which service is delivered and experienced has, in many respects, fundamentally changed. Advances in technology, especially information technology, are leading to a proliferation of revolutionary services and changing how customers serve themselves before, during, and after purchase.” Research that especially focuses on the integration of technology in the service system has been labeled self-service technology (SST) and technology-based self-service (TBSS). Breidback et al. (2012) did further add that most services will be a mix of technology and human-based interaction, what they label “technology-enabled value co-creation.” Following this research stream, less high-tech and service-oriented companies will meet challenges when introducing innovative services given that these services both require technical know-how and a market-oriented mindset. By acknowledging the socio-technical and social-material aspects of current service innovation, it is possible to unbundle activities from the physical restraints and open up innovation opportunities, facilitating a more customized rebundling of the service innovation to facilitate enhanced customer value. The vast majority of TBSS studies have focused on consumer markets which partly can be explained by the fact that business-to-business (B2B) companies have been late adopters. The main reason can be that B2B markets to a higher degree are few-to-few rather than many-to-many markets, the substantial cost of partner specific investments, as well as the overall complex linkages and process in B2B relationships. While prior studies have seen TBSS as an addition in firms’ value proposition portfolio, this study puts an emphasis on considering the TBSS as an innovation in a conservative B2B market context. It adopts a service-dominant (S-D) logic perspective on innovation and puts forth the research questions: (a) What capabilities do firms need when developing TBSS innovations and (b) what sort of institutional work they engage in. The study is carried out as an explorative and longitudinal field study of Humlegården Fastigheter AB (a real estate firm that only have commercial tenants and that introduced a TBSS in 2012) and its suppliers and customers. Humlegården Fastigheter AB is a “Prime Mover” as they developed a TBSS in the real estate and facility industry where new services are rare. The results show how such firms will need to acquire and develop several capacities when striving for new value propositions. The study offers an emergent theory on how a TBSS innovation engages actors in the service ecosystem and pinpoints the forms of institutional work a focal actor needs to carry out to change the service ecosystem’s actors’ cognitive framework, current norms, as well as comply with regulations.

Peter Ekman, Randle Raggio, Jimmie Röndell, Steven Thompson
Open Data Innovation, What are the Main Issues/Challenges for Open Data Projects in Sweden: An Abstract

The Internet has greatly reduced the cost of collecting, distributing, and accessing information, services, and resources. In parallel to this advancement, open data in both the private and public sector has gained attention in recent years, although the concept of open data is not new. Advocates have been arguing for years that data gathered or created by a government institution and funded by public money should be ‘open’ or free of any restrictions.There are very limited studies on open data, with a particularly notable ‘lack of refereed, rigorous, and independent academic studies beyond a government and consultant ‘grey’ literature of mixed quality’ (Gauld, Goldfinch & Horsburgh, 2010, p 177; Ohemeng & Ofosu-Adarkwa, 2015, p 420). This study has two main objectives: it attempts to understand (1) how open data, especially government data, can create value for its stakeholders and (2) main issues/challenges within open data-driven projects, so that the expected potential of open data innovation be captured.Swedish Innovation Agency, Vinnova, had open data calls to fund open data projects. Sixteen project managers were interviewed who had worked with open data projects that are funded in 2012 and in 2013. The study used a grounded theory approach that begins its analysis by coding the qualitative data obtained via semi-structured interviews of 16 project managers who worked with Vinnova-funded open data projects, and then these codes are used as input for correspondence analysis.This research showed that, to understand impact of government funded projects, homogeneity among projects and organizations should be considered. Due to Vinnova’s heterogeneous selection of funded projects and organizations, not all public or private organizations showed similar correlation at the correspondence analysis. In addition to that, some organizations are registered as private organization but funded by public authorities where they represent a mix of public and private organizations character. Nevertheless, results revealed that, in general, public organizations are usually associated to no interest to business/business models, structure and standardization of datasets and visibility of datasets. Private organizations, on the other hand, are more associated to business models, content of data, demand for data and value of the data. This study underlines main concerns during open data projects in regard to creation of value from open data projects.

Serdar Temiz, Terrence Brown
Consumers’ Perception of Price Premiums for Greenwashed Products: An Abstract

These days’ markets are flooded with products that manufacturers promote as green by adding one or two green attributes to a conventional product. They do so take advantage of consumers’ willingness to pay higher for green products. We examine consumers’ perceptions of such products through a theoretical lens. From a theoretical grounding we predict that:H 1a: When consumers’ motivation to process information is high, both high-priced green and greenwashed products will be perceived high in monetary sacrifice.H 1b: When consumers’ motivation to process information is low, in comparison to a green product, the high price of a greenwashed product will be perceived high in monetary sacrifice.H 2 : Perceptions of ethicality will mediate the evaluation of green and greenwashed products.Study 1 Sixty undergraduate students participated in the main study for extra credits. We randomly assigned participants to one of the four conditions in a 2 (motivation; low, high) × 2 (greenness, green, greenwashed) between-subjects design. The participants viewed the stimuli which consisted of an all-in-one printer with either one (greenwashed) or six (green) eco-friendly attributes and a fictitious brand name (Envyo) with a price of $399.99. We measured perceived monetary sacrifice, willingness to purchase the printer as well as three covariates. Results: An ANCOVA using individual preference for green products as a covariate showed a significant motivation x greenness effect on perceived sacrifice (F (1, 55) = 4.75, p < 0.05) with no significant effects of the covariates. Participants in the high motivation conditions perceived no significant difference between the two printers on perceived sacrifice (Mgreen = 7.4, Mgreenwashed = 7.1; F (1, 27) = 0.40, p > 0.50). In low motivation conditions, the perceptions of sacrifice were higher for the greenwashed printer (Mgreen = 5.8, Mgreenwashed = 7.0; F (1, 29) = 7.27, p < 0.05).Study 2a Using an implicit association task (IAT), this study demonstrated the implicit association of greenwashing (green) with unethicality (ethicality) of the firm (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Forty-three undergraduate students participated in the IAT task. Results: Response times were significantly faster in the hypothesis-consistent blocks than those in the hypothesis-inconsistent blocks (F (1, 39) = 41.44, p < 0.001, D = 100). Mean response time in the hypothesis-consistent categories was 1295 milliseconds, compared with 1727 milliseconds in the hypothesis-inconsistent categories.Study 2b In this study, we measured ethicality concerns explicitly to test for mediation. Fifty-nine participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions in a single-factor (greenness, green vs. greenwashed) between-subjects design. We used the vignettes from Study 1 to manipulate greenness and to create a low motivation to process information. Results from mediation analysis indicate that greenness significantly predicted ethicality (β = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.63 to 2.20), and ethicality significantly predicted perceived sacrifice (β = −0.23; 95% CI = −0.45 to −0.02). As expected, ethicality mediated the relationship between level of greenness and perceptions of sacrifice (indirect effect = −0.33; 95% CI = −0.76 to −0.03).

Jeonggyu Lee, Siddharth Bhatt, Rajneesh Suri, Prabakar Kothandaraman
Exploring Consumer Spending When Redeeming Online Daily Coupons: An Abstract

Online daily coupons (ODCs) (e.g., Groupon) offer a large discount with a long redemption period when consumers prepay for given products or services. While these popular coupons present exciting new opportunities, retailers must understand how different factors under their control may impact consumers’ spending at redemption. Building on anchoring and adjustment effect and semantic cue concreteness, the present research investigates the impacts of the coupon structure (e.g., acquisition cost and face value), the specificity of the coupon deal, and the specificity of the product or service information on consumers’ spending at redemption. The results from four experiments demonstrate that consumers tend to adjust their spending according to the coupon face value rather than the coupon acquisition cost. Furthermore, the specificity of the deal information on the voucher during the acquisition increases consumers’ spending. Finally, the specificity of the product information during the redemption escalates total spending, especially when the hedonic consumption goals are primed.

Chinintorn Nakhata, Anne Roggeveen, Ali Besharat, James Stock
Price Promotion for a Preordered Product, The Moderating Role of Time of Release: An Abstract

Preordering has emerged as a common strategy for manufacturers and retailers to facilitate the launch of a new product in the competitive marketplace. In product preorder strategies, retailers often utilize price discounts to increase sales. However, in the context of preordering, temporal construal effects which explain how psychological distance affects individuals’ thoughts and behavior (Trope & Liberman, 2003) may marginalize the influence of price discounts when a product’s delivery is perceived to be in the distant future. This is because a distant time of release is construed at a high level of abstraction, where low-level details, such as discount level, are overlooked.Using an online sampling panel, a pretest and study in the context of preordering a tablet PC demonstrate that while discount promotions have a positive influence on consumer purchase, intentions and word of mouth when the preorder product release is near (1 week until release), such positive influence is insignificant when the release is distant (4 weeks until release). This study adds an important caveat to previous work suggesting that discounts have positive impacts on customers purchase intentions. Results suggest that retailers have to be careful when designing an advertising message with a price discount for a temporal product release, preferring to use such promotions when a product’s time of release is perceived as near.

Subhash Jha, Phillip M. Hart, George Deitz
An Examination of Heavy Coupon Use, Opinion Leadership, and Self-Confidence: An Abstract

The primary objective of this study is to profile the heavy coupon user based on both social influence (i.e., opinion leadership) and individual difference (i.e., consumer self-confidence) variables. If heavy coupon users also influence the coupon use of other consumers, their importance may be magnified for marketers seeking to increase participation in their coupon promotional efforts. Meanwhile, if heavy coupon users also influence other consumers in a more general sense, their importance is magnified further. “Americans generally are twice as likely to cite word of mouth as the best source of ideas and information as they are to cite advertising” (Keller & Berry, 2003, p. 5).Given that the study sought to get opinions and attitudes of avid coupon users, a convenience sample (n = 308) consisting of members of a social couponing website ( was used. The mean differences for low-, medium-, and high-saving couponers were significantly in the predicted directions for both generalized and price opinion leadership, supporting hypotheses 1 and 2. In addition, the means of self-confidence for low- and medium-saving couponers were both significantly lower than those of high-saving couponers. However, the self-confidence means difference between low- and medium-saving couponers, though in the predicted direction, was not significant. Hence, with two of the three mean differences having been found significant, there was partial support for hypothesis 3.In total, the results of this study found, as predicted, that self-perceptions of both price and generalized opinion leadership and self-confidence increase in concert with coupon savings. The finding that heavy coupon users tend to see themselves as generalized opinion leaders is an important one. It underscores that heavy couponers feel that their influence online and otherwise extend beyond the realm of just price information and couponing. This is a finding that can be leveraged by marketers to focus on heavy coupon users as opinion leaders for both coupons and price-related influence, as well as general product information such as new product launches.The results of this study hold practical implications for marketers. Particularly relevant in the Internet age, word of mouth is playing a much greater role in promotion of goods and services, as well as the dissemination of information related to such goods and services. As marketers are better able to locate and target consumers who are most likely to use and appreciate the use of coupons, they will also be able to simultaneously target opinion leaders who are willing to spread the word of new products and other vital information.

James J. Zboja, Kevin M. Gatzlaff
Investigating Social Media Activity as a Firm’s Signaling Strategy Through an Initial Public Offering

Initial public offerings (IPOs) are a crucial step for entrepreneurial firms. Despite the growing popularity of social media among a variety of audiences including potential investors, limited studies have been conducted to investigate how firms can utilize social media to attract financial capitals during the IPO process. We attempt to shed light on this area through the signaling theoretical lens as well as the prior literature on electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Our study, based on Twitter and other data on 423 firms that went public in the US market from 2014 to 2015, provides significant evidence in support of a positive relationship between social media use by a firm and its IPO value. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a firm’s tweets is mediated by public responses to its tweets, and such effectiveness is also found to be stronger for B2C firms.

Atthaphon Mumi, Michael Obal, Yi Yang
Digital Retailing: An Abstract for Preliminary Results of a Systematic Literature Review

A growing body of research has emerged on digital retailing due to the introduction and rapid spread of technologies that changed the retail settings. Retailers are constantly making decisions about the implementation of digital technologies, evaluating every negative and positive effect from the costs saving to the customers’ satisfaction (Verhoef et al., 2009). These developments are modifying the way to do shopping, making it more exciting and involving, thanks to a large range of services offered (Liao & Shi, 2009). This systematic review of the literature (Tranfield et al., 2003) aims to identify, classify, and analyze the main current research fields on digital retailing developing an overall interpretation of the topic investigated. The process of analysis has been divided into three stages. In the first one, authors planned the review by delimiting the subject area, identifying the main purposes of the analysis, and consequently developing the review protocol including details of the information source (authors, title, year of publication, journal, keywords). During the second stage, authors collected the papers published from 2013 to 2016 in the databases EBSCO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. In order to retrieve relevant publications in the field of digital retailing, authors selected the search query keywords “digital” and “online” linked via Boolean and with the keyword “retailing.” The search resulted in overall 693 articles. After a screening process, authors select 290 papers belonging to the field of B2C level and tangible goods digital retailing. In the third stage, authors codified the results by running a content analysis through the software NVivo (Bazeley & Jackson, 2013) aiming at codifying a set of main themes, according to the thematic analysis approach (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The themes were identified launching the auto-coding wizard query of the software on titles, abstracts, and keywords allowing researchers in the identification of the main topics. This process resulted in both father nodes and son nodes, summarized by authors into six father nodes with relative son nodes. Finally, the interactions among the nodes were measured to understand the eventual conceptual links and bonds between them, running the word similarity cluster analysis, through the using of the Pearson correlation, a tool for estimating the linear relationship between two quantitative random variables (De Oña et al., 2014).To conclude, authors assigned each paper to the six clusters identified, namely, consumer behavior, customer-firm relationships, multichannel distribution, touchpoints management, branding and communication, and product and service management. Starting from these preliminary results, authors aim to shed light on the evolution of digital retailing research streams for supporting scholars to conceptualize the future development of this emerging phenomenon and practitioners to assume their managerial decisions on a consistent framework.

Virginia Vannucci, Valentina Mazzoli, Raffaele Donvito, Gaetano Aiello
Challenges in Data-Driven Innovation Toward European Digital Single Market: An Abstract

In May 2015, the European Commission adopted a Digital Single Market Strategy (2015), which identifies Europe as a potential leader in the global digital economy. If EU fragmentation and barriers are removed, Digital Single Market (DSM) could contribute an additional €415 billion to European GDP. Further, the Digital Single Market could create opportunities for new start-ups, and business can develop and create value for the 500 million consumers.The European Digital Single Market (DSM) has three policy areas: (1) access to digital goods and services, (2) conditions for digital networks and innovative services, and (3) digital as a driver for growth ( In all these areas, data-driven services are an essential part of DSM.This research focuses on political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental (PESTEL) factors. Consider: To do this, a quantitative approach was used to analyze the data collected from four different data sources to understand major factors having impact on DSM:Digital Economy and Society Index (Desi), EU barometer, Digital Agenda key indicators, and public consultation. Based on our data analysis, we have found several data-based challenges in creating a digital single market as below:(a)Inequality within EU(b)Legislative gap with respect to digital content and data(c)Trust in a digital single market (in regard to data)(d)Privacy and security of digital software and systemsDefining and understanding these challenges are vital to overcome obstacles hindering Digital Single Market goals.

Serdar Temiz, Terrence Brown
The Effects of Color and Position of Add-to-Cart Button on Click Intention: An Abstract

Understanding the factors that influence consumer’s online shopping experience is an imperative but challenging task for both e-retailers and marketing scholars. Website design is one of the critical factors relevant to online conversions. Although website design may vary across different retailers, add-to-cart button, which enables consumers to select items for eventual purchase, is a common feature that shared by all websites. In this research, we are interested in exploring how add-to-cart button may influence consumer’s online shopping experience. We focus on two important properties of the button: color and position. Specifically, we will examine two major colors used by e-retailers on add-to-cart button—red and yellow and two positions of the button— right and left side of the website. We investigate the interactive effect of color and position of add-to-cart button on consumer’s button-click intention and purchase decision.Labrecque, Patrick, and Milne (2013) propose two levels of meaning of color: embodied meaning and referential meaning. Embodied meaning refers to the original and natural meaning of the stimuli, which is automatic, is enduring, and can evoke biological reactions. The embodied meaning of red color is more arousing and exciting than any other colors, including yellow (Clark & Costall, 2007). The referential meaning, driven by individual’s semantic association, is the meaning of color that people learned from the real world. People normally associate red color with negative characteristics, such as nervousness, strength, and aggressiveness and associate yellow color with positive characteristics of optimism, friendliness, and sincerity (e.g., Labrecque & Milne 2012). Thus, the referential meaning of red color is less favorable than yellow color. Meyers-Levy and Zhu (2010) suggest that which meaning (i.e., embodied or referential) exerts influence depends on the magnitude of cognitive resources required to process the stimuli. Based on the left-to-right information processing habits, we argue that when add-to-cart button is placed on the right side of the website, information processor’s cognitive capacity is high, and the referential meaning of color surpass its embodied meaning (i.e., yellow is more favorable than red). In contrast, placing the button on the left side will restrict cognitive capacity, making the embodied meaning of color more salient (i.e., red is more favorable than red).A laboratory-based experiment provides preliminary support to our hypotheses. We find that when add-to-cart button is placed on the right side of website, yellow-colored button promotes click decision more than red-colored button (45.0% vs. 29.5%, χ = 3.11, ρ = 0.092); when it is placed on the left side, red-colored button promotes click decision more than yellow-colored button (19.6% vs. 41.0%, χ = 6.24, ρ = 0.016).

Zhen Yang, Yanliu Huang
Why Do Certain Products Influence Grocery Store Choice? The Role of Anchor Products and Their Relationships with Other Store Choice Factors: An Abstract

This paper has the following two objectives: (1) to develop a concept (i.e., anchor products) that theoretically explains why some planned products are influential in store choice decisions and (2) to identify relationships between anchor products and other important store choice factors (e.g., product quality, product selection, and overall prices). To achieve the first objective, this paper proposes the concept of anchor products, drawing on anchoring effects theory and automatic cognitive processing theory. This paper also compares the concept of anchor products with other similar concepts in the store choice literature [e.g., destination categories (Briesch, Dillon, & Fox, 2013), lead category (Chen et al., 1999), Type 1 products (Drèze & Hoch, 1998), and category-specific store loyalty (Bell, Ho, & Tang, 1998)] to shed light on their similarities and differences. To achieve the second objective, this paper proposes three hypotheses addressing the relationships between anchor product formation and three dominant store choice factors (product quality, product selection, and overall prices). Using a survey instrument, data were collected at two grocery stores. Based on results from logit regression and ANOVA analyses, this paper finds that favorable perceptions on (1) overall product quality and (2) product selection at a grocery store increase the likelihood that consumers choose anchor products directed at the grocery store. However, perceptions of (3) overall lower prices at a grocery store decrease the likelihood that consumers choose anchor products directed at the grocery store. The paper also offers several theoretical and managerial implications of the results.

Pilsik Choi
Effects of Product Categories on Consumers’ Spending in Multiple Retail Formats: An Abstract

In this study, we propose a multivariate tobit model to examine the effects of different types of frequently purchase products on consumers’ spending in retail formats. There is a rich marketing literature that studies the determinants of consumers’ purchases in the stores that belong to the same retail format (e.g., Bell & Lattin, 1998; Bodapati & Srinivasan, 2006; Briesch, Chintagunta, & Fox, 2009). However, there is little empirical research that addresses the issue of consumers’ patronage for retail formats. Among the few studies that explicitly model consumers’ retail format patronage behavior (e.g., Bhatnagar & Ratchford, 2004; Fox, Montgomery, & Lodish, 2004), the focus has been on the impact of overall store characteristics, such as store price and assortment indices, which are constructed based on information of a number of categories, to represent the attractiveness of a shopping basket of a consumer.The proposed model enables us to identify major product categories and corresponding marketing strategies, to which consumers respond well in their spending in different retail formats. This knowledge can help retailers better allocate resources across categories more effectively to improve overall consumer store patronage. For producers in each product category, it is also valuable to identify the retail format to which consumers respond most for different marketing strategies.Another goal of the research is to examine the nature of relationships between different retail formats (i.e., complementary or substitution). From a retailer’s perspective, it is crucial to identify which types of stores it competes fiercely and which types of stores it may be benefited from. This can help retailers better direct their efforts for competition.We apply the proposed model using a comprehensive in-home scanning data of longitudinal purchases of 1321 metropolitan households in a large southwestern city in the USA. The data contains detailed purchase information of these households in 286 grocery categories across 46 retail chains, over a 53-week period dated from September 2002 to September 2003. The data also contains the demographic information of the households, such as household income and household sizes. This rich data allows us to fully demonstrate the application of the proposed model.

Qin Zhang, Manish Gangwar, Brian Ratchford
Well That’s Embarrassing: An Examination of Product Package Differences and the Impact on Embarrassment: An Abstract

For the first time, online purchases have outnumbered purchases made in store (excluding groceries) with 51% of purchases being made through web channels. One reason shoppers make certain purchases online is to minimize the embarrassment of being seen with certain products (e.g., condoms, diet-related products, or plus-size clothing). While much research talks about the success of product differentiation, our research conversely shows that for embarrassing products, increasing product anonymity can be a more strategic approach to selling products.Product anonymity is the degree to which a person feels the product they are purchasing is indistinguishable from other products. Several packaging characteristics can influence product anonymity along four dimensions of product packaging as outlined by Ampuero and Vila (2006). These four dimensions are color, typography, shape, and image. This research posits that differences on these package dimensions cause a change in product anonymity. If a product is not anonymous, a person might receive unwanted attention and embarrassment because of threatened social identity; thus product anonymity has a negative relationship to embarrassment, and embarrassment has a negative relationship to purchase intentions. These relationships were tested through four picture-based experiments.The findings of the studies show that the color blue for product packaging is the most anonymous with red and yellow being the least. Second, small font size is more anonymous than medium or large font sizes. Additionally, a box is higher in anonymity than a pump bottle or ointment tube. Lastly, the image on the product package was found to indicate that an image on the front is perceived to be more anonymous than no image or an image of a couple on the front. These results suggest that for a product to be most anonymous, it should be a blue box with small lettering and include an image of the product on the front (an interaction effect was not tested but should be in future research). The results showed that anonymity has a negative relationship to embarrassment which also has a negative relationship to purchase intentions. Embarrassment mediated the relationship in all of the studies. Companies should consider, specifically, for embarrassing products, to not brand their products with overt, flashy packaging but should instead opt for subtle product packaging cues.

Christian Barney, Carol Esmark, Stacie Waites
Marketing’s Theoretical and Conceptual Value Proposition: An Abstract

“…the marketing discipline faces an urgent need for a rethinking of its fundamental purpose, premises, and implicit models that have defined marketing for at least the past 50 years” (Webster & Lusch p. 389, 2013).Recently, there has been much discussion within the marketing literature about marketing’s influence both within the firm and within the family of academic business disciplines (e.g., Clark et al., 2014; Homburg et al., 2015). There has been less work, however, centered on theoretical and conceptual innovations that reflects the changing social, technological, ethical, and global growth-oriented realities of the twenty-first century (Webster & Lusch, 2013; Ferrell & Ferrell, 2016). These issues signal significant change to business models, growth strategies, marketing channels, customer relationship management, as well as the domain of mainstream marketing research, its methodology, and relevance. Inquiries into the adequacies of marketing’s extant knowledge base(s) for continued development may uncover intellectual, theoretical, and conceptual ruts that further distance marketing scholarship from its proper place in strategic decision making at every level of the firm.The purpose of this special session is to stimulate critical, forward-looking conversation on the nature of marketing and its place in the firm and in the family of business disciplines. Questions of marketing’s accountability within various contexts: inside the firm, in the marketplace, and in the lives of consumers will be taken up, with a view to expanding the field’s theoretical and conceptual horizons.

Martin Key, Terry Clark, O. C. Ferrell, Leyland Pitt, David Stewart
The Mind of the Beholder: Luxury Product Placement and Product-Background Scene Congruency: An Abstract

Product placement is a pervasive marketing technique. Focusing on luxury goods, we investigate how luxury associations modulate the effects of product-background scene congruency on purchase intentions. When a luxury product is placed in a movie scene, it can be visible in a congruent, upscale or incongruent, and downscale background. Past research has investigated plot-connection and product prominence, but less attention has been given to product-background scene congruency. We show that product-background scene congruency leads to higher purchase intentions toward the luxury-placed product only when movie viewers are primed with luxury associations. However, priming participants with non-luxury associations mitigate these effects. Results suggest that simultaneous product-background scene congruency and luxury associations are essential if luxury product placement is to be effective.

Patricia Rossi, Felipe Pantoja, Kacy Kim, Sukki Yoon
The Lovemarks Effect: An Abstract

In the research stream that appreciates the role of emotions when brands are evaluated and inspired from work by the CEO of Saatchi and Saatchi Kevin Roberts (2004), some researchers examined lovemarks (brands loved and respected simultaneously) (Pawle & Cooper, 2006). The academic research in the last 15 years focuses on positive consumer-brand relationships (Alba & Lutz, 2013; Veloutsou, 2015; Alvarez & Fournier, 2016), brand love (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006; Hwang & Kandampully, 2012; Wallace, Buil & de Chernatony, 2014; Karjaluoto Munnukka & Kiuru, 2016) or brand passion (Albert, Merunka & Valette-Florence, 2013). The few studies on brand respect that centres its attention to the degree that consumers feel respected (Bitran & Hoech, 1990; Daskou, Veloutsou & Tzokas, 2004; Bennett & Barkensjo, 2005; Ali & Ndubis, 2011; Ali & Ndubis, 2011b; Daskou & Konstas, 2013), rather than the degree that the consumers respect an offer or a specific brand (Pawle & Cooper, 2006; Cho, Fiore & Russell, 2015). The limited literature focusing on lovemarks is either qualitative, where the authors use a reader-response methodology to analyse the effect of the content of the original book by Roberts (2007) on management practice (Sayers & Monin, 2007), or is primarily contacted in the US (Pawle & Cooper, 2006; Cho et al., 2015) and very rarely examines antecedents and outcomes of brand love and brand respect together quantitatively (Cho, Fiore & Russell, 2015).Using a 22-item instrument, having as a context in Thailand and with 300 fully completed questionnaires distributed online, this study focuses on brand love and brand respect and identifies specific antecedents (brand trust and brand identification) and behavioural outcomes (purchase intention and willingness to spread positive WoM) of these constructs.Structural equation modelling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to test the derived hypotheses. In the predictive model the statistics demonstrate that the data fits the model at a satisfactory level. All the hypotheses, except one, were accepted. Trust and brand identification were predicting respect to the company, with trust being the best predictor. Brand respect was the best predictor of the WoM, while the relationship between brand love and WoM was not significant. Both brand love and the brand respect are predicting purchase intention, with brand love being a stronger predictor.

Cleopatra Veloutsou, Jantakarn Bell Aimpitaksa
Globalizing Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Marketing: An Exploratory Study in a Multicultural Marketplace: An Abstract

The majority of literature on cross-cultural consumer research has often implied culturally homogeneous national markets and has focused on comparisons across national borders (Nakata, 2009). While these studies have supported marketers when the goal is to adapt strategies accommodating of the characteristics of specific markets, they are often lacking when it comes to providing insights into consumer behavior in multicultural marketplaces (Tung, 2008). These multicultural marketplaces are becoming more similar with one another across national boundaries and less similar with the more homogeneous parts of the countries in which they are located (e.g., New York, London, Shanghai, Montreal, and Dubai). In many of these marketplaces, locals, expatriates, immigrants, and tourists come together to work, play, and certainly consume.In acclimating to their “globalizing lives,” consumers in multicultural marketplaces interact with various aspects of the marketing process (Grunhagen & Dant, 2011). Marketing plays a central role in the creation, learning, and sharing of “global” consumer habits. As the world continues to be more commercially integrated, investigating consumers’ attitudes toward a key advocate for global consumer habits (i.e., marketing) is a precondition to truly understanding the growth (or demise) of the global consumer culture (GCC), a culture growing in importance and relevance to marketers and businesses. This study represents an early attempt to understand the impact of the GCC on attitudes toward marketing in the multicultural city of Dubai.Methodology and Results The authors developed a questionnaire based on the original Cleveland and LaRouche (2007) seven-construct acculturation toward the global consumer culture scale (57 items) and the Gaski and Etzel (1986) four-construct sentiment toward marketing scale (20 items). A mall-intercept survey was conducted at one of Dubai’s busiest malls over two periods. A total of 497 responses were obtained. Relationships were assessed via multiple regression analysis and SEM based on single-item aggregations of scales.Preliminary analyses and findings based on data gathered during the first collection period (165 usable responses) suggest that as consumers acculturate more into the global consumer culture, their perceptions of the marketing function vary significantly. However, there are significant variations depending on the particular marketing mix component and dimension of AGCC. For example, results indicate more positive attitudes toward product and less positive attitudes based on prices. Only one AGCC construct (English) was found to have an insignificant influence on STM. The other six constructs had varying degrees of association with four constructs illustrating an inverse relationship with STM.

Tarek Mady, Ajay Manrai, Lalita Manrai
Material Possessions and Hedonic Experience: Paradoxes of Luxury Consumption in Emerging Markets: An Abstract

Emerging markets (EMs) continue to increase consumption of goods and services at a rate by far exceeding that of the developed economies (DEs). Among the factors affecting behaviors of EM consumers – in contrast to those living in DEs – are:A much higher rate of socioeconomic changesRelative cultural importance of the public consumption of premium and luxury brandsGreater degree of consumer happiness derived from the access to and possession of luxuriesLimited prior consumption experienceThus, extant theories developed for and tested predominantly in the DEs inadequately reflect the realities of EMs. The present paper attempts to address an important task of building a theoretical framework suitable for the dynamic socioeconomic environment in EMs.The relationship between consumption and happiness has been studied by many authors in recent years. Extant literature frequently classifies consumption as either hedonic or utilitarian and applies this classification across all types of tangible goods and intangible experiences. Another stream of research focuses on the differences associated with the experiential vs. material types of consumption and analyzes consumer happiness (or dissatisfaction) stemming from experiential impressions from the past or material possessions at the present time. Existing studies confirm the positive correlation between hedonic consumption and happiness, so in most cases, experiential consumption affects consumer happiness more than ownership of the material belongings.The present study suggests a new taxonomy where consumption can be typified as: experiential hedonic, experiential utilitarian, material hedonic, and material utilitarian. Brazil was chosen as a good representative of emerging markets. Empirical research uncovered some paradoxes of consumer happiness associated with premium and luxury goods and services and let to the development of conceptual framework providing a foundation of consumer behavior in EMs. The following summary briefly describes the results. The novelty of the present study relates to an uncovered paradox of consumer psychology. It demonstrates that, in many EM collectivistic communities, the correlation between happiness and material hedonic consumption may be negative because conspicuous consumption is frequently associated with snobbery. Another interesting result reflects the asymmetry of the residual happiness: experiential hedonic type of consumption has a greater effect than material hedonic one, but experiential utilitarian type has a lower impact than material utilitarian one. Emerging middle class respondents derive more pleasure from material utilitarian than from experiential hedonic consumption because they were deprived of many goods and services for a long time. For the lower class respondents, both, material utilitarian and experiential utilitarian types of consumption are equally important. Respondents from this class are still taking the first steps in the consumer markets, and the experiential hedonic type of consumption is still new to many of them.

José Marcos Carvalho de Mesquita, Gegory Kivenzor, Natalia Corradi Franco
Welcome to Brand-Topia: The Role of Transportation and Identification in Brand Storytelling: An Abstract

Brands and companies are full of precious stories that need to be told. Therefore, businesses necessitate identifying the core elements and emotional heart of their individual story as a basis of their entire brand communication. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of successful stories. Apart from the role of storytellers and their ability to create substantive story elements and build harmonized narratives through preferred story characters and comprehensible courses of action, the consumption of the story through the story perceiver takes a central role in brand management. The results of our empirical study show that transportation with its two facets as well as a three-dimensional assessment of identification represents a valuable framework to measure the effects of brand-related stories and to determine if different stories are able to take the consumer into a journey throughout the brand’s world. With special focus on implicit and explicit brand-related information processing, the findings reveal that emotional engagement evoked by a story are not able to affect implicit brand attitudes to a significant degree compared with enjoyment through an entertaining experience. Nevertheless, implicit and explicit brand attitudes drive behavioral processes and help to predict behavioral key performance indicators.

Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Evmorfia Karampournioti, Nadine Hennigs, Steffen Schmidt, Levke Albertsen
The Ideology Underlying Consumer Boycott Studies: Are We Boycotting a Deeper Understanding of the Theme? An Abstract

Social media has enhanced the potential for consumers’ mobilization through social movements, such as boycott. Researches about how consumers negotiate their own pleasures of consumption with morality and thought for others and how this creates value for society as a hole are growing. More recently, some authors have pointed out the importance of a deeper understanding of the ideological agenda adjacent to each part of the social movements puzzle: activist consumers, companies, government, academic researchers, and so on (Askegaard & Linnet, 2011; Carrignton et al., 2016; Kozinets, 2014). This research aims to analyze the body of studies about consumer’s boycott that has been built over the past 20 years. The main objective was to critically analyze the ideologies underlying the researches and to discuss what could be the consequences of that. After refining the search for articles in the major Marketing and Consumer Behavior journals, a total of 25 articles were analyzed. Synthesizing, our analysis indicates that the predominant ideology underlying the researches about consumer boycott seems to be aligned with the maintenance of the idea of consumer sovereignty and, therefore, the consumption market-based system. That comes with a touch of hope that consumers have the power to change the world and build a better and fair society. The consequence of replicating in studies the mainstream ideology is that the system itself is not challenged. What we propose here is not about ranking ideologies and systems – e.g., capitalism vs. socialism or neoliberalism vs. protectionism – but about critically thinking of the greater contexts. Undoubtedly, the body of studies analyzed brought relevant contributions to build the knowledge about consumer boycotting. However, not going deep in identifying and analyzing what institutional ideologies may be influencing consumer individual reasons to boycotting, researches refrain from reflecting about those forces and also about how those forces might drive the study itself. The consequences for consumer behavior studies can be to state as “natural” attitudes and behaviors that actually emerge from a broader context of structured forces. When ideologies are hidden, i.e., not experienced as ideologies, they can prevent a deeper understanding of all the forces involved in the phenomena. We propose to reframe our questions when it comes to consumer boycott studies and therefore look for some more disruptive answers. That evolves questioning some “naturalized” results, going deeper into thinking about structured determinisms and institutionalized forces that drive not only consumers but also academic researchers.

Daniela Abrantes Ferreira, Paula Castro P. de Souza Chimenti
Explaining Motivational Needs Through Positive Affect and Brand Tribalism: An Abstract

Smartphone communities have relational and social attributes that parallel brand tribes: they demonstrate augmented forms of value systems, brand enthusiasm, and defense mechanisms (Taute & Sierra, 2014). Mobile communications users have been examined as tribes in Europe (Jurisic & Acevedo, 2011) and in the USA (Taute & Sierra, 2014); yet, determinants and outcomes of smartphone users’ brand tribalism need further inspection. To help close this research gap and offer acuity to this sequential process, we conjecture that positive affect toward a smartphone brand (PosAFF) antecedes both components of brand tribalism (i.e., defense of the tribe – DEFENSE and positivity associated with being a member of a brand tribe – TribePOS). In turn, these tribe dimensions lead to individuals’ motivational need for power (NPOWER) and need for achievement (NACHIEVE). Students enrolled in marketing courses at a southwestern US university completed the questionnaire during regularly scheduled classes. The mean age of respondents (N = 190) is 21.63 years (SD = 1.60). Whites (60%), Hispanics (28%), and Blacks (7%) are represented. In terms of favorite smartphone, iPhone (74%) and Droid (23%) are noted most.Estimation of the measurement model (34 items, 5 scales), confirms convergent and discriminant validity. With data pooling justified, the relationships were tested using SEM (LISREL 9.2). A COV matrix and MLE were used to estimate model parameters. Model estimation produced the following GOF statistics: χ2(518df) = 1889.51 (P = 0.00), (CFI) = 0.90, (GFI) = 0.63, and (RMSEA) = 0.11. The t statistic associated with six of the seven PC is significant at the P < 0.05 level or better. Specifically, PosAFF relates positively to DEFENSE (H1; PC = 0.54, t = 7.02) and TribePOS (H2; PC = 0.57, t = 6.40). In turn, DEFENSE relates positively to NPOWER (H3; PC = 0.26, t = 3.55) and negatively to NACHIEVE (H4; PC = −0.18, t = −2.21), while TribePOS is unrelated to NPOWER (H5; PC = −0.09, t = −1.35), but positively affects NACHIEVE (H6; PC = 0.19, t = 2.24). Lastly, NACHIEVE relates positively to NPOWER (H7; PC = 0.65, t = 7.30).Belonging to a brand community or tribe is an aspect of consumers’ lives that they cherish, are proud of, and that boosts their self-worth, all which contribute to their motivational needs to succeed in life. Accordingly, our model demonstrates that the positive affect associated smartphone ownership relates positively to both dimensions of brand tribalism, which in turn, helps explain motivational needs. Specifically, defense of the tribe positively affects need for power, while positive brand tribalism favorably influences need for achievement. Beguilingly, this research proffers that being a member of a brand tribe is but a platform in the development and progression of the motivational need for power and need for achievement. Additionally, it emerges that a consumer’s need for achievement drives their motivational need for power.

Jeremy J. Sierra, Harry A. Taute
The Quantified Self: The Role of Consumers’ Smart Wearables Perception Offered by Insurance Companies: An Abstract

The Quantified Self movement initially started in the Silicon Valley and rapidly became a mainstream phenomenon of self-tracking practices. In particular, the wide adoption of commercial activity trackers such as Fitbit HR, Xiaomi Mi, and Garmin Vivo made it possible for consumers to collect their biometrics and also track their physical activity throughout the day. The huge amount of data generated by consumers became highly interesting not only for online-based companies like Google or Amazon but also for the more traditional industries such as car manufacturers and insurance companies, which also started to pay attention to the Quantified Self data.Fitness trackers motivate consumers to change their attitude to have a healthy lifestyle through physical activity. However, sharing consumers’ personal information is a very sensitive topic to consumers. One contradictory result of this study is that consumers claiming to demand full control over their personal information and to be informed on every possible usage of their personal data but are not inclined to read the provided privacy policies or to review usage restrictions during mobile app installation on their devices. This is the complete opposite of the above-named consumers’ demands for insurance companies’ openness on information collection, usage, and disclosure. Nevertheless, consumers expect a positive influence of fitness trackers on their behavior intention regarding physical exercises and support insurance companies’ initiatives on reward programs in return for consumers’ preventive actions. Although insurance companies are able to use fitness trackers to assess consumers’ physical activity and to adapt insurance premiums according to consumers’ intention to conduct preventive actions, most of the survey participants refuse these types of premium calculations in favor of the principle of solidarity. The health care system intends to distribute the health care costs to all health care system participants equally, and hence, all citizens – regardless of extant diseases or other diminishing factors causing additional costs – are obliged to pay the same premium. The results of the study show that study participants rather pay a higher premium instead of contributing to injustice or inequality at both, the health care system and social composition.

Stefanie Paluch, Sven Tuzovic
Does a Hologram Give an Encore? Authenticity in Mixed Reality: An Abstract

While the promise of holograms to create a replicable consumer experience excites some consumers, others express skepticism about the potential enjoyment of watching dead celebrities, fictional characters, and so forth, in a materially “real” environment (Giesler, 2004). Virtual and augmented realities have acted as consumer gateways to consumer-hologram interactions (Jin, 2009; Suh & Lee, 2005; Yaoyuneyong et al., 2015); however, little is known about the state of these interactions. Although Milgram (1992) proposed a Reality-Virtuality continuum spanning from Real Environments to Augmented Reality to Augmented Virtuality to Virtual Environments, marketing scholarship has only recently approached application of these new technologies (Javornik, 2016; Scholz & Smith, 2016).This current research delves into the underlying factors behind holographic consumption. In particular, we explore four broad questions regarding consumer-hologram interactions and create an initial model of experiential consumption in the mixed reality context. (1) What draws consumers to watch holograms? (2) What aspects or rituals of holographic performances add to (detract from) the consumer-hologram interaction? (3) How does the concept of materiality in consumer-hologram interaction differ from consumer-human interactions? (4) How do the semiotics in hologram experiences contribute to consumer-hologram interactions?To answer these questions and start developing an emergent ethnographic model (Kozinets, 2002), we used a combination of both participant-observer and interview data. We found that pre-experiential information about holograms pre-acclimates participants to the holographic consumption experience. The holographic consumption experience consists of both reproduction fidelity (the audiovisual depiction) and engagement fidelity (the use of narrative transportation to engage flow). Holographic consumption experiences rich in authenticity lead to consumer value and satisfaction. The research suggests that consumer-hologram experiences can be leveraged not only in experiential consumption and service contexts but also as valuable consumer education, employee training, virtual retailing, and branding touchpoints.

Spencer M. Ross, Lauren I. Labrecque
Happiness by Design: A Self-Construction Framework of Proteus and Networking Effects in Online Games: An Abstract

The emergence of the digital world has provided users an online platform to alter their digital self-representations dramatically and easily. Today, mobile games, as entertainment media due to the rapid growth of mobile devices, usually become players’ utopian “third place,” beyond home and the workplace.Adopting self-construal theory, we propose a causal model that incorporates both the interdependent-self and independent-self routes, which lead to players’ online game addiction and perceived psychological well-being. To test the model using SmartPLS 3.2, we recruited 242 players of the Tower of Virtual Saviors mobile game in Taiwan.Both the interdependent-self route (from knowledge sharing to network externality, to social capital, to sense of virtual community) and the independent-self route (from social anxiety to disinhibition) exert a positive influence on players’ game addiction, which ultimately strengthens their psychological well-being. Theoretical and marketing implications of the findings are discussed.

Ting-Ting Chen, Shih-Ju Wang, Huang Heng-Chiang, Shih-Tsen Wang
The Influence on Need for Cognition, Web Expertise and Trust on Online and Offline Information Search Behaviour: An Abstract

Word of mouth (WOM) and its equivalent electronic word of mouth (eWOM) have been established as important influences in consumer decision processes. While recent research has explored the various aspects of eWOM and confirmed its importance as a source of information for consumers in online contexts (Zhu & Zhang, 2010), no study so far has investigated simultaneously traditional WOM and offline environments and the importance of eWOM in relation to other sources of information, namely, commercial and public channels. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore these relationships and to compare consumers’ online and offline information search behaviour, depending on need for cognition (NFC), web expertise and trust in offline and online sources, which are considered relevant influences to information search behaviour. Time consumers spend on a particular website is agreed as a crucial performance metric for websites (Danaher et al., 2006). Previous research suggests that usage duration better reflects consumer’s engagement than loyalty or intention measures (Dholakia et al., 2004). The experimental design (n = 366, 53.27% female, Mage = 30.23, SDage = 11.35) consisted of an interactive online information search task. Participants were asked to gather information for a buy or no-buy decision of a high-involvement product, namely, a HDTV monitor. This direct observation of consumers’ actions in a buying decision-related information search task was combined with a questionnaire focusing on their individual motives for choosing information sources (commercial, public and personal). Items measuring the need for cognition (Bless et al., 1994), web expertise, trust in and usage frequency of commercial, public and personal (online vs. offline) were used (5-point Likert scale). According to our results, consumer’s decision to search for information in the online environment depends very much on web expertise and trust, not on NFC. The search itself with usage frequency and time spent, however, is not influenced by web expertise anymore, but depends mainly on trust.

Elfriede Penz, Agnieszka Zablocki, Philipp Simbrunner
The Effect of Placement Context on Brand Persuasiveness: An Abstract

This empirical study extends the existing advertising literature to explore the effect of humor in less conventional advertising, product placement. Product placement, or the integration of branded information in media content, has been extensively studied in the past three decades. However, the context of product placement is comparatively under researched. Product placement context refers to the circumstances under which a brand was placed. Previous content analyses have shown that product placement tends to be largely associated with humorous elements (La Ferle & Edwards, 2006). Humor has been shown to influence traditional advertising (Eisend, 2009), but its effect within embedded advertising has yet to be systematically examined. In addition, most previous studies were conducted in Western cultures (e.g., US and the European countries). This study accounts for this gap by studying general consumers in a Chinese context and explores the effect of humor on the persuasiveness of placed brands.This study predicts and finds that humor facilitates the recall of placed brands and has a positive impact on brand attitudes. This affective effect of humor in product placement is determined by two moderating factors that include program involvement and psychological trait reactance. A content analysis of 225 h of prime-time television programs was conducted followed by a quasi-experimental study of 1100 television viewers. It was found that humor has a positive effect on brand attitudes for participants with high involvement with the program. Psychological trait reactance interacts with humor to influence brand attitude. Specifically, individuals with high trait reactance are more positive toward brands placed in a humorous context, while low trait reactance is more positive toward brands placed in a non-humorous context. The theoretical and managerial implications derived from the findings together with the research avenues are discussed.

Fanny Fong Yee Chan, Ben Lowe
Brand Advertising in an Access–Ownership World, How Marketing Channels Impact Message Persuasiveness: An Abstract

In light of the growing popularity of peer-to-peer sharing and other access-based consumption phenomena, firms are increasingly looking to expand beyond traditional ownership marketing channels by gaining entrée into emerging access marketing channels. In contrast to ownership, access-based consumption does not involve the outright purchase of a product; rather, it involves market-mediated transactions in which consumers acquire the short-term right to use or “access” goods (Bardhi & Eckhardt, 2012). One way traditional ownership-based firms are responding to this shift is to gain entrée into emerging access marketing channels. For instance, since Daimler launched the first manufacturer-driven car-sharing program, car2go, in 2009, other automobile manufacturers, such as BMW (DriveNow), Ford (Ford2go), Volkswagen (Quicar), and General Motors (attempted acquisition of Lyft), have followed suit (Baumeister et al., 2015). In fact, industry observers project that the car-sharing market will grow to $6.4 billion in retail sales by 2024 (Lorenz, 2016). Thus, an important challenge facing many ownership-based firms is how to promote themselves in an access marketing channel.One apparent assumption by many practitioners and academics is that consumers who prefer access over ownership are strongly driven by ideological concerns, such as proenvironmentalism and waste reduction (e.g., Gollnhoffer et al., 2016). Yet, refuting this assumption, there is evidence that functional concerns, such as cost savings and flexibility (e.g., paying a monthly sharing fee versus buying and maintaining a car), may be stronger drivers of preference (e.g., Eckhardt & Bardhi, 2015; Rudmin, 2016). Therefore, an important question for firms is if and how marketing communications should differ across access and ownership marketing channels in terms of the emphasis placed on functional and ideological concerns.In this research, we examine whether functional appeals will always result in more favorable attitudes toward access offerings or if and when ideological appeals will be equally or more persuasive. Building on the satisficing, maximizing, and brand personality literatures, we propose that people are more likely to satisfice in an access marketing channel, becoming more persuaded by appeals that fit with—or meet minimum expectations given—the brand’s personality. In contrast, people are more likely to maximize in an ownership marketing channel, becoming more persuaded by appeals that do not fit with—or exceed minimum expectations given—the brand’s personality. The results of two experiments with competent, exciting, and sincere brands largely support these hypotheses.

Lora Mitchell Harding, Mark T. Schenkel
Green Identity, Myth or Reality: An Abstract

Green consumerism has been on the rise over the last few decades as a consumer-driven campaign as well as a topic of interest in academic research. Nevertheless, industry experts and researchers alike are yet to create a unifying, consumer-approved definition of what it means to have a green identity. Millennials are a developing consumer base which is not only the most connected but is also the most aware of the green consumption culture. Therefore, this research aims to explore the perceptions of the university students who are classified as millennials in order to identify what it means for them to be a green consumer. Furthermore, this research aims to understand consumers’ perceptions of ‘green identity’, how different or similar these consumers see themselves in comparison to other consumers who are more or less green and how do they identify themselves as green consumers during their university life, by linking self-perception theory and self-identity concept. In the first phase of the study, in-depth interviews are conducted with first and final year undergraduate students to examine how their perception of green identity changes over the span of a university’s undergraduate degree. Preliminary results display a list of characteristics that are perceived to be and are part of green consumer identity. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that family, friends, higher education institutions, existing initiatives, and the media influence the formation of a student’s green identity. The second phase of the study will be used to test the proposed conceptual framework using quantitative method.

Samreen Ashraf, Maria Musarskaya
Understanding the Effect of Perceived Reasonableness on Customer Satisfaction in Relation to Moral Identity: An Abstract

A service provider standardizes various aspects of services to deliver those services ethically and satisfactorily. However, a service provider cannot plan for every contingency in designing its service specifications. Instead, a service provider could rely on morals of service personnel and customers and incorporate a certain level of flexibility within reason in its service design. The concept of “reasonableness” was proposed by Fukawa and Erevelles (2014) to explain such latitude that exists around expectations in the delivery of service. In this paper, we explore how customers’ perceived reasonableness influences customer satisfaction in relation to moral identity of customers. First, we investigate whether the moral identity of customers influences perceived reasonableness. Second, we explore whether the effect of perceived reasonableness on customer satisfaction is explained by affective or cognitive processing. Our study indicates that moral identity is a critical determinant of perceived reasonableness. Furthermore, our study suggests that the perceived reasonableness influences customer satisfaction through affect rather than cognition.

Nobuyuki Fukawa
Nostalgia and Astrometry as Precursors of Superstitious Beliefs: An Abstract

Many people espouse superstition, whether individually (e.g., wearing a lucky charm) or collectively (e.g., applying feng shui to the home) as a means for generating favorable life outcomes. Although psychologists acknowledge the value of studying superstition at the personal level (Marques, Leite, & Benvenuti, 2012), marketing scholars have yet to account fully for the antecedents of consumers’ superstitious attitudes and concomitant behaviors (e.g., Fluke, Webster, & Saucier, 2014); this inchoate understanding compromises the efforts of marketing theoreticians, marketing practitioners, and public-policy makers.Drawing from prior research on nostalgia (Sierra & McQuitty, 2007), astrometry (Mitchell, 1995), and superstition (Mowen & Carlson, 2003), this study employs experiential consumption theory (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982) and magical thinking (Zusne & Jones, 1989) to create a model of superstitious beliefs. Informed by the noted streams of research, yearning for the past (YernPST), horoscope importance (HoroIMP), and self-assessed zodiac sign expertise (ZodEXP) are posited as determinants of superstitious beliefs (SUPER). To test this model, questionnaire data collected from students enrolled in marketing courses at a south-western US university were analyzed. The mean age of respondents (N = 218) is 22.32 (SD = 2.53), with gender split evenly. Whites (71%), Hispanics (18%), and Blacks (8%) are most represented, with seniors (59%) and juniors (27%) dominating the sample.Maximum likelihood factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to confirm data structure. Cronbach’s alpha for the four construct-related scales ranges from 0.856 to 0.939. With robust factor loadings and non-substantial cross-loadings, the resulting four-factor solution accounts for 72.87 percent of the variance. These data collectively reflect valid construct measures. Using regression analysis, results indicate a significant model (Adj. R2 = 0.314, F = 33.67, P < 0.01) and support the three paths evaluated at the P < 0.01 level; that is, YernPST (H1; β = 0.269, t = 4.69), HoroIMP (H2; β = 0.286, t = 3.69), and ZodEXP (H3; β = 0.214, t = 2.75) relate positively to SUPER.The posited model assumes superstitious beliefs are positively influenced by a mix of nostalgic and astrological factors, such as yearning for the past and horoscope importance. Understanding antecedents that explain meaningful variance in consumers’ superstitions can prove valuable to scholars seeking to expand theoretical knowledge and practitioners wanting to grow their brand’s value. The posited model is consistent with consumers’ magical thinking, where fantasy and reality are amalgamated (James, Handelman, & Taylor, 2011).

Jeremy J. Sierra, Michael R. Hyman, Anna M. Turri
Love Makes the Daredevil, Mating Mindset and Proactive Tendency: An Abstract

Individuals have the inflated preference for options that do not require action (i.e., default option), a phenomenon known as the “omission bias” (Anderson, 2003; Spranca, Minsk, & Baron, 1991). An example of the omission bias is the vaccination experiment (Ritov & Baron, 1995). Suppose children are exposed to a fatal flu while an inexpensive vaccine is available to the public to prevent the flu, but the vaccine itself carries a rare chance of fatality. In anticipation of knowing the outcome of deaths, most participants would choose not taking the vaccine (omission). Literature generally agrees that omission bias is linked to the aversion to anticipated regret (Anderson, 2003; Zeelenberg et al., 2002). Individuals regret unfortunate outcomes that result from actions more than identical outcomes resulting from omission. Compared to maintaining the status quo, actions require more justification which signals an individual’s responsibility for the outcome. As a result, in the case of an unfavorable outcome, the individual is more likely to experience self-blame (Baron & Ritov, 2004; Spranca et al., 1991; Zeelenberg & Pieters, 2007; Zeelenberg et al., 2002).We propose and demonstrate that the romantic motive mitigates and, in some cases, reverses the omission bias, and this effect is driven by a shift in regulatory focus. Evolutionary psychology suggests that humans with short-term mating goals have the incentive to maximize their exposure to suitable candidates of the opposite sex, a motivation that we argue would lead to the promotion focus (Crow, Higgins & Hall, 1997). In turn, it has been documented that individuals with a promotion focus tend to regret over opportunity forgone in comparison to those with a prevention focus (Roese, Hur & Pennington, 1999).In experiment 1 we demonstrate that individuals become more likely to take actions against the status quo, a behavior opposite to the omission bias. In this experiment we also parse out the confound between action-against-default and risk-taking behavior. In experiments 2 and 3, we use mediation analyses to show that activation of short-term mating goal indeed invokes a heightened promotion focus and regret related to foregone opportunities, both of which lead to “action-against-default” type of change in shopping patterns. Finally, in experiment 4, we demonstrate that redirecting individuals’ attention to the potential change in their regulatory focus after the activation of mating mindset mitigates the action-against-default effect.

Yang He, Marcus da Cunha
Thankfulness and Hope as the Driving Emotions in Mommy Blogs: An Abstract

Women, as a market, are larger than both India and China combined, and yet many companies are not adequately understanding women (Silverstein & Sayre, 2009). This is especially true for working women. Approximately 57% of American women worked outside of the home in 2015; 24 million were mothers to at least one child under the age of 18 (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015, 2016). The idea that women who work outside the home face unique challenges compared to their male counterparts is frequently the subject of feminist theorizing. The concept of equality between the sexes is often cited in this context: from early movements to allow women into various professions to contemporary conceptions of breaking the glass ceiling and receiving equal pay for equal work (Evans, 1994; Hughes, 2002). Workplace gender equality has often been based on minimizing differences between the sexes by ensuring women are “equal” to men. As such it has been critiqued for denying women the space to express the unique challenges they often face that are different from men because this illuminates, rather than reduces, gendered differences (Smithson & Stokoe, 2005). It is crucial to understand their psychology.The objective of this research is to gather insights regarding perspectives of working mothers as seen by their posts to online communities or “mommy blogs.” The intended contribution is to help understand women who work outside of the home (as people and as a segment of the marketplace) and how they use mommy blogs as an online community that can offer a place to vent and support for the difficult and unique challenges that working mothers face. Conceptual contributions are in the areas of role conflict and the second shift. Reasons for the need for this research include vast social and economic justifications globally.Authors used netnography as a qualitative method to examine behavior, cultures, and social groups as seen in digital (online) environments (Kozinets, 2002). For data analysis, authors used a lexicographic semantic analysis tool called Leximancer. The analysis of the mothers’ postings reveals lower-order concepts that emerged from the netnographic data: pump, reasons, gave, thankful, past, priorities, hope, consider, and fun. These nine lower-order themes are then collapsed into three broader emerging themes: (1) sacrifices by working mothers, (2) cognitions (often self-cognitions) of working mothers, and (3) emotions felt by working mothers. The most common two emotions brought up are thankfulness and hope. The implication for marketing comes in the importance of understanding this segment of consumers so as to better provide services and products that can reinforce emotions or any related self-schemas of being hopeful and thankful. Furthermore, mommy blogs are full of influencers; therefore the content naturally fits with many digital advertisers of related products and services for these social influencers.

Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Anjala Krishen, Axenya Kachen, Amanda Mabry-Flynn, Nancy Ridgway
Red Sox Versus Yankees, Sports Team Rivalry, Sports Symbols, and Distance Performance: An Abstract

Building on the literature on psychological distance and visual illusion, the authors examine whether visual exposure to sports team symbols affects distance performance, depending on whether the symbols represent favored or rival teams. Boston Red Sox fans are used to test the hypothesis in the context of the famous Red Sox–Yankees rivalry. Individuals who are primed with the symbol of their favored (rival) sports team are predicted to hit/throw a ball short (long) of the target. In Study 1, Red Sox fans putt a golf ball imprinted with a Red Sox (Yankees) logo and are found to putt short (long) of the goal. In Study 2, Red Sox fans photograph a bobble head wearing a Red Sox (Yankee) jersey and then are found to throw a basketball nearer to (farther from) themselves.

Sukki Yoon, Austin Beltis, John Logan, Kacy Kim, Gayatri Subramanian
The Way to Regained Trust Through Service Recovery Is Paved with Consumer Forgiveness: The Effects of Service Failure Characteristics

The concept of service recovery has received significant attention in the fields of service marketing. However, scarcely few prior research has attempted to explore service failure from a customer’s psychological perspective, a research gap that this paper aims to fill. We develop a structural equation model to examine the potential factors that may affect consumer forgiveness and test the role of forgiveness as the consumer’s coping strategy in the case of negative service incidents. The model is tested using survey data from online shopper (N = 308). PLS results reveal that in addition to service recovery, consumer forgiveness is also the key to reconstruct relationship with service provider. And brand trust is an important mediator between consumer forgiveness and repurchase intention. This study also shows the extent to which particular situational factors within the context of service failures and consumers’ personal traits may facilitate or impede consumer forgiveness.

Lee Han, Huang Heng-Chiang, Shih Chuan-Feng
Service Quality and Satisfaction of Traditional and Technology-Enhanced Services

Recent digital transformation continues to play a significant role in service industry. Competitive landscape has intensified as firms must continue to fight rivals from various fronts. With more technology-based self-service, how firms manage, measure, and maintain service quality and satisfaction have become a difficult issue. The nature of service industry employs multiple channels of service and tends to include both traditional offline and technology-based self-service. Thus, the effects of service quality leading to satisfaction between traditional and technology-enhanced services will be explored, and a new comprehensive online banking service quality measurement will be proposed. Comparison of service satisfaction and the effects of service quality on satisfaction among consumers with different levels of technology readiness and technology anxiety will also be conducted. The study found that empathy and reliability are the two most important dimensions in the traditional banking service, while assurance, responsiveness, and empathy are the most important dimensions in the technology-enhanced service. Technology readiness plays more important role in technology-enhanced service adoption. Magnitudes of service quality effects on satisfaction for all consumer groups within technology-enhanced service setting are similar. Managerial implications are proposed.

Somkiat Eiamkanchanalai, Nuttapol Assarut
The Moderator Effect of Previous Dissatisfaction with Service Category on Co-creation with Consumers

Whether to develop products and services or to solve consumption problems, co-creation objective is to create value. Most previous research has emphasized consumer’s participation as co-creator of products and services, the co-creation effects on business performance, and the participants’ evaluations of the co-created output. Conversely, the perspective of the consumer who observes the co-creation process (not participants as co-creators) has been little explored in marketing literature. However, knowledge about how those observers evaluate a new service disclosing co-creation with consumers has become relevant. On the other hand, consumer satisfaction with the co-created product/service is considered a success measurement of the co-creation result. Nevertheless, nothing is known about how previous satisfaction or dissatisfaction with an offer influences the evaluation of the co-created product/service. In this context, the general objective of this research is to analyze the moderating effect of previous dissatisfaction with the service category on the evaluation of a co-created service, from the observer’s consumer perspective. Through two experimental studies, we found that when there is consumer dissatisfaction with the service category, to disclose the co-creation of a new service would lead to greater purchase intention. The managerial implications include marketing communications and service decisions.

Melby Karina Zuniga Huertas, Ingrid Pergentino
Cross-Cultural Study of Social Media-Based Brand Communities: An Abstract

Nowadays social media are becoming more and more important and have a great influence on people lifestyle. From a marketing perspective, the emergence of social media offers an opportunity for consumers to produce content about brands and share their experiences. The concept of social media-based brand communities was introduced by Laroche et al. (2012) as the combination of both brand community and social media. It is a subset of the broader concept of online brand communities. By definition, a brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2001). In their model, Laroche et al. (2012) found that on the first step, social media-based brand communities have positive impacts on three brand community markers (Muniz & O′ Guinn, 2001), i.e., shared consciousness of kind, shared rituals and traditions, and obligations to society. On the next step, these three markers have positive effects on four value creation practices of brand communities (Schau et al., 2009), i.e., social networking, community engagement, impressions management, and brand use.In this research, we want to study the moderation effect of difference in six dimensions of Hofstede’s cultural framework (i.e., power distance, long-term orientation, individualism, masculinity, indulgence, and uncertainty avoidance (Hofstede, 1980; Minkov & Hofestede, 2010) on the first and second steps of value creation practices in social media-based brand communities. First, we are interested in studying the moderation effects of culture in the impact of social media-based brand communities on three markers of brand communities. Next, we want to examine the moderating effect of culture on the impacts of social media-based brand communities on value creation practices.We have chosen Harley-Davidson and Pulsar social media-based brand communities on Facebook, which are the brand communities for two famous American and Indian motorcycle brands, respectively, to study these effects. We expect that the effects of social media-based brand communities on the three brand community markers and four value creation practices are moderated by six cultural dimensions.

Ali Heydari, Michel Laroche
Keep It Simple, Readability Increases Engagement on Twitter: An Abstract

Today, virtually all organizations are confronted with substantial competition. This is especially the case in social media, where an increasing number of firms are vying for consumer engagement on platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Google+, and others. To engage with consumers in social media, firms often communicate with consumers using brand posts on social media platforms.On Twitter, for instance, these brand posts are referred to as “tweets.” For example, Disney recently tweeted “Friends as sweet as honey” on their brand page on Twitter. Consumers subsequently engaged with this brand communication via actions including “retweets,” “favorites,” and “replies.”The present research identifies readability as a factor that affects the extent that consumers engage with brand communications in social media. The readability of text-based communications has long been known to affect consumers (Clark, Kaminski, & Brown, 1990; Sawyer, Laran, & Xu, 2008).Readability refers to the ease with which consumers can process and understand written text. The Flesch formula generates a “reading ease score” and is perhaps the most common method for assessing the readability of written text (Flesch, 1948). The Flesch formula suggests that shorter sentences and words with fewer syllables increase reading ease.As brand posts on Twitter are largely text based, we analyzed the readability of 5320 brand tweets over the period of 625 days. Consumer engagement was assessed by considering the number of retweets, likes, and replies associated with each brand post.The results suggest that more readable brand posts on Twitter are associated with significantly more “favorites,” “retweets,” and “replies.” This finding has important implications for managers seeking to engage with consumers in social media. By simply increasing the readability of brand communications, managers are likely to experience higher engagement rates with consumers in social media. Notably, such a strategy does not imply that managers need to change the message being communicated; rather, they only need to consider how to convey the message using shorter sentences and smaller words.

James M. Leonhardt, Igor Makienko
The Stories Packages Tell, A Typology of Product Stories Told on Grocery Product Packages: An Abstract

On an average trip to the supermarket, a consumer is exposed to more than 20,000 products, usually in less than 30 min. The modern supermarket is a self-service shopping experience, and packaging plays a critical role in influencing consumers at the point of sale. The product package, now, at once plays the role of the merchant, shopkeeper, and sales agent; the product package is now the storyteller for the brand. Most research into product packages focuses on the psychology of visual package design and consumer perceptions of what the product contained within the package will be like based on the visual stimulus of the package. But product packages are not one-sided, so this study instead focuses on the branded text on product packages. Package stories are narrative texts found on consumer packaged goods that serve as marketing communications tools, beyond labeling requirements. Beyond indirectly alluding to the importance of stories for packaged branded goods, marketing theory offers no frameworks or archetypes for the strategic understanding of brand stories. Thus, a simple research question “What types of stories to packages tell?” has no readily available answer. As such, this research took to an exploratory investigation of the brand stories as told on product packages, with the goal of uncovering a typology of package stories. A grounded content analysis was conducted on the package stories on more than 300 product packages, representing 19 different product categories in the FMCG sector. A two-level typology of storylines was created. It was found that all package stories first orient toward one of three time horizons: the past, the present, or the future. Within each of these temporal orientations lie a number of key plot foci, and it is proposed that there are ultimately 15 such archetypal plotlines across the three orientations. Each of these archetypes ultimately articulates what, at the core, the brand story is about. The first implication of this research is that product package and brand stories follow patterns, and understanding stories as formulaic constructions implies that brand stories can be managerially engineered for strategic purposes. Additionally, this research also suggests that certain stories become more prominent for certain product categories than others. The second implication, thus, is that the brand story be considered as a product attribute that can be engineered as a tool for competitive positioning.

Adam J. Mills
Cool Marketing for Icewine? Investigating Producer’s Product Positioning, Segmentation, and Marketing Mix for Canadian Icewine: An Abstract

Compared to the relative importance of icewine for the Canadian wine industry and the uniqueness of the product in the luxury wine and spirit segment, little attention has been paid to the marketing mix used by its producers. As a first step in addressing this gap, Paschen et al. (2016) developed a modified aesthetics and ontology framework to classify consumers of luxury wines and spirits with a focus on icewine. The framework separates the novice and the expert in the aesthetic dimension, while it distinguishes between transience and endurance in the ontology dimension. Working from these two dimensions, four distinct consumer groups have been identified: Carousers are novices on the aesthetics scale, while the ontological mode emphasizes the transient. Cabinet collectors are also novices, but the ontological mode emphasizes enduring. In contrast to the two preceding types, the connoisseur is an expert and a true consumer whose behavior emphasizes the transient. Finally, the cellar collector is an expert where the ontological mode emphasizes enduring. The current paper examines where icewine producers place consumers within this typology. Using semi-structured interviews led with representatives of five icewine producers, the authors gathered information on production, product range, positioning, and consumers. The interviews uncovered remarkably homogenous approaches to positioning and marketing icewine. Most purchasers were regarded as novices. With duty free as the predominant sales channel and on-site winery experiences a secondary channel, only limited efforts to address or create experts were discovered. The ontological dimension of the typology was defined by icewine’s changes through cellaring, making the predominant customer group the “carouser.” The marketing mix used was also similar between the different brands. Product variances uncovered were comparatively minor, with very similar price points and packaging approaches. This one-dimensional marketing approach bears risk for the category, which should be further explored and addressed through appropriate variations in the marketing mix.

Ulrich Paschen, Jeannette Paschen, Jan Kietzmann
Mapping Country Wine Brand Personalities, Examples from Five Nations: An Abstract

This paper presents a study of wine estate websites in five different countries and regions designed to explore which dimensions of brand personality wine estates exhibit online, to determine whether wine estates in different countries portray different dimensions of brand personality. The study uses text content from wine estate websites and analyzes it using the text analysis software Diction. Typical applications of the BPS include comparisons of brand personalities within an offering category utilizing questionnaires in which respondents indicate the extent to which the brands being compared possess dimensions of brand personality, namely, sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness.We chose five wine tourist destination countries/regions for the study to, first, get a mix of old and new world wine producers (France [old], South Africa [new/old], Australia, New Zealand, USA [new]) and in the case of three nations looked at the entire country (Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa) and at the best-known regions in two countries (Bordeaux for France, Napa for USA). The text analysis software Diction ( was used to analyze the data. Diction is especially useful for determining the tone of a verbal message and allows the user to incorporate their own dictionaries into the analysis to determine scores based on frequency of key words and tone. We extracted complete text from the websites of the different wine producers and used the five brand personality dictionaries (competence, excitement, ruggedness, sincerity, and sophistication) from the Pitt et al. (2007) dictionary source as the basis for computation for the analysis.Our findings show that there is little distinction across estates and regions on dimensions of brand personality in the self-portrayals of the brands on estate websites. Although there is some distinction, all speak most of excitement, followed by sincerity, then confidence and ruggedness, and least of sophistication in that order. These findings indicate that although wine estates and regions are unique in terms of the wine they produce and the geography from which the wine is produced, there is potentially room for estates to differentiate their brand on brand personality dimensions in their marketing. As well, the approach used in this research provides methodological insight into a way for those who manage wine tourism at the national, regional, and estate levels to gauge whether the personality of their brand is being communicated online as it is intended to be. The information gleaned from this type of research can be utilized both in brand personality decisions at a strategic level and in website design decisions at a tactical level.

Emily Treen, Philip Grant, Gene Van Heerden, Joseph Vella, Elsamari Botha, Anthony Chan
The Taste of Ageing, a 26-Year Analysis of Publications in the International Journal of Wine Business Research: An Abstract

This study analyses the content of the International Journal of Wine Business Research (IJWBR) and gives editors, reviewers, authors and practitioners an overview over the journal’s development over 26 years. The articles published in the journal since its inception in 1989 till 2014, inclusive, were analysed in two time frames. The first time frame covers 1989–2006 as the International Journal of Wine Marketing (IJWM), while the second time frame covers 2007–2014 as IJWBR, the new name under which the journal relaunched. All types of articles are included in the analysis with the exception of editorials, guest editorials and research notes. Five main themes are addressed: the nature of authorship, the most prolific and influential authors, characteristics of the manuscripts, regional distribution of the wine’s region-of-origin and focal markets, and the most common research themes.The content analysis of this journal sheds light on how the style of the journal has evolved since its inception in 1989 onto the second time frame. The types of articles and methods used have been consistent in the early issues (1989–2006). However, since 2007 the journal has welcomed more academic and quantitative articles. The change motivated new authors to write longer articles, collaborate more and use more references, tables and figures. As a result, the journal’s impact has increased significantly. In addition, empirical studies published in the journal indicated an increase in the publications covering the Americas as both regions of origin and focal markets, as compared to other regions. This is the first time a content analysis has been carried out for IJWBR. The objective is to help authors identifying new and interesting research areas as well as to give editors and reviewers insight into the style and areas explored since the journal’s inception. By using software tools for data collection and analysis, the study is bound to the limitations inherent from these tools.

Aya Rizk, Jirka Konietzny, Mario Cassar, Richard Wong, Åsa Wallström, Joseph Vella
Special Doctoral Colloquium Session: The Difficulties, Issues, and Pitfalls Doctorate Students Must Conquer in Becoming a Researcher, Author, and Scholar: An Abstract

Today’s as well as future young assistant marketing professors face growing pressures to publish their research in top tier marketing journals quickly upon graduating from their doctorate program. A fundamental question that needs exploring is “what Ph.D. program difficulties, issues, and pitfalls must doctorate students overcome in their learning processes of becoming a researcher and scholar with capabilities of writing and publishing journal quality manuscripts?”To address this question, the primary objective underlying this special session is one of identifying the difficulties and issues doctorate students face in developing themselves into scholarly researchers and journal article authors (or coauthors). Using a Ph.D. student’s perspective, this panel session should generate meaningful interactive discussions between the panel of third- and fourth-year doctoral candidates and the audience consisting of doctorate students, at different levels of their program, on critical topics, questions, and elements, which may be counterproductive in the development of research and manuscript writing skills as well as potential solutions.One of the unique elements of the session is the interactive “question and answer” framework of using experienced third- and fourth-year doctoral candidates as the panel members and keeping the audience to other doctorate students still in their program to create a meaningful dialogue and opportunities of exchanging invaluable insights toward the difficulties and solutions of learning to research and write journal article manuscripts while still in their program. In addition, this type of framework provides the participants opportunities of expressing possibly “good” and “bad” experiences in their process of becoming a scholarly researcher and author (or coauthor).To highlight briefly the operationalization of this session, the four student panelists will identify a list of difficulties, issues, and pitfalls that they have experienced within their program progression. This list and brief item discussions should help generate an interactive dialogue with members of the audience. A key to this session is that the audience must be other doctorate students and not faculty members. Therefore, the audience should be built through a “doctorate student invite only” mechanism at the conference and/or on the conference program.One hopeful outcome from the discussions of the above topics/issues, from students’ perspective, will be to provide clearer insights and understanding of how to correctly deal with the natural difficulties of becoming a scholarly researcher and journal article author. Although the major focus will be on research and writing skills, part of the session will deal with issues associated with teaching responsibilities.

Lisa Monahan, Christian Bushardt, Kristina Stuhler, Iana Lukina, David J. Ortinau
Salesperson Performance and Commitment and Buyer Relational Behaviors as Antecedents of Buyer’s Desire for Business Relationship with Suppliers: An Abstract

Many account executives (AE) are responsible for expanding a buyer’s scope of business with suppliers and building relationships between the two parties to leverage mutual benefits. The AE plays a central role in developing relationships and is the focus of substantial investment by firms. The question this paper addresses is: How does the AE influence the buyer’s desire for a relationship with its suppliers?The paper specifically examines the role of AE performance and AE commitment to the relationship (both from the customer perspective) play in determining buyer satisfaction with the supplier and investment with that supplier firm. The study further examines the effect of buyer investment and satisfaction on cooperative norms in the relationship and the buyer’s desire for a relationship with the supplier. We also examine various covariates such as years in a buyer role, scope and type of customer, length of the existing relationship, and the size of the customer.The sample is from 190 key accounts of a major telecom firm. As proposed, buyer-rated salesperson performance and commitment to the client firm were significantly related (p < 0.01) to both buyer satisfaction with the supplier and buyer investments into the relationship. As hypothesized, buyer satisfaction and investments into the relationship were significantly related to cooperative norms (p < 0.01). Cooperative norms played a mediating role between those constructs and the buyer’s desire for a continued relationship (p < 0.01).While not necessarily groundbreaking, the study indicates that the AE is critical in the formation of relationships and that buyer perceptions of the AE’s actions are the key motivator in the supplier being willing to increase their relationship with the AE’s firm. While a salesperson may do a great deal for a client, it is the client’s perceptions (not necessarily reality) that drive the customer firm’s level of commitment. Communication between the AE and supplying firm with the client firm is essential in making sure that the client understands all that the supplier is doing for the customer in order to insure the relationship grows and intensifies.

James Boles, Rita de Cássia de Faria Pereira, Valter Afonso Vieira, Julie Johnson-Busbin, Hiram Barksdale
The Effects of S-D Logic on Interfirm Relationships: An Abstract

Drawing on sociometric traditions, this research examines interfirm relationships using longitudinal goods and services flow data across two value networks between firms and their strategic suppliers in light of the movement toward a service-dominant (S-D) logic-based approach to doing business. The findings suggest that firms adopting this approach are more likely to garner positional advantage (moving to the network’s core), while firms maintaining a goods-dominant (G-D) approach are less likely to win positional advantage. The findings also suggest that both networks are dominated by new S-D logic adopting entrants, who enjoy more positional advantage in the second time period. Core firms are more likely to remain in the value network, although many transitioned to its periphery. In addition, peripheral firms—which are more inclined to maintain a G-D logic-based approach—are more likely to be shaken out of the network. Moreover, while firms in advantageous positions are not assured of continued incumbency, they are more likely to remain entrenched despite having not completely adopted an S-D logic-based approach. Finally, the results demonstrate that networks become multilayered with the emergence of a service-driven economy, as each transitioned into a three-layered value network. The study asserts that firms can optimize their relational strategies by considering the hidden effects of positional advantage, coupled with embracing the S-D logic.The main research questions addressed include: (1) What happens to the structure of interfirm relationships with the advent of changes to the way that firms do business? And, (2) what are the theoretical and managerial implications of these changes to value network structures? By subjecting relational data to a network analysis, the research presented provides strategic insights into how firms can capitalize on network positions while increasing their likelihood of long-term viability.Using core-periphery analysis, the effects of transitioning from a G-D to an S-D logic are expressed as a change in a firm’s positional advantage from t1 to t2. The results from the core-periphery analyses summarize the firms’ change in positional advantage over time. In particular, new entrants to the core in t2 and firms remaining in the core from t1 to t2 have adopted an approach to doing business that resonates with S-D logic and are thus more likely to play a dominant role in the value network. However, firms maintaining a G-D logic or slowly transitioning from G-D to an S-D logic-based approach, but not fully appreciating the value of using open source platforms, for instance, were relegated to the periphery or were forced to join an external network. The results show that interfirm relationships can be conceptualized as containing core-peripheral structures, dominated by more adaptable, service-oriented firms that facilitate discontinuous transformations (Vargo & Lusch, 2008).

Zhenning (Jimmy) Xu, Edward Ramirez, Gary L. Frankwick
The Mediating Effect of Trust and Commitment on Economic and Noneconomic Satisfaction: An Abstract

Several studies support the idea that the constructs of trust, commitment, and satisfaction are fundamentals for establishing, maintaining, and enduring successful business relationships (e.g., Ferro et al., 2016; Lee et al., 2010; Mysen et al., 2013; Palmatier et al., 2006; Rindell et al., 2013; Svensson et al., 2010).Trust, commitment, and satisfaction are frequently included as interconnected constructs in various interorganizational contexts (Athanasopoulou, 2009). However, there is still no consensus on how these three constructs fit into a nomological network (Geyskens et al., 1999; Svensson et al., 2010). There are studies that position satisfaction as an outcome of trust and commitment (e.g., Ruekert & Churchill, 1984; Svensson et al., 2010), whereas other studies assume that satisfaction precedes trust and commitment (e.g., Geyskens et al., 1999; Moliner et al., 2007a).In this study, satisfaction is divided into economic and noneconomic aspects of the constructs in business relationships (e.g., Ferro et al., 2016; Geyskens & Steenkamp 2000; Lee et al., 2008; Rodriguez et al., 2006). Trust and commitment are positioned as mediators between economic satisfaction and noneconomic satisfaction (e.g., Ferro et al., 2016). Therefore, the objective is to test a research model in which trust and commitment are mediators between economic satisfaction and noneconomic satisfaction.A total of 500 questionnaires were provided personally to respondents. A total of 173 usable questionnaires were returned, constituting a response rate of 34.6%.We performed a confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1976) to test the measurement and structural properties of the research model, based upon a sample of Puerto Rican business relationships. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the measurement model, which consisted of 12 indicator variables, based upon four constructs. The empirical findings support the notion that trust and commitment are mediators between economic and noneconomic satisfaction across context and through time.From a managerial perspective, the empirical findings indicate that managers should focus their efforts on achieving economic outcome at the beginning of the relationship. If the economic satisfaction is achieved, this behavior will have a positive effect on trust and commitment and a consequence in the noneconomic satisfaction. Subsequently, it is necessary for managers to strengthen and sustain commitment in business relationships with their suppliers to ensure noneconomic satisfaction though the time.

Juan Carlos Sosa-Varela, Göran Svensson
Business Mating Online: How Online Referrals Influence Supplier Selection? An Abstract

In the B2B context, a corporate website is one of the most prevalent sources of information regarding a company, especially for buyers who seek a new supplier (Long et al., 2007). Corporate websites can communicate the firm’s capabilities and thus facilitate a credible reputation, signal a relevant portfolio of partners, and attract partners from specific industries (Tóth et al., 2015). Corporate online referral (COR) is defined as a jointly created B2B marketing communication tool between receiver and the referral provider that includes partner logos, testimonials, and case studies. COR is a “boundary object” (Karsten et al., 2001) because it facilitates interfirm collaboration by creating mutual understanding between companies.CORs are relevant in their mediating role to convince potential clients about the corporate ability of a firm (Jalkala & Salminen 2009), influence customer engagement behaviors positively (Doorn et al., 2010), and support new customer acquisition (Libai et al., 2010). Drawing on the evaluation of referral programs of Ryn and Feick (2007), COR is especially useful for SMEs. While a range of CORs is customary to appear on corporate websites, little guidance exists for the best practices related to the most successful COR design (Hada et al., 2014; Kumar et al., 2010). Similarly, little is known about what referrals (e.g., content, source) are attractive for different clients with different needs.In order to address these gaps, the purpose of the current study is to explore ways in which suppliers can increase their online attractiveness in the eyes of potential SME buyers, with strategic use of CORs on company websites. Considering the importance of CORs to firm performance and a lack of empirical research facilitating the most successful COR deployment, in the current study we aim to explore: (1) aspects of referrals that make them attractive in buyers’ view, (2) referral-related factors that may contribute to perceived (mis)fit between a buyer and a supplier, and (3) ways in which online referrals may contribute to the evaluation of a potential supplier as suitable for a business relationship.Adopting the critical incident technique (CIT) method, we performed semi-structured interviews with ten SME executives. The interviews elicited recent (and hypothetical) instances of successful/unsuccessful supplier selection experiences. Our findings reveal that CORs are important, especially in the case of services and where connections between buyer and supplier were absent. Advantages included credibility and assurance of a service. The data revealed three core themes associated with COR. First, referrals were seen as a form of risk reduction device. Second, referrals appeared to play a role in the assessment of potential (mis)fit between partners. Third, concerns about the trustworthiness of referrals emerged as important based on negative prior experiences. We aim to contribute to the referral marketing and customer engagement literature, using the relational view of the firm (Dyer & Singh, 1998) informed by the “boundary objects” stream as theoretical lenses.

Zsofia Toth, Marzena E. Nieroda, Bernadett Koles
Social Media Links on Magazine Advertisements: When Do We Need Them?

In recent years, social media has become one of the most popular mediums with widespread linkages from traditional media formats to social media. The expected advertising spend in this area is $14 billion by 2018 (Hoelzel ,The social media advertising report: Growth forecasts, market trends and the rise of the mobile. Retrieved January 1, 2015 from, 2014). In fact, the marketers are using more than one advertising channel to reach a target audience (Romaniuk, Beal, & Uncles, Journal of Advertising Research, 53:221–230, 2014). A common example of cross-channel advertising is the usage of social media links on magazine advertising. This descriptive study explores the determinants of the usage of social media links on print magazine advertisements, with a focus on reference group theory, demographics, and product-related dimensions. We believe that advertisers must consider using social media links in their advertising campaigns if they target female consumers, younger consumers, and ethnic consumers. Moreover, we propose that for nonnecessity, visible products, social marketing campaigns, and social events, these links are essential.

Selcuk Ertekin, Linda Barton
Snapchat as an Influential Tool for Marketing Communication: An Exploratory Analysis of Brands Usage: An Abstract

Social media is an influential tool that can give more reliability on consumers’ perceptions of products and brands (Goldsmith & Horowitz, 2006; Mangold & Faulds, 2010). Many marketers today are communicating and advertising using different types of social media sites which are authentic and can lead to better brand knowledge among consumers and fans. For instance, Snapchat is one of the most unique social platforms today among young users. In a time span of 2 years from 2014 to 2016, Snapchat usage rose from 40% to 70% within the 18–24 age group (Weinberg, 2016). Snapchat, due to its ephemeral nature, presents specific features that offer a new and unique way for young users to communicate; hence, this platform presents a powerful opportunity to marketers for reaching millennials. This study examines how active brands on Snapchat are using this platform for marketing communication purposes.This exploratory study uses a quantitative content analysis technique to code and examine 363 snaps among brands on Snapchat. A sample of eight brands (food and beverage, travel, retail, beauty, industrial machinery, and e-commerce industry) were chosen. Findings give insights on how social media concepts and other factors are employed by companies for promoting branding in Snapchat. Overall, brands are starting to make emotional connections with fans through storytelling and post-triggered content that is entertained and informative. Brands are using Snapchat for posting content in real time that is authentic and spontaneous, but they are not taking fully into account innate features of the platform that can boost audience resonance. Findings also showed that Snapchat was poorly used among brands for community generation through the engagement of dialogues and conversations and for encourage mobilization, which engage users to act or do something in favor of the company. Companies eager to increase its brand equity should concentrate on efforts to build awareness to their marketing by focusing on the social media concepts (influence takeover, practical value content, triggers, storytelling, mobilization) (Berger, 2013; Lovejoy & Saxton, 2012), which are elements that contribute to brand awareness.This work is the first study in analyzing marketing communication practices in Snapchat among brands using a quantitative content analysis technique. It has implications for theory in serving as a starting point in the discussion and application on how firms can use ephemeral social media platforms like Snapchat to boost message resonance and promote brand awareness and knowledge.

Lina Gomez, Kasim Bernabe, Yanitzary Alvarado, Lourdes Meléndez
Covert Persuasion Attempts: Do People Notice? An Abstract

Pharmaceutical marketing is going through a period of transition in which many modern marketing tactics are being adopted in the pursuit of consumer engagement and brand affinity (Medical Media & Marketing, 2015). Right now, pharmaceutical companies are using unbranded social network communities in the promotion and education of diseases through virtual support groups. Rather than using social media as a one-way promotional tool, pharmaceutical companies are using covert tactics in order to engage and monitor their target audiences (Scott Rader et al., 2013).Much of the earlier attention in the pharmaceutical domain online has focused on company-controlled communication such as corporate web portals and drug information sites—which are both regulated—leaving an important and growing area of research focusing on tools such as social media that play an important role in consumer to consumer interaction (Scott Rader et al., 2013; Tyrawski & DeAndrea, 2015).The purpose of this research is to test competing theories of whether persuasion knowledge will be activated in a covert setting, specific to the context of pharmaceutical marketing. Researchers and practitioners have argued both for and against whether consumers will recognize a persuasion attempt in a covert setting, but until now there has not been a conclusive answer.Employing an experimental design, this study is an initial step in the debate on covert marketing’s effects on persuasion knowledge, specifically in the context of health and wellness communities on social media. Similar to Wojdynski and Evans’ (2016) findings that consumers did not notice native advertising, the results suggest that people do not recognize these tactics, either covert or overt, as persuasion attempts; we find no significant difference in participants’ evaluations of health and wellness communities when branding is present versus when it is absent.

Adam D. Slobodzian, Marjorie Delbaere
Improving Banner Ad Strategies Through Predictive Modeling

In this study, we apply unique predictive modeling and data mining methods to identify visual and temporal factors that have significant impacts on both the effectiveness and pricing of Internet banner ads. An analysis of 18,956 online advertising records aims to identify the optimal banner advertising strategies for achieving different business metrics, including effective cost per activity (eCPA). Specifically, we find that banner ads with high visual complexity and attractive offers tend to draw users to participate in online activities, while voluntary banner ads with low visual complexity tend to draw user clicks. Further, banner ads with lower visual complexity tend to have lower costs. The size and shape of banner ads also play a key role as larger banner ads are more effective. Finally, we find that the third quarter of a year is the most important period for online advertising campaigns. Advertisers can use the findings from this study to create an effective and cost-efficient banner advertising strategy. Specifically, firms should use larger banner ads with features and offers, advertise at the end of the year, and use caution with banner ad animations as they can significantly increase costs.

Michael Obal, Wen Lv
A Brand Foci Model to Explain Achievement Needs: A Contradictory Explanation: An Abstract

While the union between consumers and their adored brands has been typified as brand communities (McAlexander, Schouten, & Koenig, 2002) and brand tribes (the focus of this research) (e.g., Cova & Cova, 2001), researchers have gone beyond the nature of the consumer brand relationship to delve into its outcomes. Thus, understanding consumers’ attitudes and behaviors associated with brand tribe membership is a valuable investigative domain for marketing researchers (e.g., Gruner, Homburg, & Lukas, 2014). The purpose of this research is to examine the anthropological perspective of brand tribalism in an Eastern culture.This research proposes a sequential model of brand tribalism (i.e., segmentary lineage [LINEAGE], social structure [SOCIAL], defense of the tribe [DEFENSE], and sense of community [COMMUN]) on brand pride (PRIDE), to brand attitude (AB), to purchase intent (PIB). Also, consumers’ need for achievement (NACHIEVE) is modeled as an outcome of PIB. Students attending a university in Seoul, South Korea, served as respondents (N = 272); they were asked to indicate their favorite smartphone and how long it has been their favorite and, subsequently, to respond to the rating-scaled statements regarding this handheld device. Their mean age is 23.93 years (SD = 3.88), with men (61%) outnumbering women. The ethnic background of the sample is entirely Asian. In terms of favorite smartphone, Android (63%) and iPhone (37%) comprise the responses.Estimation of the measurement model (39 items, 8 scales) confirms convergent and discriminant validity. The relationships were tested using SEM (LISREL 9.20). A COV matrix and MLE were used to estimate model parameters. Model estimation produced the following GOF statistics: χ2(688df) = 2526.92 (P = 0.00), (CFI) = 0.95, (GFI) = 0.68, and (RMSEA) = 0.099. The t statistic associated with four of the seven path coefficients is significant at the P < 0.05 level or better. Specifically, COMMUN (H4; PC = 0.53, t = 1.97) relates positively, while LINEAGE (H1; PC = −0.04, t = −0.23), SOCIAL (H2; PC = 0.23, t = 1.79), and DEFENSE (H3; PC = 0.02, t = 0.08) are unrelated to PRIDE. In turn, PRIDE relates positively to AB (H5; PC = 0.38, t = 6.14), AB relates positively to PIB (H6; PC = 0.80, t = 14.71), and PIB relates positively to NACHIEVE (H7; PC = 0.27, t = 4.32).The use of pooled, multi-brand data from Eastern consumers suggests that only the sense of community brand tribe component significantly influences brand pride. This finding contradicts existing brand tribalism research (e.g., Badrinarayanan, Sierra, & Taute, 2014; Taute & Sierra, 2014), which suggests that defense of the tribe (a negatively charged emotion) is a more robust explanatory dimension of brand tribalism than positive emotional-laden tribe components, such as sense of community. The data source may help explain this opposing result (Zhang, van Doorn, & Leeflang, 2014).

Jeremy J. Sierra, Harry A. Taute, Byung-Kwan Lee
How Do Different Service Employees Deliver the Brand to Consumers? An Abstract

An important aspect of service employees’ performance is related to their ability to demonstrate brand-congruent behaviour, given that customers’ brand experience is a function of their encounter with them (Akdeniz & Calantone, 2015). An extensive amount of work in the area examines how frontline employees affect customers’ experience with the brand (Xie et al., 2014), and scholars examine a variety of organizational, interpersonal and intrapersonal factors which affect employees’ ability to deliver the brand consistently (e.g. Dean et al., 2016). Much of the published work espousing the importance of employees assumes that employees share a common understanding of their role, despite evidence showing that individuals may frame their work quite differently and have different motives when it comes to fulfilling various work-related objectives. Second, current internal branding conceptualizations view employees as a homogenous group of stakeholders who respond to the firm’s internal branding efforts in an unvarying way (Punjaisri et al., 2009). These assumptions are inaccurate, as interpersonal variations among individuals need to be taken into account when examining each employee’s ability to meet existing brand delivery standards when interacting with customers (Di Mascio, 2010). Without accommodating these intrapersonal variations into existing internal branding frameworks, managerial insights cannot be uniformly applied to entire service staff.This study departs from investigating traditional service employee management models which implicitly assume that all employees share homogeneous brand perceptions and introduces an individual-level perspective in the internal branding literature. This perspective is unique in that it accounts for intrapersonal variations among frontline employees and illustrates how different types of employee respond to the firm’s human resource management practices and how they deliver the brand to consumers. This study extends the service employee and the internal branding literature in introducing an individual-level perspective which takes into account intrapersonal variations of frontline employees when delivering the brand to consumers. Drawing from schema theory (Daft & Weick, 1984) and action identification theory (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987), a typology of service employees is introduced by exploring how each of these types perceives the firm’s brand and how they understand their role in the brand delivery process. Building on these findings, this study empirically confirms that the role of various human resource management practices (i.e. training, coaching) is not equally effective for all types of employees and also that employees’ responses to the firm’s efforts (i.e. brand mindfulness, brand attachment) vary significantly depending on their perceptions of the firm’s brand. Results also indicate that different employee types’ responses affect their extra-role brand-related behaviour (as captured by brand development and brand resilience) in different ways.

Achilleas Boukis, Kostas Kaminakis, Avraam Papastathopoulos, Khanyapuss Punjaisri, John Balmer
The Values of Storytelling: From Tactics to Transformative Action: An Abstract

Since at least the seminal articles by Gerrig (1994) and Stern (1994), consumer researchers have investigated the effects of storytelling in marketing. Despite the growing body of literature, many questions that surround the value that stories can create for consumers that wait to be answered. Expanding on the AMS 2016 special session “Unveiling the Magic of Storytelling in Marketing,” we set out to investigate with this session the multifaceted nature of values that can be created through storytelling in marketing.With five papers that address different facets of storytelling effects and effectiveness in marketing, we also aim at broadening the perspective on value co-creation with stories: value is co-created, since the Eigenzeit (Huber & Germelmann 2016) created a story told by the narrator that blends time and space about recipients’ experiences and inferences. Furthermore, transportation and narrative thought are key factors on the recipients’ side that drive the success of stories.The papers in the session show potential mechanisms and effects of storytelling in marketing and cover the range from its use as tactic to transformative approaches. The different views on storytelling and applications have been selected to complement each other as well as to spark discussion with the audience. The short presentations are intended to get an intense discussion started about the multifaceted role of storytelling in modern marketing. To this end, we will allot ample time for discussion in the session.The first paper, “Do Ads that Tell a Story Always Perform Better? An Anthropomorphism-Based Response,” investigates boundary conditions for the positive effect of transportation in narrative advertising. It proposes the idea that when the character in a commercial is anthropomorphic, narrative transportation leads to even more identification and to an increase in attitude toward the brand. The second paper, “The Mediating Effect of Storying on the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Salesperson Performance,” suggests a model that explains how feelings of psychological ownership toward the firm can place the salesperson in a good frame of mind for producing an authentic story: sales managers can have a positive impact (moderation) on this process through (1) mentoring their salespeople and (2) empowering them. In the third paper, “Storytelling as a Tool to Increase the Influence of Marketing Within the Firm,” the authors discuss how storytelling may add authenticity to the data reporting process and help to build internal relationships, leading to positive outcomes for marketing within the firm. The fourth paper, “Marketing’s Point of View: Narrative Competition Within the Firm,” the author sheds light on how narrative (storytelling) significantly impacts which business function has preference and advantages in influencing the firm’s strategic perspective by imposing its functional narrative worldview on the firm as a whole. In the last contribution, the authors ask “Will Storytelling Be Able to Let the Old Dream of Marketing for a Better World Come True?” They open the discussion by suggesting that storytelling could provide excellent opportunities for realizing demanding social marketing tasks regarding the change of consciousness, values, attitudes, and behavior patterns.

Edward L. Nowlin, Claas Christian Germelmann
Do Ads that Tell a Story Always Perform Better? An Anthropomorphism-Based Response: An Abstract

To understand the relative efficiency of storytelling versus factual advertising, this research builds on the notion that stories are made up of characters through which people vicariously experience the story (Escalas & Stern, 2003) and examines the roles of character identification and anthropomorphism in the effects of storytelling ads.In study 1, respondents (n = 127) were randomly assigned online to a Budweiser commercial that was either a storytelling or a factual ad and rated their brand attitude, identification, and narrative transportation. Results revealed a negative mediating effect of narrative transportation (CI = −0.443; −0.058) and an indirect effect of narrative transportation on Ab through identification (CI = −0.195; −0.036). This study shows that ads that tell a story exert a positive impact on narrative transportation but also indicate that when an ad is framed as telling a story, narrative transportation is increased and leads to lower identification with the character, ultimately having a less positive effect on Ab as opposed to a factual ad.In study 2 (n = 140), the same procedure was employed, but the brand was here Three, a UK telecommunications and Internet service provider. The same pattern of results was observed, with an indirect effect of ad framing on identification through narrative transportation (CI = −0.601; −0.026). Also, the mediating effect of identification was significant (CI = −0.138; −0.004), with narrative transportation exerting a negative effect on identification (β = −0.20, p < 0.001), which in turn positively affects Ab (β = 0.24, p = 0.001).To test the effect of anthropomorphism, study 3 employed a 2 (ad framing: storytelling versus factual) × 2 (character: human versus animal) between-subjects design. Respondents (n = 256) were exposed to the brand Three. Respondents were randomly exposed to an ad and asked to answer a questionnaire. The same results as in studies 1–2 were observed. Also, results revealed an interaction between narrative transportation and character anthropomorphism (β = 0.35, p < 0.001), with a moderated mediation (95% CI = 0.001; 0.153). Specifically, when the character is not anthropomorphic, identification exerts a negative mediating role between narrative transportation and Ab (CI = −0.121; −0.006), while no effect is observed when the character is anthropomorphic (CI = −0.026; 0.051). These results indicate that when the character is not anthropomorphic, narrative transportation leads to even less identification and to a decrease in Ab.

Laurence Dessart, Renaud Lunardo
The Mediating Effect of Storying on the Relationship Between Psychological Capital and Salesperson Performance: An Abstract

Storytelling is the act of tying together actions and consequences into an interesting narrative that drives sales. Storytelling aids in cognitive reasoning and affects how we view ourselves and others in a social exchange (i.e., a sales encounter). However, storytelling must be perceived as authentic if it is to be impactful. One key to creating authentic stories is for the storyteller to have authentic feelings about what is being said and the message being conveyed. Psychological ownership, or the feeling that an object or idea is “MINE!,” can positively impact employee attitudes, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and extra-role behavior. In short, feelings of psychological ownership toward the firm can place the salesperson in a good frame of mind for producing an authentic story. Thus, we propose that feelings of psychological ownership will drive better storytelling on the part of salespeople. Improved storytelling, in turn, will drive better sales performance. We further propose that sales managers can have a positive impact (moderation) on this process through (1) mentoring their salespeople and (2) empowering them with the tools, resources, and autonomy to do the job.

Edward L. Nowlin, David M. Houghton, Douglas M. Walker
Storytelling as a Tool to Increase the Influence of Marketing Within the Firm: An Abstract

Marketing’s role within the firm has diminished in recent years, leading to marketing being absent from many C-suites and left out of the decision-making process. The average life span for CMOs is likewise in decline. This diminished status within the firm can be explained, at least in part, by the inability of marketing to (1) quantify many of its internal processes and outcomes of interest and (2) develop and convey insights from this data that can improve managerial decision making. These deficits leave marketing managers at a disadvantage compared to other departments within the firm when it comes to justifying expenditures and proposing strategic initiatives.Marketers have developed new methods of measuring outcomes and processes and are now in a wash of data from various digital sources. However, the sheer volume of data has become unwieldy and has in fact made it more difficult for marketers to gain worthwhile insights to help the firm. When an insight is found, it can also be difficult to sell the value of this insight up the line.We propose that data analysts are in a unique position to solve marketing’s key problems in this area. Data analysts are trained to handle large volumes of data and generate worthwhile insights. As such, they are in a prime position to become the primary storytellers of marketing’s value within the firm. Analysts are uniquely positioned to understand and speak toward the value of the firm’s data and the insights that can be found within it.Storytelling may add authenticity to the data reporting process and help to build internal relationships, leading to positive outcomes for marketing within the firm. We propose that managers can encourage genuine storytelling behavior among analysts by (1) creating an ethical climate in regard to the analytical and reporting processes, (2) offering managerial support from within the marketing unit, and (3) fostering feelings of psychological ownership toward the firm.

David M. Houghton, Douglas M. Walker, Edward L. Nowlin
Marketing’s Point of View: Narrative Competition Within the Firm: An Abstract

Every firm experiences power struggles involving various actors over power, resources, strategy, and direction (Fligstein, 1987). This struggle for influence is often determined by the individual’s authority within the firm and by their ability to define and provide solutions for important problems. On the surface, the stories that capture firm priorities and those that mandate and maintain critical-resource precedence correspond closely to functional backgrounds of the top management team (Hambrick & Mason 1984). However, there are circumstances when the backgrounds of chief executives may fade in comparison to the situation at hand. For instance, in times when access to capital is greatly reduced or federal legislation restricts certain practices, the chief executive officer’s (CEO) background matters less than their ability to hire or promote the right individual (Zorn, 2004). Moreover, the degree to which a business function (marketing, finance, accounting, etc.) is perceived as holding the skills necessary (core competencies) for firm success, that subunit will gain power to direct the firm (Fligstein, 1987). In critical times, the competition for narrative dominance may be particularly acute and generate influence that comes to bear on key decision makers, regardless of functional background.In times of crisis or disequilibrium (internal or external factors), firm leaders may be more open to influence from competing narratives to provide understanding and insight for potential solutions that offer stability. In addition, managers that offer particularly good evaluations or solutions to firm issues may carry more influence. This suggests those who possess particular knowledge, have an astute recognition of the environment, are able to seize opportunity in ominous or quickly changing circumstances, and are able to articulate associated insight compellingly have an increased chance to create influence when it matters most. Such a window of opportunity may provide conditions necessary for a new narrative to emerge—one that tells the story from a particular business function’s perspective, or point of view (POV), paving the way for its emergence to dominance. The present work focuses on how narrative theory is applied to the firm in order to understand the competition for strategic influence and in particular the role of business-function POV.Narratology (the theory of narrative) is the academic discipline specializing in the analysis of stories (Phelan & Rabinowitz, 2005). It assumes that a universal but implicit model explains the ability to identify and process life in all its complexity as stories (Phelan & Rabinowitz, 2005). In this context, narratology is proposed as both a theory and a method (Genette, 1980) to locate, identify, and understand narratives specifically as part of a qualitative analysis. It is suggested that narrative (storytelling) significantly impacts which business function has preference and advantages in influencing the firm’s strategic perspective by imposing its functional narrative worldview on the firm as a whole.The narratives used in this study were collected from 22 of the senior-most marketing and finance personnel in ten firms, across multiple industries. In most cases, dyadic and triadic interviews were conducted among top marketing and finance executives and managers (e.g., CEO, CMO, and CFO in the same firm or CFO and CMO in the same firm) to get a cross analysis of narratives that reflect the ways marketing and finance officers perceived, communicated, and understood each other’s function within the firm. The unit of analysis in this study is the individual narrative event and components of those events. 689 individual narrative events across 77 nodes were collected and analyzed spanning the 22 depth interviews.

Martin Key
Will Storytelling Be Able to Let the Old Dream of Marketing for a Better World Come True? Developing a Conceptual Framework of a Transformative Storytelling Approach” and Sketching an Agenda for Joint Research Efforts: An Abstract

To persuade people of new ideas, to set new values, and to change existing attitudes as well as deeply grounded behavioral habits actively challenge business corporations, nonprofits, and social entrepreneurs who are engaged in implementing social marketing or, e.g., especially sustainability marketing programs. At this point, the art of storytelling seems to represent an efficient means to move society and consumers on the path toward a better world. While in analytical persuasion high levels of involvement are required to reach people with specific societal and environmental topics and challenges, this is not the case in narrative persuasion because “viewers or readers of an entertainment narrative typically appear to be far more engrossed in the message” (Slater, 2002, p. 171). The persuasive/influencing power of stories lies in narrative transportation meaning the extent to which the story receiver gets lost in a story (Green & Brock, 2000, p.702; van Laer et al., 2014) or enters a new world evoked by the narrative through the activation of empathy or mental imagination of the story plot (val Laer et al., 2014). Furthermore analytical persuasion focuses on logical consideration and cognitive evaluation, while narrative transportation appears to be more unintentionally affective in nature and is represented by strong affective responses and realism of experience without careful evaluation of arguments (van Laer et al., 2014). Existing research on narrative transportation has already confirmed that this kind of “traveling” through a story can lead to transformational experiences by the story receiver (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2010) resulting in strong and long-lasting effects on affective and cognitive responses, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions (Green, Garst, & Brock 2004; Green et al., 2008).Following the abovementioned insights partially originating from findings of psychological influence as well as from neuroeconomics, storytelling seems to provide excellent opportunities for realizing demanding social marketing tasks regarding the change of consciousness, values, attitudes, and behavior patterns. Based on both (a) our empirical insights regarding the deficits in sustainability awareness and behavior as well as promising attempts of provoking sustainability conscious behaviors and (b) an overview over existing knowledge about storytelling, its design, and possible impact, we aim to develop a well-founded and integrated conceptual framework which shows the relevant prerequisites, influence, and design factors of a “transformative storytelling approach” which appears suitable to effectively and efficiently influence the consciousness of consumers toward sustainable consumption and especially the necessity to really change behaviors. Moreover, several ideas for designing empirical research to analyze the effects of theoretically developed transformative storytelling approaches will be discussed to invite to take part in joint research efforts.

Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Efmorvia Karampournioti
Inferring the Personalities of B2B Salespeople from Text-Based Interviews: An Exploratory Study: An Abstract

Identifying the traits of the successful salesperson has long been a challenge to both sales practitioners and marketing scholars. The costs of poor recruiting, selection, and hiring decisions are considerable, and so ideally, firms would like to be able to identify as quickly and as effectively as possible what makes a high-performing salesperson. This is especially true in B2B environments, where personal selling is still a very important part of a firm’s marketing communication mix. A number of tools, including personality analysis, have been used over the years to attempt to identify the traits of the successful sales performer. This paper describes a study in which the text from depth interviews with a sample of salespersons in a B2B environment was subjected to content analysis using IBM’s Watson software to produce personality profiles of the individual salespersons. The salespersons could then be segmented into different groups, depending on their personality traits. The limitations are acknowledged, managerial implications discussed, and avenues for future research identified.

Christine Pitt, Neil Lilford, Albert Caruana
The Impact of Subjective Well-Being on Salesperson Relational and Economic Performances: An Abstract

The aim of this research is to study the much overlooked but critical issue of salespeople Subjective Well-Being (SWB) and its impact on performance. In particular, this study focuses on the impact of SWB on the salesperson cognitive and emotional state, their relationship quality with the customers, and their subsequent economic performance.We start with a multidisciplinary literature review summarizing and synthesizing previous findings in positive psychology, relationship marketing, and sales areas. We then look at the importance of the SWB construct and assess the various multilevel impacts on the salesperson, the customer and the firm. We then develop hypotheses and propose a theoretical framework.The proposed framework includes a number of important constructs: First, we consider the impact of SWB on the salesperson cognitive and emotional state. Second, we explore the impact of these positive characteristics on the Relationship Quality through the eyes of the customers. Finally, we study the impact of salesperson SWB on the firm economic performance by measuring the impact on the dollar return/volume sold, the number and growth levels of the key accounts, the generated sales margin and the number of acquired new accounts. We also propose three moderating variables, work/life balance, emotion control, and action control, to further examine conditions affecting salesperson’s performance.We propose to conduct two studies, each comprising a triadic approach (salesperson, customer, firm) to collect data. In the first study, we plan to conduct in-depth interviews with sales professionals, customers and sales managers to gain deeper understanding of their perceptions of SWB, and its potential impacts. These findings will be integrated to modify existing scales and develop a questionnaire for the main study where we intend to gain cooperation from a sales organization to gather data from its salespeople regarding their SWB, cognitive and emotional states, and work/life balance as well as matching economic performance data from sales managers. Economic performance data will be at the SBU, territory, or customer segment level depending upon the characteristics of the participating firm. Furthermore, relational performance data will be gathered from salespeople’s customers.The study will provide sales organizations with a guide to train and motivate salespeople to develop positive skills that foster positive relational and economic outcomes. Furthermore, the findings of the current study may aid sales managers in developing leadership skills to strategically nurture SWB traits and ensure salespeople’s and firm’s success.

Linda Nasr, Annie Liu, Mark Leach
When (Not) to Use Humor in a B-to-B Relationship: The Role of the Exploration Relationship Phase in the Effects of Humor on Business Performance: An Abstract

How salespeople communicate with their business partners helps to build strong relationships (Boorom et al., 1998). A communication trait that salespeople can use is humor or “any event shared by an agent with another individual that is intended to be amusing to the target and that the target perceives as an intentional act” (Cooper, 2008, p. 1090). In the context of business-to-business relationships, humor makes easier obtaining the other agent’s attention, developing rapport and group solidarity, reducing anxiety and hostility, softening the meeting of objections, or distracting the other agent from the objection (Wagle, 1985). It is thus the overall quality of the relationship between two agents that might be positively affected by the use of humor.We posit that these effects should be examined under the lens of the four relationship phases (exploration, buildup, maturity, and decline; Jap & Ganesan, 2000) that characterize business relationships. Specifically, exploration is a phase in which each party begins to uncover the goal compatibility and performance of the other. During this period of search, business agents weigh the likely benefits, costs, and obligations associated with working with the other agent. This phase is thus one whose goal is mainly to reduce uncertainty and assess potential benefits from continued interaction. Since using humor can sometimes be risky (Tremblay & Gibson, 2016) and given the prevalence of risk aversion during the exploration phase (Kusari et al., 2013), the relationship phase (exploration versus other) may moderate the effects of humor used by an agent on the other agent’s trust.From a sample of 177 salespeople who received an email with a cover letter that manipulated the relationship phase and a link to an online questionnaire, we show a significant interaction between humor and the exploration phase. Hence, humor has a positive effect on trust when the business made between the two parties does not occur during the exploration phase, while it has a negative effect when the business made between the two parties occurs during the exploration phase. We also show a significant indirect effect of humor on business performance, as well as a significant moderated mediation indicating that when the business is not in the exploration phase, humor mediates the effect of humor on the amount of business made with the other party, while it is not the case when the business is in the exploration phase.

Laurent Bompar, Renaud Lunardo, Camille Saintives
Information Search at the Point of Sale: How Information Source Influences Customers’ Purchase Channel Switching Intention: An Abstract

Understanding the influence of customers’ mobile device usage at the point of sale is a fundamental insight for brick-and-mortar retailers to compete with online stores. Prior research has extensively studied diverse facets of mobile marketing communication (e.g., Bues et al., 2017; Goldfarb & Tucker, 2011; Luo et al., 2014). However, customers’ mobile search behavior at the point of sale and its influence on their shopping behavior have not been sufficiently investigated (Daurer et al., 2015). Therefore, we developed a model centered toward the effect of the source of information (mobile internet search vs. frontline-employee interaction vs. product description) on customers’ channel switching intentions (from the physical retailer to a competitive online store) during the purchase process.Based on a mixed-methods approach involving qualitative interviews and a field experiment, the purpose of this paper is (1) to identify switching costs during a purchase process and (2) to examine the impact of information source on purchase channel switching intentions.Matching the qualitative data with previous literature, we identified four types of switching costs that could explain the effects of the determinants on customers’ purchase channel-switching intention. The results indicate that purchase channel preferences are determined by the channel used to gather product information as well as other contextual determinants, such as relative online price advantage, delivery time, and time spent to get to the store.To test the proposed model, a single-factor between-subjects field experiment was conducted. A total of 575 undergraduate students completed different experimental tasks at an electronics store and a follow-up questionnaire.In this context, the concept of switching costs provided an appropriate approach for explaining customers’ channel switching intentions in an ongoing purchase process. While existing literature has mostly focused on mobile price comparisons as a potential risk for retailers, this study provides evidence for the impact of general mobile device usage in the purchase process.

Andreas Kessenbrock, Sören Köcher
The Value of Shopping Channels and the Relationship with Social Exclusion and Perceived Well-Being: An Abstract

This paper examines the impact of social exclusion (caused by reduced mobility/disability) on consumers’ choices of retail channels. Socially excluded consumers experience difficulties in accessing stores and may select electronic channels in order to alleviate the consequences of social exclusion and improve their wellbeing. We examined the interrelationships between, social exclusion, attitude, social norms, intentions to use a specific retail channel, perceived value, and the perceived contribution to wellbeing of three shopping channels, namely, computer, mobile phone, and the mall.Data collected in the United States from 1368 participants via an online survey suggests that for the computer channel, social exclusion has a positive effect on the importance of social norms which subsequently positively affect attitude towards shopping online using a computer. Attitude positively affects intentions towards using this shopping channel. Social exclusion, attitude, social norms, and intentions of shopping online using a computer positively affect the perceived hedonic value from this channel. Finally, perceived social exclusion, social norms, and perceived hedonic value also have a significant positive effect on the contribution of this shopping channel on wellbeing.Social exclusion has a positive effect on the importance of social norms when considering shopping online using a mobile phone. Social norms also have a positive effect on attitude towards shopping online using a mobile phone. Social exclusion, attitude, and social norms also positively influence the intentions of shopping online via a mobile phone. Attitude, social norms, and intentions all have positive effects on the perceived hedonic value. Finally, perceived social exclusion, social norms intentions, and the perceived hedonic value have a positive effect on the perceived contribution of the channel on an individual’s wellbeing.Regarding shopping at the mall, feeling socially excluded has a positive effect on the importance of social norms, which positively influence attitude towards shopping via this channel. Attitude positively influences intentions to shop in store. The perceived hedonic value of shopping at the mall is influenced by social exclusion, social norms, attitude, and intentions. In addition, the perceived social exclusion, social norms, and the anticipated hedonic value from shopping at the mall positively influence the perceived contribution of the channel to an individual’s wellbeing.Our key contribution is that people who consider themselves to be socially excluded have greater intentions to shop via mobile phone and those intentions lead to greater channel contribution to wellbeing, relationships that are not apparent for the other two channels.

Eleftherios Alamanos, Savvas Papagiannidis, Charles Dennis, Michael Bourlakis
Toward the Identification of Consumer Retailer Nostalgia: An Abstract

While nostalgia has received considerable attention in the marketing literature, relatively little research has been conducted as to the role of consumer nostalgia in the retail setting. In addition, while previous research has found that autobiographical memories are evoked naturally and spontaneously in response to various marketing stimuli and many consumption memories involve retail experiences, little is known about the types of nostalgic memories evoked by remembering a retailer and the elements of retailing that are associated with such memories.In this research, a projective technique involves the creation of a collage of a specific retailer selected by the participant which utilized images with written descriptions that represented the participant’s experiences with the selected retailer. Judges conducted a content analysis of the collages (n = 105). The results provided a basis to identify, categorize, and define the distinct types of retailer-related nostalgic memories and the elements of retailing experiences that contribute to nostalgic memories.

Hyunju Shin, Janna M. Parker
Standing Out by Standing Up: Brand Differentiation and Minority Influence Theory: An Abstract

This paper examines how Minority Influence Theory, originally from Social Psychology Literature, can be used in marketing strategy to aid brand differentiation. More specifically, it looks at a set of criteria for brands to evaluate prior to aligning themselves with controversial topics for differentiation purposes. It assesses the role of strategic brand management, using Minority Influence Theory, and suggests conditions for aligning a brand with a controversial issue successfully. This paper presents three propositions for practitioners and researchers to explore with respect to Minority Influence Theory. These are:Proposition #1 The consistency and confidence of the cause affects the likelihood of the brand benefiting from aligning with it.(a)The greater the consistency and confidence of the issue, the increased likelihood the brand will benefit from aligning.(b)The lesser the consistency and confidence of the issue, the decreased likelihood the brand will benefit from aligning.Proposition #2The flexibility of the cause affects the likelihood of the brand benefiting from aligning with it.(a)The greater the flexibility of the issue, the increased likelihood the brand will benefit from aligning.(b)The less flexible the issue, the decreased likelihood the brand will benefit from aligning.Proposition #3The authenticity of the brand/spokesperson to speak to the particular issue affects the likelihood of the brand benefiting from aligning with it.(a)The greater the authenticity of the brand/spokesperson to speak to a particular issue, the increased likelihood of the brand benefiting from aligning.(b)The lesser the authenticity of the brand/spokesperson to speak to a particular issue, the decreased likelihood of the brand benefitting from aligning.The case studies present examples of positive outcomes of successful alignment as well as a case where the brand was not successful. By carefully considering the framework presented, managers can determine whether aligning with a controversial issue is useful for their brand.

Kylie Mcmullan, Amanda Blair, Stacey Morrison, Caitlin Ferreira
Conversion Theory in Marketing

How do marketing campaigns encourage a majority group of consumers to support a minority group of consumers’ opinion? Why do consumers change their opinions? Why do consumers do what they do? Conversion theory addresses a simultaneous majority and minority influence on consumer behaviour. Whilst conversion theory is applied to various disciplines, there is a gap in literature on conversion theory as applied to the marketing discipline. This paper focuses on conversion theory in marketing and contributes by introducing three new propositions to marketing literature, namely, (1) marketing campaigns can convert the majority opinion to support the minority opinion privately and/or publicly when portraying ‘consistency’, (2) marketing campaigns can convert the majority opinion to support the minority opinion privately and/or publicly when portraying a style of thinking that encourages discussion amongst the majority, and (3) marketing campaigns can convert the majority opinion to support the minority opinion privately and/or publicly when the majority identifies themselves with the message of the marketing campaign.

Maria Rosa Parra Villanueva, Raeesah Chohan
Building Brand Identification Through Cause-Brand Alliances: The Role of Perceived Cause Controversy: An Abstract

Companies are increasingly implementing cause-brand alliance strategies to signal corporate social responsibility. In a cause-brand alliance, the name of a brand is linked with the name of a nonprofit organization or a cause. Cause-brand alliances have been shown to greatly benefit both the brand and the cause.An important managerial dimension of any strategic alliance is the selection of the right partner. Breaking with historical precedence, marketers and company CEOs have increasingly begun to speak out on controversial issues. Taking sides on controversial issues is not always a plus and sometimes leads to a backlash. Given this, it is important to understand under what conditions allying with a controversial cause positively influences customer’s evaluations.Our findings indicate that when there is no significant public disagreement concerning the cause, that known findings regarding cause-brand alliances are still valid. That is, customers will have more positive attitudes and identification with the focal brand, if only one of the partners is reputable. However, when there is substantial public disagreement concerning the cause, managers need to be aware that only combinations of highly reputable brands and highly reputable nonprofits will have positive effects on customer attitudes and brand identification. These findings provide theoretical and managerial insights that will be further discussed.

Yasamin Vahdati, Kevin Voss
Developing a Political Brand Image Framework

The relationship between consumers and brands needs a thorough understanding of the means of developing a strong sense of bonding. This is true for political branding and marketing as well. Thus, one of the most effective means of developing this is the political brand image. Further, studies have found that found that voter assessments become negative when the party and the leader cannot portray themselves positively and vice versa. Despite this, there are almost no studies that provide a comprehensive means of developing a political brand image. Our study thus borrows the taxonomical structure from impression management. To substantiate this, we used focus group discussions to elicit the general perceptions of relevant respondents. Thus, we conducted eight FGDs with ten participants each. This study was further supported by interviews with three political observers. Further, the following categories and themes for political brand image were developed: political brand image and enhancement, political brand image and exemplification, political brand image and humility, political brand image and tenacity and political brand Image and self-promotion. Subsequently, the following themes were developed: enhancement, exemplification, humility, tenacity and self-promotion. Thus, we developed a robust retrospective and prospective framework for a strong political brand image.

Varsha Jain, Philip J. Kitchen, B. E. Ganesh
Detecting Careless Respondents in Survey Data: Floodlight Detection of Careless Respondents

The current paper introduces a novel method for detecting careless respondents, namely, floodlight detection of careless respondents. This novel method is composed of two steps: (1) creating a nonsense regression model and then (2) testing a moderator role of response time on the nonsense regression model with Johnson-Neyman technique. An illustration of the floodlight detection of careless respondents method was performed with online survey data collected from 148 Turkish participants.

Volkan Dogan
Quantitative Insights from Qualitative Data: Using the Doubling Technique in Correspondence Analysis: An Abstract

We describe a study that began as a qualitative research piece, involving a series of depth interviews with a wide spectrum of art collectors. Text data from these interviews were analyzed using Watson, a natural language processing content analysis software that enables an identification of the main personality traits of each respondent. This software produced output percentile scores on the Big Five personality traits. The Big Five is the most widely used personality model and describes how a person engages with the world based on five dimensions: intro-/extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. This data in turn became the input for a statistical analysis tool, correspondence analysis, which enabled us to group the respondents according to their personality traits and distinguish among different subgroups of art collectors to form more homogenous groups of art collectors based on the personality profiles.Due to the percentile scores of the output, we employed the use of a doubling technique to yield more valid results from the correspondence analysis. The doubling technique involved creating two points for each trait – the positive pole and the negative pole. This technique aided as a visual assessment for the grouping of art collectors into more homogenous groups based on personalities. The interpretation of the “doubled” points is effectively a visual assessment, for the total sample, of the distribution of the participant percentile scores for each of the five personality trait variables, which aided in grouping the respondents into distinct groups. Results showed four distinct groups of art collectors based on the relative personality profiles. The significance and implications of these results are discussed in regards to the four “types” of art collectors. Methodologically, this research addresses a means for marketing managers to uncover more insight into the psychographic traits of consumers.

Emily Treen, Arthur Money
Lacking Correspondence Between Subjective and Objective Performance Data Among Small Business Managers: An Abstract

This study examines (1) how accurate are small business managers’ subjective responses concerning the performance of their company in comparison to objective performance data and (2) whether there are factors that explain why some respondents offer more accurate responses than others. The authors collect subjective data from 487 Finnish companies in relation to how their profitability has changed over the past 12 months. Regarding objective performance data, the authors use a secondary database of comparable financial information for public and private companies across Europe. The authors collect data on how the companies’ profitability has developed in the accounting period (12 months) preceding the time the survey was administered. However, due to missing secondary data, the effective sample size was reduced to 141 companies.The study classifies the companies into two groups (correct direction vs. incorrect direction) by comparing the manager-rated performance data against objective data about net profit margin change for each company. Surprisingly, only 46.1% of the respondents correctly indicated if the profitability of their company had improved or decreased. Next, the authors used an alternative grouping, focusing on companies whose profitability had either notably decreased or improved (i.e., more than ±5.0 percentage points). The results show even worse accuracy, as only 39.5% of the respondents correctly indicated how their company’s profitability had changed. Finally, the authors used binary logistic regression to study how company size, age, and growth orientation affect the odds of the respondent correctly indicating whether company performance has improved or decreased. The results show that none of the factors is a statistically significant predictor.The results suggest that small business managers may be unable to express how well (or how poorly) their company has performed. Such a conclusion gains support from the views that small businesses operate in an informal manner (e.g., Gilmore et al., 2001; Stokes 2000) and that they base their responses on intuition instead of hard calculations. On the other hand, the results leave open for debate the possibility that managers are unwilling to give accurate responses. However, more research is required before conclusions of this nature can be made.

Saku Hirvonen, Tommi Laukkanen
Green Innovation in Technological Networks: An Abstract

As green innovation becomes more prominent in the marketplace, organizations increasingly use interfirm partnerships to manage green innovation projects. Yet, most of extant research on green technology partnerships are case studies analyzing them at the project or firm level and “often do not explicitly address the mechanisms through which influencing factors affect innovative capacities” (Boons & Lüdeke-Freund, 2013). Firms need a better understanding of how interfirm relationships can be leveraged to enhance green innovation and maximize environmental and social benefits (Katsikeas et al., 2016; Wassmer et al., 2014).Given the growing importance of green technologies in the marketplace and responding to the call for more research into implementation forms and outcomes of green marketing strategies, we propose a model that links firm’s green patenting activities to the structure and knowledge attributes of interfirm networks at the firm and industry levels. Based on the intensive archival search, we build a unique database observing industry-wide technological networks in the chemical sector over the period from 2005 to 2012 and covering 314 firm-years.The findings suggest that networks of technological partnerships can be instrumental in leveraging firm green innovation. Firms that invest in green technology partnerships are more likely to apply for green patents than firms working on green product projects in-house. Both knowledge attributes and network structure have an impact on firm green innovation. However, mixed patterns emerge, if different levels of analysis are considered. At the level of a firm network, the breadth of knowledge pool, knowledge compatibility, and knowledge specificity are all important determinants of firm green innovation. At the level of industry network, none of the knowledge attributes or the structural attributes had effect on firm green innovation. Importantly, the results demonstrate that breadth of knowledge pool and knowledge compatibility attributes play different, although complementary roles in knowledge creation process and, thus, both are necessary for understanding of the impact of knowledge heterogeneity. These findings help reconcile mixed empirical results in general innovation literature regarding the impact of knowledge heterogeneity on firm innovation. Next, knowledge specificity also positively affects a propensity of a firm to create green innovation. Firms maintaining green technology partnerships are more likely to develop green domain-specific knowledge transfer mechanisms and create green innovation in interfirm relationships.

Anna Sadovnikova, Ashish Pujari
Sporty, Posh or… What Type of Wearable Fits You? A Conceptual Framework for Consumer’s Adoption of Wearable Devices: An Abstract

Wearables are small computing devices that can be attached to different parts of the human body and offer varied functionality such as activity tracking, mobile phone connectivity, and medical monitoring (Jung et al., 2016). Among the most popular types of wearables are smartwatches, activity trackers, and health monitors. Demand for wearables is estimated to grow, with sales over $50 billion predicted by 2019 (Choi & Kim, 2016).Regardless of the growing interest in wearables, recent reports indicate that the market faces challenges due to (1) the small number of product options that have been brought to market thus far, (2) consumers’ limited understanding of how the devices work, (3) weak differentiation between wearables and smartphones, and (4) limited success thus far in showing consumers how these devices can deliver added value (PwC, 2014, 2016). Consumer-centered design of wearables could help to address some of these issues, but as Choi and Kim (2016) emphasize, consumer-centric research in this context is limited.We deploy a grounded theory approach to address the identified research gaps and explore the managerial opportunities of wearables (Charmaz, 2006; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Our aims are to (1) review existing literature to identify different types of existing and emerging wearables and classify these tools based on marketing concepts, (2) understand product attributes consumers view as differentiation factors in wearable design, (3) propose a conceptual framework for wearable adoption and the creation of competitive advantage, and (4) provide insights for practitioners on design and positioning of different wearable products.Our research evolved around existing sources of textual data about wearables (Kumar & Noble, 2016). We analyzed articles published in existing business magazines (e.g., Forbes, the New York Times; n = 37) and online wearable reviews (n = 400) and followed up with interviews with wearable sales representatives (n = 10).Building on product design literature featuring product form, function (esthetics), and ergonomics (Bloch, 1995; Homburg et al., 2015; Jindal et al., 2016), we propose taxonomy for wearable differentiation based on (1) well-being, (2) technology, and (3) fashion. Then, we propose a conceptual framework for wearable adoption, where a wearable type (as indicated by our taxonomy) is a crucial factor affecting perceived wearable consumer (in)congruence and subsequent consumer responses.

Marzena E. Nieroda, Mona Mrad, Michael R. Solomon
The Past and Future of Cocreation: An Abstract

This research critically examines the current understanding of cocreation in light of its preceding and associated concepts. Tracing cocreation back to its origins and precursors within and beyond the marketing literature helps position cocreation and capture its complexity and potential. Drawing on this review and stakeholder theory, the paper develops propositions that expand cocreation beyond its current scope. These propositions offer (1) an extended definition of cocreation including all stakeholders, (2) a broadened understanding of value directly and indirectly cocreated by stakeholders, and (3) a triadic framework in which the company, contractual stakeholders, and community stakeholders cocreate value in an overarching social system. The paper concludes with implications and directions for further research.

Alexander J. Kull
Do Brands Improve Consumer Perception Due to Product Placement in Emerging Markets?

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of the product placement in the film on purchase intention, attitude and change in perception. For this study, we selected recently released film and interviewed the filmgoers after he came out of the theatre through intercept technique. The products have improved brand recall, perception, and brand recommendation, ‘feeling’ towards brands, association and purchase intentions which are our dependent variables in our study. Brand image, country image, value for money and culture affect these dependent variables as per our present study. Low-involved products get more mileage from product placement. The effect of product placement in low- and high-involved brand is explained for the first time through application of alternative hierarchy’s theory of social judgement theory (1980) and Gestalt theory of familiarity. Our paper bridges the gap between theory and practice by suggesting improvement in product placement in nontraditional media like film.

Rajesh Kumar Srivastava, Manoj Bhide
Global Positioning Strategies: A Comparison of Positioning Strategies Used in German and American Airline Magazine Advertisements: An Abstract

Due to increasing globalization and leveled down trade barriers between countries, companies can internationalize faster than ever before. Consequently, the creation of a global brand is becoming more and more important to businesses as they try to reach out to a global consumer culture. As the competition gets tougher in international domain, companies need to create positive connections in the target consumers’ mind and have a clear positioning strategy. Carefully planned positioning strategies help establish brand equity and maintain consumers in the long term. In this study, global brand positioning is studied through advertisements in in-flight magazines for airlines from Germany and the United States. A consumer-based typology is used to identify and compare the positioning strategies used by the companies that advertise their products in these global magazines. The findings indicate that in-flight magazines from both of these domains utilize customer-derived positioning strategies in order to create consumer-based brand equity and strong consumer loyalty.

Charles Blankson, Selcuk Ertekin, Cedric Lohse
Using the Sales Process as an Instructional Tool to Improve Student Perceptions of Instructor Responsiveness, Pedagogical Affect, and Likelihood to Enroll: An Abstract

This research explores the communication-centered commonalities of selling and teaching. A conceptual model positing professor used selling activities of prospecting and follow-up positively impact student perceptions of instructor responsiveness, pedagogical affect, and likelihood to enroll is empirically tested. Modality type, professor communication style, and timing of appeal are shown to have moderating effects, indicating that selling activities can be beneficial across course formats, before or during a class, and virtually or in person. Using a scenario methodology with a sample of 274 online and ground students, results show promise for educators using selling activities as a communication tool in any subject.

Cindy Rippé, Shannon Cummins, Suri Weisfeld-Spolter, Yuliya Yurova
Intentions to Pursue a Sales Career: Integrating Intentions to Study Sales and Learning Experience: An Abstract

Students in business schools are sceptical about their choice of sales as a career in spite of the plethora of sales positions available to management graduates (Peltier et al., 2014). The knowledge of the students and their evaluation of career choices have shaped their own perceptions since they attach more consideration to career and employment (DelVechhio & Honeycutt, 2002). However, academia has stressed more on improving the inherent intention of students towards pursuing a sales career rather than focusing on the underlying factors leading to inferior judgement. One of the ways in which this could be achieved is through a favourable learning experience. In this context, the present study explores the moderating role of learning experience on the effect of intentions to study sales (as a subject) on student opinions towards salespeople and sales careers (that subsequently affects sales as a career choice). The hypotheses tested in the study were related to: positive intention of the students to study sales will result in better perception towards a sales career (H1); favourable perception towards salespersons and sales career will result in higher intention to pursue a sales career (H2); and learning experience moderates the relationship between intention to study sales and opinions towards salespersons and sales career (H3). The measures for the constructs in the conceptual model were derived from existing literature. The data was collected using survey method (n = 294) from final year masters students of a large Indian Business School. The data analysis was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 was exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) to assess the dimensionality and reliability and test for convergent and discriminant validity of the study constructs. In phase 2, we ran the structural model without the moderator (learning experience), and in phase 3, we ran the structural model with the moderator. Intentions to study sales as a subject were found to influence student opinions about a sales career and salespersons. The latter opinions are found to affect intentions to pursue a sales career. Learning experience is found to have a positive moderating effect on the relation between intentions to study sales and student opinions about a sales career and salespersons. From a theoretical standpoint, the present study brings together the antecedents and consequences of student opinion towards salespersons and sales career and highlights the role of learning experience in creating a favourable attitude of students towards sales jobs.

Subhadip Roy, Soumya Sarkar, Prashant Mishra
Driven By Big Data: Are Our Students Prepared? Requiring Technology Coursework in University Sales Programs: An Abstract

The challenges faced by organizations trying to adopt and implement new technologies within their sales forces continue to grow, despite the widespread attention given to them by academics and practitioners. Increasingly sophisticated advances in hardware and software are creating unprecedented expectations and requirements for not only current salespeople but future selling professionals, too. This paper suggests current university-based sales programs may not be supplying their students with the applicable knowledge and skill sets related to sales technology they will need not only for their success but their employers’ success as well.The goal of this exploratory study was to identify how undergraduate students define sales and selling and to determine the positive and negative connotations associated with these terms among college students and their perceptions of technology in the sales profession. An online survey was created and distributed to a convenience sample of undergraduate students at universities located in the southeast and southwest United States for this purpose.As the growth in opportunities in the sales profession is expected to increase, it is important for universities to understand how undergraduates view the sales profession as well as the need for technology in sales careers. Students perceive a strong need to understand current technologies associated with the sales profession. However, an initial review of existing sales programs in the United States indicates that such technologies may not be part of the curriculum.

Christine M. Kowalczyk, John Cicala
Metaphors and Sales Management: A Review and Research Agenda: An Abstract

The marketing and strategy literatures are rich with research explicating the usefulness of metaphors. For example, metaphors have been shown to be useful in the context of brand communication, leadership, marketing communications, marketing management, marketing research, marketing science, marketing theory construction, organizational knowledge production, and sales message creation. However, in the context of sales management, there is little research that investigates metaphors. Therefore, more scholarly research is warranted in the domain of sales management by drawing from other fields on metaphor-based research. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to identify and discuss relevant literary and theoretical metaphors for sales management and develop a research agenda for metaphors in the context of sales management. Through “metaphoric transfers,” theoretical metaphors can lead to theory construction and new discoveries. Specifically, future research should focus on (1) investigating new and existing literary and theoretical metaphors in the context of sales management, (2) explicating theoretical metaphors and evaluating their usefulness by examining dimensions of metaphoric transfer and analyzing the metaphors using the comparison model and the domains-interaction model, (3) engaging in theory development with reference to metaphors in the context of sales management research, and (4) empirically investigating the theories developed through metaphoric transfers.

Sreedhar Madhavaram, Dorcia Bolton, Vishag Badrinarayanan
Conceptualization and Scale Development for Salesperson Swagger: An Abstract

This research explores the concept of swagger in a sales context. We purport that along with traditionally explored concepts of emotional intelligence, empathy, and adaptive selling skills, swagger is an unexplored concept that contributes to the totality of salespeople’s success.From previous research, we characterize successful salespeople as being highly self-confident, driven by ego and status, persevering, and enterprising in their personalities. While these characteristics describe successful salespeople, what seems to be missing is how these characteristics manifest themselves in overt behavior. We propose that one type of individual that would be attracted to, and possibly excel in a sales position, would not only possess these characteristics but also flaunt them. We deem this simultaneous possession and flaunting of characteristics to be swagger, which we define as “an immense level of confidence in one’s self and abilities, which is displayed in a conspicuous manner.”After this initial conceptualization of swagger, we set out to develop an instrument to measure swagger in salespeople. Following the prescriptions of Churchill (1979), Fornell and Larcker (1981), and Gerbing and Anderson (1988), a detailed scale development procedure resulted in a bidimensional, valid, and reliable swagger scale. The two dimensions, which consist of nine items total, are deemed to be “imbued confidence” and “conspicuous display.” The resulting scale items are shown below:Imbued-Confidence DimensionWhen speaking with others, I exude confidence.I have an aura of confidence about myself.I carry myself very confidently.I always look like I am in charge.Conspicuous Display DimensionI act in a way that draws attention to myself.I brag about my accomplishments.I put on a show when dealing with others.I wear high-end clothing.I am braggadocious.

David A. Locander, Obinna O. Obilo
Impact of Grit on Organizational Turnover: Empirical Results of International vs. US Gen Z/Millennial Cusp: An Abstract

In today’s global sales environment, managers are posed with the challenge, “How do we retain our top people to stay?” Employee turnover has been an ongoing and perhaps an increasing problem due to the new generation’s inability to deal with adverse conditions in today’s challenging, global environment. The current study’s goal is to analyze the next generation of the workforce, Generation Z/Millennial cusp, and compare differences between international and US students. Born between the mid-1990s and 2000, Gen Z/Millennial potentially introduces a challenge consistent with the millennial generation, organizational turnover. Analyzing responses from 293 international and US students, the following research focuses on a conceptual model that includes two constructs, individual entrepreneurship orientation (IEO) and grit and how those constructs impact company loyalty. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between IEO and loyalty and that grit positively moderates the relationship between IEO and loyalty. The multigroup analysis shows there was not a significant difference between the international and US student sample in any of the structural paths. However, the results show that the moderating effect of grit is significant for the international sample. In today’s global economy, hiring managers need to evaluate both local and international talent according to their hiring needs. Managers can utilize the findings when considering the importance of grit and entrepreneurial orientation in long-term organizational business performance.

Michael Rodriguez, Stefanie Boyer, David Fleming, Scott Cohen
The Effects of Suspicion on Interorganizational Relationships: An Abstract

This conceptual paper explores suspicion in interorganizational relationships and its effects on governance strategies and relational outcomes. Suspicion is delineated from trust and distrust, and a definition of interorganizational suspicion is offered. Three types of interorganizational suspicion – suspicion of behavior, suspicion of capabilities, and suspicion of intent – are proposed. A conceptual model for the effects of interorganizational suspicion on governance strategies and relational outcomes is developed based on theoretical and empirical support across a variety of disciplines. This paper adds to the growing literature on the dark side of business relationships by exploring the effects of different types of suspicion on interorganizational relationships and offers insights into how suspicion can be mitigated or resolved before it escalates into high distrust and relationship termination.

Gina Brynildsen
Corporate Socially Irresponsible Behavior and Its Spillover Effect: The Role of Upstream Versus Downstream Positions in the Supply Chain: An Abstract

Does a scandal lead to a decline in firm financial performance? Previous studies have shown inconclusive results for the relationship between a firm’s corporate social performance (CSP) and financial performance. Based on signaling theory, I hypothesize that the strength of this relationship depends on the position of the firm in the supply chain. Specifically, I propose that the actions of firms positioned in the downstream end of the supply chain are more visible to consumers than those from firms upstream the supply chain. Consequently, the link between CSP and financial performance will be stronger for firms in the downstream, rather than upstream, the supply chain. In addition, I contend that the spillover effect from irresponsible social behaviors will also be stronger for firms downstream rather upstream the supply chain.

Zhuofan Zhang
Contagion Effect on Traditional Versus Innovative Products: Role of Consistency in “Essence” Transfer Process: An Abstract

This paper examines the contagion effect – perceived transfer of essence from the original manufacturing location – on traditional versus innovative products. Based on the concept of contagion and consistency, I introduce interference theory which states that consumers develop a sense of product essence by evaluating consistent product features over time. Accordingly, new products in product categories without much change are prone to a contagion effect in which consumers expect the essence to be retained. In contrast, product categories with great variability in product features over time are less likely to develop this essence. In these categories, the contagion effect is null, and consumers are receptive to radical and disruptive new product features. Thus the reception to totally radical innovation in a product category is explained by the contagion phenomenon.

Zhuofan Zhang
A New Perspective on Value Creation and Marketing’s Dominant Logic: An Abstract

Few would argue that the success of any firm is tied to its ability to create value. Yet the concepts of value and value creation remain poorly understood. Debates regarding the nature of value have been raging on many fronts – in philosophy, economics, and marketing. However, like the quest for “The Theory of Everything” in the physical sciences, marketing scholars have yet to develop a comprehensive theory of value that incorporates the multidimensional nature of value and explains how value is created. This void is problematic for practitioners, scholars, and stakeholders. How can marketers create what is not understood? How can scholars study what is not clearly defined? Moreover, how can stakeholders measure what is not properly articulated? When faced with the task of creating value, uncertainty about what value “is” leads to unclear managerial priorities and muddled metrics, resulting in suboptimal outcomes.The current paper seeks to address these challenges by introducing the concept of comprehensive value. We first trace the evolution of value concepts in the marketing discipline as evidenced by the historically dominant logics driving scholarship and practice. We then demonstrate that the evolution of the value concept has been plagued by an unspoken assumption that value must be either intrinsic (value in goods) or extrinsic (value in services). To move beyond this assumption, we turn to physics as a metaphor to demonstrate that, rather than an inert and static trait, value is a dynamic, phase-based attribute created within the marketing system. Finally, from the systemic view of value and value creation, we offer several propositions for marketing scholars.CVL revives the insights offered from goods-dominant logic and incorporates the emerging societal value perspective to develop a more complete marketing paradigm. Our framework reconciles the discrepancies and gaps left by both goods- and service-dominant logics and the lack of clarity concerning the role of societal value. CVL suggests that marketing researchers must account for the tangible, intangible, and societal components inherent in product offerings when determining value and recommending strategies to practitioners. Moreover, CVL contributes to practice by reconciling the challenges in implementing service-dominant logic in processes designed to create value in physical goods along the supply chain while still allowing for the central role of the customer advocated by SDL. As the research and practice in marketing continues to evolve, a new logic is needed to guide the evolution.

Cinthia B. Satornino, John Peloza, Alexis Allen, Rebeca Perren
Customer Value Through Resource Integration: The Role of the Institutional Solution Space: An Abstract

In this paper, we elaborate service-dominant (S-D) logic’s concept of resource integration as a premise for customer value cocreation and service provision. Following S-D logic, resource integration that results in customer value is dependent on institutions and institutional arrangements. S-D logic’s fifth axiom states: “Value co-creation is coordinated through actor-generated institutions and institutional arrangements” (Vargo & Lusch, 2016, page 18). We report on three case study findings to offer contextualized explanations that seek to join current conceptualizations with solid explanatory power. These cases span from the digitalization of music industry, sustainable strategies in the real estate industry, and insights from an innovation lab for open innovations. The empirical renderings are utilized to help to explain the institutional arrangements that are at play. The results show that the potential boundaries of, how, and which resources can be utilized and integrated are to great extent related to the perceived available “solution space” (von Hippel, 2001) or “opportunity space” (Normann, 2001) offered by the institutional and practice-related boundaries of the context (Ridell, Röndell, & Sörhammar, 2012). By integrating the ideas of a solution space and opportunity space with the later rendering of institutional arrangements as denominator for value creation, we contribute to the current mid-range theory development of S-D logic as well as a better understanding of value cocreation in practice. The introduced concept of institutional solution space combines the idiosyncratic needs of actors with the perceived – i.e., institutional and socio-material-derived – opportunities associated with resources. Thus, it offers a bridge between the abstract concepts of resource integration, value-in-context, and institutional arrangements (Vargo & Lusch, 2016).

Peter Ekman, Julia Jonas, Paul Maglio, David Reynolds, Jimmie Röndell
Customer Cohort Climate: A Conceptual Model for Group Service Encounters: An Abstract

Group service encounters, when multiple customers are intentionally batched and involved in the delivery and consumption of a service, are common in tourism and hospitality, recreation, and education. In such service settings, customers will accept, expect, and sometimes even desire to share and consume the service experience “with” other customers. Thus, in group service encounters, customer-to-customer interactions are often integral to the service being provided.While previous research has largely examined services that take place between a single customer and a service employee or where customers consume “in the presence of” other customers, the topic of consuming “with” other customers has not been fully explored. This theory development paper focuses on understanding how the characteristics of the group itself impacts how group service encounters should be designed and delivered.This paper introduces the concept of customer cohort climates (CCCs) and explores how CCCs vary and the implications for the design of group service encounters. To understand how CCCs vary, we focus on two fundamental dimensions: why consumers participate in a group service encounter and how they interact with each other. More specifically, we develop a typology that shows how CCCs vary according to whether the service employee or the customer is the protagonist that initiates customer-to-customer interactions and customers’ hedonic or utilitarian motivation.

Linda W. Lee, Ian P. McCarthy, Debbie Ellis
The Process of Brand Experience: An Interdisciplinary Perspective: An Abstract

Experience has become a key element in understanding consumer behaviour (Addis & Holbrook, 2001). Brand experience can create added value (Whelan & Wohlfeil, 2006) and is an important concept for academics as it has been tied to several key branding constructs including brand personality (Brakus, Schmitt, & Zarantello, 2009; Helm & Jones, 2010; Ramaseshan & Stein, 2014), brand loyalty (Biedenbach & Marell, 2010), and brand relationships (Tully, Hershfield, & Meyvia, 2015).The currently accepted conceptualization of brand experience has several shortcomings in its richness. Firstly, brand experience is considered to occur immediately (Brakus et al., 2009; Nowak, 2006), and not over a period of time. Secondly, brand experience has only been measured in the post-consumption stage (Brocato, Voorhees, & Baker; 2012; Gilboa et al., 2016), implying that it doesn’t exist in the pre- and during consumption stages. Thirdly, the role of sensations and feelings is muted as their affect is only measured in its existence (Brakus et al., 2009). Therefore, many consider the accepted conceptualization of brand experience to be limited and call for a greater interdisciplinary approach to be adopted when grappling with the complexity of brand experience (Morgan-Thomas & Veloutsou, 2013; Rose, Hair, & Clark, 2011; Taylor & Strutton, 2010), with some arguing that the process of how experiences are formed should be prioritized (Edvardsson, Enquist, & Johnston, 2005; Schmitt et al., 2015), but this call has been largely ignored (Schmitt et al., 2015).Using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, a systematic literature review in marketing, philosophy and phycology was contacted and identified 132, 75 and 22 articles for analysis, respectively. The overall objective was to see how brand experience can be approached as a process.Contradicting the current conceptualisation of brand experience as a dyadic construct (Brakus et al., 2009; Gilboa et al., 2016; Pine & Gilmore, 1999), insights from philosophy and psychology view experience as a dynamic process which is conceptualized into levels (Bartsch & Oliver, 2014; Dewey, 1929; Erlich, 2003; James 1976 [1912]); Locke, 1979). The number of levels varies between two and three; however, there is a consistent description of these levels, namely, Level 1, subconscious experience; Level 2, immediate experience; and Level 3, consummatory experience.

Yanina Chevtchouk, Cleopatra Veloutsou, Robert Paton
Brand Personality Self-Congruity and the Product Life Cycle: Assessment of Behavioral Intentions Toward Tourism Destinations: An Abstract

Previous studies have assessed the effects of brand personality in various product categories (Freling & Forbes, 2005; Lin 2010), including tourism destinations (Bekk et al., 2016; Ekinci & Hosany, 2006). However, no known research has examined the effects of brand personality self-congruency on consumers in the context of destination brands across different stages of the product life cycle (PLC). The consideration of brands’ life cycle positions is critical for marketing strategy to maintain the desired brand recognition, given the relationship between product evolution and performance in the market (Lau, 2014; Shankar et al., 1999). Therefore, this research investigated the role of brand personality self-congruency in predicting behavioral intentions toward tourism destinations, considering two different positions in the PLC (introductory vs. maturity). The study also examined the effects of social needs (Sheth et al., 1991) and venturesomeness (Plog, 2002), a psychographic construct from the travel and tourism literature.Using a sample of 450 consumers in the United States, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis revealed the statistically significant effects of brand personality self-congruity (.682, p < .001) and venturesomeness (.120, p < .001) on intentions to visit tourism destinations, accounting for more than half of the variance explained (R2 = .550). Results showed that consumers’ social needs alone do not directly predict behavioral intention, but a significant interactive effect with brand personality self-congruity (.057, p < .05) suggests that social needs influence intention only when consumers experience identification with the brand, in consistency with the image congruence hypothesis (Sirgy et al., 1997).Multigroup analysis (MGA) was conducted using the introductory/maturity stages of the destinations as a dichotomous variable to assess differences accounted for by the brand life cycle positions. Findings showed that consumers with more venturesomeness were more likely to prefer the destination in the introductory stage than the destination in the maturity stage (introductory = .164, maturity = .068, p < .10), consistent with the frameworks of Plog (1974, 2002) and Butler (1980). MGA also showed that the interactive effects of brand personality self-congruity and social needs on behavioral intentions yielded different coefficient signs (introductory = .074, maturity = −.060, p < .05), indicating opposite preferences for destinations in the two PLC stages, similarly to the early adopters and laggards described by Solomon (2015).

Oliver Cruz-Milan
Authenticity: The Driving Force Behind the Corporate Brand Saga: An Abstract

The corporate brand has been shown to provide a strategic benefit for companies (e.g., Hatch & Shultz, 2003; Schwaiger & Sarstedt, 2011) and a positive economic benefit to the company (e.g., Fombrun & Van Riel, 1997; Greyser, 1999) and facilitates differentiation from competitors (e.g., Hatch & Schultz, 2003; King 1991). As such the corporate brand is of importance and interest as a construct in academic research and to industry.The corporate brand is broadly viewed as a structured object that can be designed, brought “to life,” projected, and – importantly – controlled by an organization. However, there are examples where, despite their best intentions and efforts, companies seem to lose control of their own corporate brand. A recent case of this is in relation to United Airline’s (mis)treatment of a passenger. No longer is United Airlines the “Friendly Skies”; people’s view of the brand is completely different from what United would really want. It seems that United Airlines is in a struggle with a variety of stakeholders over the meaning of its brand. This implies that the company does not have unilateral control of its brand and its meaning, which seems to be at odds with much of the corporate branding literature.In order to explore this contradiction, this paper uses the concepts of the corporate brand as a special type of story, a saga, and the notion of the corporate brand being the company’s quest for authenticity.Using qualitative methods, IBM’s corporate brand is investigated from the viewpoint of many of its stakeholders. By analyzing a set of phenomenological interviews, a set of blogs, a set of Twitter accounts, videos, news reports, and other media and technical reports about IBM, it is discovered that IBM’s corporate brand is outside the control of IBM and is a social construction by IBM and its stakeholders. It is a saga to which the company and its stakeholders contribute. As such, the corporate brand is a dynamic process driven along by IBM’s attempt to be authentic. That is, as IBM shapes its identity in response to the expectations of its stakeholders and tries to be true to its identity, it is constantly changing. From this process the corporate brand emerges and is propelled and motivated by the force of authenticity.These findings contribute to the marketing literature by providing a revised view of the corporate brand. This has theoretical implications and also changes how managers deal with and try to manage their corporate brands as they now recognize that they are only one of the contributors to the ongoing saga.

Terry Beckman
How Mental Stimulation Exercises Can Nudge Healthier Food Choices for Children: An Abstract

Childhood obesity is a serious public health concern in the USA and around the world. While the obesity rate has stabilized in the recent past in the USA, the overall rate continues to be high with no trend for decline. Further, childhood obesity is known to have negative long-term effects. For example, children who are obese are at a higher long-term risk for adult diabetes than healthy-weight children (Liang et al., 2015).How can children be nudged to make healthier food choices without banning or restricting certain types of foods? Based on previous research investigating affect and cognition in food decision making (Shiv & Fedorikhin, 1999), we suggest that mental stimulation exercises, such as in the form of undertaking mathematical problems, can activate cognitive processes in children. Activating a cognitive (vs. affective) decision mode might subsequently lead to healthier food choices overall. It should be noted that our mental stimulation task is different from the approach used by Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999). Specifically, in Shiv and Fedorikhin’s study, participants were given cognitively engaging tasks during the food choice episode, while in our research, the cognitive engagement is undertaken before the food choice is made.We conducted two field experiments in the cafeteria of a middle school. Both studies were conducted in collaboration with the district school board and the middle school administration. In study 1, a between-subjects experiment, we had two manipulated conditions (math exercise before food choice vs. control condition of no math exercise). In the math exercise condition, the children were asked to solve two math problems before making a food choice for their lunch. The key dependent measure was the healthiness level of food bought at the cafeteria on this specific day. We conducted a follow-up experiment (study 2) with a different group of children. This study also had two manipulated, between-subjects conditions (undertaking math exercise vs. no math exercise). However, the dependent variable was a dichotomous choice scenario involving a healthy and an unhealthy option. The results of both studies showed that the children chose healthier foods to a greater extent when they had to undertake math exercises versus when not undertaking the math exercises.Our focus on mental stimulation can have strong practical and conceptual implications. First, children make food choices autonomously in school cafeteria environments. Here, they are exposed to learning and mental stimulation before and after their lunch breaks. Scheduling a math class right before lunch break might positively influence healthy food choices. Second, we build on previous findings by investigating the effects of mental stimulation exercises as potential activators of cognitive decision-making modes.

Dipayan Biswas, Annika Lueth
The Disclosure of Personal Data: Understanding Customers’ Expectations: An Abstract

The exponential growth of available data has created vast opportunities for companies to predict customer behavior and adapt their marketing efforts (McKinsey Global Institute, 2011). However, customers may perceive the handling of their data to be unfair, may switch to a competitor, spread negative word-of-mouth information, or falsify information, thereby making the data useless (Horne, Norberg, & Ekin, 2007; Son & Kim, 2008; Wirtz & Lwin, 2009). Understanding what customers perceive to be fair with regard to their personal data is therefore considered “one of the most serious ethical debates of the information age” (Pavlou, 2011, p. 977). We expand the current focus on privacy concerns by analyzing customer expectations in a mixed method design. Moreover, we assess how well customers perceive companies to currently fulfill their expectations, by means of a survey and a field study.Semi-structured interviews with 10 consumers, who regularly interact with companies online, as well as 13 experts, reveal that customers want companies to limit the amount, the duration, and the sensitivity of stored data. In addition customers do not want companies to share their data with others, a practice called secondary usage. Moreover, customers expect to be asked for permission before their data are collected. They want to be able to modify data and want to control its use in a granular fashion and demand that companies protect their data from unauthorized access. Last but not the least, customers expect companies to provide understandable, honest information on which data are used by whom and for which purpose.In a subsequent quantitative study (326 participants recruited via mailing lists, online bulletin boards, and social media; 56% female, with the majority being between 17 and 29 years old), the following results were achieved: First, respondents’ expectations relating to interactional justice have been identified as having the strongest effect. Customers stated that their expectations in this area were generally not fulfilled, as companies provide information in an unattractive manner. Second, in the area of procedural justice, it is most important for customers to have a simple option to control the use of their data. Third, regarding distributive justice, customers expect a fair exchange value for their data and want companies to limit the amount of data collected. To address this issue, different start-ups have begun offering customers the possibility to store their data and sell it to interested companies (Rosenbach, 2016).

Antje Niemann, Manfred Schwaiger
Do I Care? Pathological Apathy in the Context of Sustainable Consumption

A number of theories explain why consumers engage in behaviors consistent with their attitudes. We question whether strong consumer attitudes always align with motivations and that the absence of motivation may subvert intention. Disconnects between attitudes and behaviors may actually be the result of pathological apathy (Marin, Am J Psychiatry 147:22–30, 1990; Radakovic and Abrahams, Psychiatry Res 219:658–663, 2014)—or the absence of an individual’s motivation—decreasing intentions. A pilot study in the context of sustainability determines the moderating effects of pathological apathy on the attitudes-intention relationship. The pilot study findings indicate pathological apathy amplifies a relationship between positive attitudes toward sustainability and conventional purchase intentions. Implications for further research are discussed.

Spencer M. Ross, Paula Dootson
The Bright and Dark Sides of Product Certification: Exploring Side Effects on Consumers’ Perceptions of Non-Certified Products: An Abstract

Product certifications are of increasing relevance in consumer decision-making due to a growing consciousness for quality and ecological issues (Cho, 2015). While there is mutual consent of extant research about certifications’ positive effects on labeled products, knowledge about potential side effects on uncertified products remains scarce. With regard to extensive costs that employing a quality label can entail, portfolio-related considerations should also be considered when deciding about a brand’s overall certification strategy. Therefore, we look beyond the straightforward positive effects of product certifications by focusing on how certifying merely selected products (i.e., a partial certification strategy) affects consumers’ perceptions of unlabeled products of the same brand (i.e., bystander products).Using a mixed methods approach, we offer new insights that reveal how consumers’ perceptions are affected in multiple ways. First, partial certification causes a direct negative reference effect on quality perceptions of the bystander, i.e., the reference frame used to assess alternatives is shifted upward due to the presence of a certified product, which impairs perceptions of non-certified products (Parducci, 1965). Second, quality perceptions of the bystander indirectly benefit from a partial certification strategy by enhanced perceptions of the certified target that spill over to the whole brand and its affiliated products (Simonin & Ruth, 1998). Third, consumers perceive it as inconsistent if brands certify only selected products of their assortment. This reduces the extent to which they know what to expect from the brand (Erdem & Swait, 1998) and raises skepticism toward its overall intentions (i.e., greenwashing motives). This negative inconsistency effect impairs quality perceptions’ of the bystander.Further, we demonstrate how these effects differ depending on the type of certification. If consumers think that a brand can actively influence which of its products are certified (e.g., in case of organic labels), the negative inconsistency effect is significant. However, for certifications that depend on external sources’ decisions (e.g., consumer test marks; Krischik, 1998), this inconsistency effect diminishes. Also, positive spillover effects are higher for consumer test labels compared to organic labels. These differences result in more negative total effects on consumer perceptions’ of bystander products for a partial certification strategy with organic labels versus consumer test marks.Our findings establish a differentiated understanding of underlying cognitive processes that can be used in future research to assess under which conditions’ positive effects can be enhanced and negative effects reduced in order to optimize a brand’s overall certification strategy.

Linda Wulf, Sören Köcher
The Role of Team-Sponsor Logo Color Congruity in Sponsorship Effectiveness: An Abstract

Sports remains one of the few avenues for brands to reach mass market consumers in the context of a fragmented, on-demand, and commercial-free (e.g., Netflix) modern entertainment landscape. Accordingly, branding expenditures on sponsorship are growing faster than traditional advertising as brands seek to gain sports fans’ favor through visual signs of support for fans’ teams. The authors investigate the visual design element of color in sponsorship images. Study 1 matches 703 Major League Baseball fans’ evaluations of their team’s sponsors to observable characteristics of in-stadium sponsorship signage, which provides correlational evidence that fans evaluate a sponsor more positively when its colors coincidentally match the team. Furthermore, a brand without an inherent match to a team’s colors can enjoy even greater sponsorship efficacy by adopting the team’s colors. The peripheral cue from color congruence facilitates affect transfer, and created congruence—adopting the team’s colors—provides a further boost through fan appraisals of sponsor’s support. Study 2 offers experimental evidence from 200 fans who sampled a sports drink with brand team cobranding on the label in the brand logo’s original colors or the team’s colors. In the condition where the brand’s sincerity of support was uncertain, color change improved fans’ evaluation of the sponsorship, and perceived sincerity of support mediated the positive impact of created color congruence. While prior studies have shown that sponsorship fails to deliver positive returns (Mazodier & Rezaee, 2013) or works poorly in a lab experiment based on eye tracking when sponsor’s signage color matches the colors of the sport (Breuer & Rumpf, 2015), the current studies offer complementary real-world evidence that sponsor brands can enjoy greater sponsorship success without adding much cost by simply selecting teams to sponsor where they share colors or by adopting the team’s colors.

Conor Henderson, Marc Mazodier, Aparna Sundar
In-Group Favoritism, Out-Group Animosity, and Joint Conflict: The Role of Ambivalence in Response to Joint Sponsorships: An Abstract

Marketers often attempt to influence consumer attitudes by sponsoring properties for which their target consumers have an affinity. Building on the premises of balance theory (Heider, 1958), there is a liking transfer where the positive feelings toward the sponsored property carry over to the sponsoring brand. Research findings have also confirmed fans’ tendency to show an out-group negative bias through unfavorable responses to sponsors of rival teams (Bee & Dalakas, 2015; Bergkvist, 2012; Dalakas & Levin, 2005; Grohs et al., 2015). When only the favorite or only the rival team is involved in a sponsorship, it is easy for the consumer to respond to that sponsorship. The positive feelings toward the favorite team generate positive feelings toward the sponsor whereas the negative feelings toward a rival team lead to negative feelings toward their sponsor. However, when a sponsor partners with both teams, it creates a more challenging situation for the consumer. This study builds on the existing research and extends it by also assessing response to sponsorship of both a favored and a rival team. Moreover, we examine how ambivalence may influence consumer response to the different partnerships (in-group, out-group, or both). Data were collected from 162 students affiliated with a NCAA Division-1 institution known for its long-standing rivalry with another university in the state. Conducted in an online lab setting, participants were told that they would be viewing and evaluating prototype advertising. They were randomly directed to the one of the three ads containing the manipulation and then responded to an online questionnaire. Each ad featured the same generic color image, word, and image placement and the same fictitious energy bar brand. Team logos (favored, rival, or both logos) and the following statement were used to manipulate team affiliation: “Proud partner of the team (favored or rival) or teams (favored and rival).” A key finding of this study was that for responses to sole sponsorships it was only consumer identification that mattered leading to positive responses to sponsor of favored team and negative responses to sponsor of rival team. However, ambivalence was the best predictor of responses to joint sponsorships. Therefore, the results suggest consumer ambivalence can play an important role on how sponsorship information is processed and how attitudes are developed.

Colleen Bee, Vassilis Dalakas
Who Is Your True G.O.A.T? Analyzing the Cause-Effect Relations of Sport Rivalry on the Emotional Appeal Toward a Sport Athlete: An Abstract

Madrigal and Dalakas (2008) reviewed that the nature of fan behavior ranges from socially acceptable reactions to negative inappropriate reactions. However, there is only little research explaining how affective dispositions of fans such as love and hate toward an athlete or team can determine sport rivalry. Specifically, previous research mostly focused on media-related outcomes such as suspense, but not on essential athlete- or team-related feelings such as admiration or contempt. In consumer research, the concept of love and hate is often investigated with regard to brands. In view of the fact that sport athletes and sport teams can be described and managed as brands, the concept of brand love and brand hate is also applicable in sport marketing. Additionally, rivalry itself might not only affect unethical behavior such as violence; it is often the consequence of deliberative and automatic processes. In social and behavioral sciences, the most-used method to capture explicit evaluations is self-reports. However, it takes implicit measures such as response time measures to assess automatically activated processes. Against that backdrop, the research question guiding the present study is: What is the impact of implicit and explicit love as well as hate toward an athlete in a rivalry competition? The current study extends the compact and robust sport rivalry model as proposed by Dalakas and Melancon (2012). With that said, the purpose of the present study is to integrate and examine fans’ affective dispositions in terms of athlete love and athlete hate as potential key drivers and emotional appeal as further key outcome within a sport rivalry context. For that reason, an integrative measurement approach based on implicit and explicit measures of love and hate was developed and empirically tested in a sophisticated structural equation modeling.

Steffen Schmidt, Sascha Langner, Matthias Limbach
Abstract on Evaluating Sustainability as a Core Competency: Consumer Response to Sustainable Products

Consumer product markets must confront the challenge of predicting what capabilities to bring together to ensure a valued core competency, despite continuously evolving consumer tastes and beliefs. This research evaluates the influence of the individual and combined product attributes of sustainability and innovation on consumer preference, to understand their strength of differentiation and to inform sustainability-marketing strategies. A marketing perspective is applied to the resource-based view to evaluate whether core competencies of sustainability and innovation (via a remanufactured and an innovative product) contribute to the cocreation of sustainable consumption opportunities and behaviors. Paired product survey responses were used to delineate the influence and interaction of innovative versus sustainability attributes on the consumer’s preference and intent to purchase the product. Frequency analysis, Chi-square test for equal proportions, and generalized logit regression were performed. Findings suggest that sustainability product features offer consumers a stronger reason to buy than innovative product features. However, when sustainable products are unavailable, the innovative product outperforms the undifferentiated, non-sustainable product. Contrary to expectations, the bundling of sustainability and innovation attributes does not create additional attraction for the consumer. Further, while sustainability differentiation alone creates sufficient reason to buy for the majority of consumers, stated concern for the environment alone does not affect preference for the sustainable option. There are two possible explanations for why innovation does not overshadow sustainability: first, the sustainability aspect of CSR, remanufacturing specifically, leads to higher consumer preference (and consequently, better performance) when isolated from other CSR elements or, second, sustainability may constitute innovation itself. In the isolation of sustainability attributes from innovative attributes, it was found that customers who favor sustainable products are four times more likely to favor other innovative products when sustainable products are unavailable. This suggests that there may be merit to considering sustainability attributes within the hedonic values spectrum and may explain the strength of preference for the sustainable product, in spite of stated environmental concern: customer preference for the sustainable product may originate in variety-seeking behavior, rather than personal and social values structures.

Clyde Eiríkur Hull, Jennifer D. Russell, Monika Kukar-Kinney
Understanding Consumers’ Perception of Sustainable Consumption: A ZMET Approach

Considering importance of consumers’ understanding of sustainability in shaping their attitude toward CSR and its successful implementation, this research uses the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique (ZMET) to develop a deeper understanding of how consumers perceive sustainability in general and sustainable consumption in particular. Based on the premise that most human communication is nonverbal, we used pictures as the medium of data collection and asked the 52 participants in this study to collect pictures that visualize their perception and understanding of sustainable consumption.Results show that overall understanding of sustainability exists among respondents; however, the majority of them have very little knowledge about actual and global meaning of sustainable consumption. Moreover, there existed a discrepancy between different age groups’ understanding of sustainable consumption. Hence, knowing the role of individual’s perception and personal values in the behavioral intention formation process, and given the fact that consumers play a vital role in the success CSR activities, this study suggests that knowing consumers and their perception of sustainability is essential to firms for using CSR as a marketing and branding tool.

Setayesh Sattari, Kaveh Peighambari, Arash Kordestani
“I Would Like a European Eco-Product!”: A Study on the Preference of Algerian and Tunisian Consumers for Local Ecological Products

This research aims to test empirically the consumers’ preference for local ecological products versus foreign ones. A quantitative approach using a conjoint analysis method has been adopted. Data were collected via face-to-face questionnaire in Algeria and Tunisia. At total, 300 consumers have been interviewed. The findings show that the ecological characteristic of the product, its origin, and price influence consumers’ preference significantly in Algeria and Tunisia. In the two countries tested, consumers prefer less local ecological products than those imported from France. Our research contributes to enriching the little literature on the importance of geographic origin in responsible consumption, particularly in the case of developing countries. This study has also implications for managers of firms operating in developing countries or exporting ecological products to this region.

Mohamed Akli Achabou, Sihem Dekhili, Mohamed Hamdoun
Budgeting Biases Across Consumption Categories: An Abstract

Construal level theory (CLT, Trope & Liberman, 2003) proposes that temporal distance changes one’s mental representation of events such that events spanning over longer horizons are represented in terms of abstract features rather than more concrete and incidental details. Furthermore, consumers at a higher level construal tend to focus on the desirability of an activity’s end state, whereas those at a lower level construal tend to focus on the feasibility of the means (Liberman & Trope, 1998). Given that utilitarian expenses are generally instrumental and perceived as means to an end, whereas hedonic expenses are more likely to be perceived as an end goal normally associated with sensory and experiential fulfillments (Batra & Ahtola, 1990; Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982), it is plausible that budget setting for hedonic versus utilitarian categories varies as a function of construal level. If at higher levels of construal consumers focus on the desirability of an activity’s end state, budgeting of hedonic purchases should be higher when a higher (versus lower) construal is activated. Alternatively, the instrumental value of utilitarian purchases would not vary as much across construal-level conditions leading to minimal changes in budget setting across construal levels.I conducted two experiments to test this proposition. In the first experiment, I test the moderating effect of consumption type (hedonic vs. utilitarian) on over-budgeting. The second experiment examined construal level as an underlying process while ruling out an estimation bias explanation. Both experiments were conducted with participants recruited from Amazon Mechanic Turk.In conclusion, results from two experiments support the proposition that, contingent on type of consumption, construal plays an important role on consumer budget setting. Above and beyond confidence of estimation, consumers tend to set larger budgets for hedonic consumption when construal level is higher (vs. lower), whereas budgeting setting for utilitarian consumption does not vary as a function of construal level. This finding provides new insights on the timing of marketing campaigns for different product types.

Yang He
“My” Losing Proposition: The Role of Ownership in Sunk Cost Effects: An Abstract

Sunk costs refer to investments that have been made that are irrecoverable and lost to the investor. The influence of sunk costs on economic decision making is pervasive and can be witnessed in a variety of domains including financial investments and consumption choices. Sunk costs compel consumers to “throw good money after bad money” even though the chances of making a profit or recovering the initial investments have disappeared and better options are available. The dominant explanations for sunk cost effects are related to loss and waste aversion (i.e., the tendency of people to dislike the feeling of having lost money or wasted effort). However, loss aversion might not be the only way to explain sunk cost effects. The current paper suggests that psychological ownership (i.e., the feeling that something is yours) can also explain the underlying dynamics that lead to sunk cost effects. We present two studies that critically investigate how psychological ownership changes in relation to increasing investments. Results from both studies demonstrate strong sunk cost effects, such that participants were much more likely to continue investing into the target project when more money had already been invested. Additionally, the results also showed that both psychological ownership and feelings related to loss aversion (anticipated pain) increased as higher amounts of money had been invested into the project. A serial mediation analysis revealed that higher levels of investment lead to greater psychological ownership, which in turn predicts greater anticipated pain from not completing the project. Finally, these feelings predict participants’ sunk cost decisions. These results show that the effects of sunk costs operate through psychological ownership for consumer projects.

Stephan Dickert, Bernadette Kamleitner, Sophie Süssenbach, Erdem Geveze
The Influence of Audience and Self-Construal on the Content of Online Reviews: An Abstract

Online reviews have obtained much attention in research during the last decade. Most studies focus on consumer characteristics (Zhu & Zhang, 2010), website reputation (Park & Lee, 2009a), valence (Chakravarty et al., 2010; Ho-Dac et al., 2013; Liu, 2006) or perceived helpfulness (Mudambi & Schuff, 2010; Purnawirawan et al., 2012) of online reviews but not on the content being shared in those reviews. As content influences product evaluations and purchase decisions (e.g. Kronrod & Danziger, 2013), we aim to close the gap by measuring the ratio of rational and emotional content depending on audience and self-construal. Our study distinguishes between online reviews shared with strangers (public online interactions) and friends (private online interactions). We report on questionnaires and experimental designs involving 122 consumers from Austria, 72 from the USA and 61 from Thailand. In Austria and Thailand, the interdependent self-construal significantly increases the ratio of negative emotions consumers share in private online interactions. Negative emotions are perceived as a signal for threat (Bless, 2000). As consumers with an interdependent self-construal are very sensitive towards other individuals (Cross et al., 2003), we suggest that Austrian and Thai consumers with a predominantly interdependent self-construal display more negative emotions as a warning signal. In the USA, the interdependent self-construal, on the contrary, has no influence on the ratio of negative emotions but on the ratio of emotional appeal such as emotional connection, emotional associations and emotional attachment in private online interactions. In offline settings, reporting negative emotions is not very common among US individuals (Kuppens et al., 2006). Apparently, this is also true for US consumers with an interdependent self-construal in the online environment. On the contrary, US consumers with an independent self-construal do share significantly more negative emotions within private online interactions. Apparently, an independent self-construal outperforms cultural expectations in the online environment, in so far that consumers rather emphasize negative emotions. Hence, the study offers new insights into online communication patterns about branded products in different country markets.

Agnieszka Zablocki, Bodo Schlegelmilch, Michael Houston
The Prosthetic Generation Is all Around Us: Feelings and Emotions About Knee Replacement Surgery and Their Impact on Overall Sentiment: An Abstract

In their attempts to reduce the uncertainty associated with knee replacement surgeries, patients turn to social media, where they commonly rely on the experiences expressed by other patients. In this study, we first employ IBM Watson to examine how patients talk about their emotions and express sentiment through their comments online. We then use a latent class cluster modelling procedure to segment these patients into distinct groups, according to their emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise), sentiment and their overall satisfaction with knee replacement surgery. Our findings show how qualitative online data can be transformed into quantitative insights regarding underlying market segments, which could then be targeted through different strategies by both marketers and healthcare practitioners.

Christine Pitt, Amir Dabirian, Elsamari Botha, Jan Kietzmann, Hoda Diba
“I Can’t Wait to See This”: An Exploratory Research on Consumer Online Word-of-Mouth on Movies: An Abstract

The success of a movie is often determined by its opening weekend performance (Earnest, 1985; Epstein, 2005; Gong et al., 2011). Using the most effective movie advertising tool, studios release trailers early in advance aiming to build heavy pre-release buzz which will in turn drive audiences to the cinema on the opening weekend. While pre-release movie buzz has proved to be instrumental in influencing box office performance, most electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) research on movies is limited to the quantitative measurement of WOM metrics (e.g. volume, valence) (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2015; Liu, 2006), overlooking other significant information that could offer insight on early audience perceptions.Very recent research on the antecedents of movie WOM has identified that the combination of liking the trailer along with understanding what the movie is about increases the likelihood of viewers engaging in favourable pre-release WOM and in paying to see the movie at the cinema (Archer-Brown et al,. 2017). Focusing on the concept of understanding, this work-in-progress aims to investigate the mechanisms through which consumers draw inferences and eventually form perceptions on upcoming movies when viewing trailers.Approximately seven million data points on wide-release movies have been collected from Twitter and YouTube since November 2015. Content analysis will be performed on the data through automated natural language processing techniques, where networks of words will be drawn as an innovative way to visualise user-generated content. Early results on the analysis of three movies suggest that viewers utilise different techniques in inference-making depending on prior knowledge about the movie. eWOM on sequel movies focuses on the appearance and on the prominence of characters, while WOM on true story adaptations is richer with debates on how events truly happened and with the provision of secondary sources of information. Finally, WOM on movies with original storylines suggests that viewers rely on heuristic cues – such as the stars’ and directors’ previous work or other same-genre movies – when trying to fill in missing information about the movie’s plot.This is the first part of an ongoing research project which eventually aims to construct a framework for classifying comprehensive trailers and identifying their relationship to favourable WOM and to box office performance. Theoretical contributions will be made towards advertising and WOM theory, by delving deeper into a newly added WOM antecedent. Managerial contributions include the design of effectively comprehensive promotional material as well as methodologies which can be adopted to gain insight on early audience perceptions.

Julia Kampani, Chris Archer-Brown, Haiming Hang
The Role of Consumer Innovativeness in Mobile Commerce Usage: A Comparison of Two Emerging Countries: An Abstract

Mobile commerce has not only seen remarkable growth in recent years but also shows promising trends for the future. Research has, however, not paid enough attention to understand the factors that determine the perceived value of m-commerce for consumers. This study advances the literature by providing a framework of the drivers and barriers to m-commerce value, in India and Pakistan, countries with immense m-commerce potential. This context also provides an opportunity to observe how consumers’ m-commerce behavior differs across different countries, as determinants like perceived risk and cost are likely to have a more pronounced effect in these relatively nascent markets. The proposed framework connects m-commerce value, and in turn the actual usage to their key determinants including ubiquity, risk, and cost, while investigating the moderating effects of personal innovativeness. The results reveal that ubiquity has a positive impact on perceived m-commerce value, while risk and cost have a negative influence. We also find a significant moderating effect of innovativeness on all three drivers of value. The results further show that perceived value positively affects m-commerce usage and is strengthened by consumer innovativeness. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications of the results, discussing how retailers can enhance their marketing strategies, particularly in emerging m-commerce markets.

Abdul R. Ashraf, Narongsak (Tek) Thongpapanl, Ali Anwar
Customers’ Attitudinal, Emotional and Behavioural Responses to Firm-Initiated Service Termination: An Abstract

There are an increasing number of reports on termination of customer relationships initiated by major banks in the press. Yet, our understanding of the negative consequences of firm-initiated service termination is still very limited. This study looks at two distinct termination strategies (firm-oriented and customer-oriented) to compare how customers perceive and react to these termination strategies. In particular, we examine how perceived severity of the two strategies affects customers’ distributive justice, anger, customers’ complaint behaviour and revenge intentions. We also explore the mediating role of distributive justice and anger as well as the moderating role of attitude towards complaining. We use an experiment in a retail banking context. 746 adult consumers were recruited from a US online panel with quota for age and gender. Our results show that a firm-oriented approach is perceived as more severe and less fair compared with a customer-oriented approach. A firm-oriented approach also leads to higher level of anger, complaint behaviour and revenge intentions. We also find support for the mediating role of anger and distributive justice on the severity behavioural responses’ links and also the moderating role of attitude towards complaining on the effects of anger on revenge and third-party complaint behaviours. This study contributes to the service termination literature by providing a comprehensive model of disengaged customers’ attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions to firm-initiated service termination.

Amin Nazifi, Dahlia El-Manstrly
The Customer Is Always Right: Determinants and Outcomes of Consumer Value Co-Destruction: An Abstract

Common wisdom acknowledges that the customer is not always right. Consumers may seem disinclined to follow organizational rules and norms that prescribe compliance during a service encounter (e.g., Fisk et al., 2010). This notion of consumer misbehavior is evident in the value co-creation literature in which certain behaviors, such as consumer participation, may result in undesired consequences. However, only a few studies have fully examined the opposite possibility of value co-creation and value co-destruction (VCD). There has been scant research on VCD, especially within the realm of professional services, and few have only hinted at the notion of co-creating efforts leading to negative value. Therefore, this research puts forth a conceptual model of the VCD process, in which resource disintegration is a key component to value not being realized in the dyad. Specifically, this paper focuses on the consumers’ role in VCD and offers propositions in which factors or characteristics encourage consumers to behave badly in a service encounter. Contributions and future research are discussed.

Joanne T. Cao, Bruce L. Alford
Management Responses to Negative Online Customer Reviews: The Effect of Compensation and Explanation on the Observer’s Purchase Intention: An Abstract

Negative online customer reviews affect potential customers’ purchase decisions. Observers represent potential customers who read online customer reviews to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, there is a need to respond to negative online customer reviews. This study investigates the effect of compensation and explanation on observer’s purchase intention. Applying an experimental between-subjects design, the results of a study with 381 participants show that a monetary compensation combined with an explanation has the greatest effect on the observer’s purchase intention. More importantly, a monetary compensation and an explanation alone each have the same positive effect on the observer’s purchase intention. As compensating monetarily implies significant financial losses, organizations are advised to provide an explanation in cases of resource constraints.

Rico Piehler, Michael Schade, Ines Nee, Christoph Burmann
Examining Process and Moderating Effects of Customer-Created Guilt in a Service Context: An Abstract

Guilt has been identified as a key consumption emotion and is often experienced in interpersonal interactions, making it an interesting emotion to examine in a service context. This work examines customer-created guilt in the context of a service experience. Service scripts offer a set of norms or expectations for routine service encounters between customers and service providers. Consistent with the notion that a violation of social norms induces guilt, a customer’s negative deviation from the service script can induce customer-created guilt.This work assesses the potential mediating role of affective and normative commitment and the potential moderating role of commercial friendship in examining the relationship between consumer-created guilt and repatronage intention. It is expected that customers who have a strong commercial friendship with their service provider are likely to increase their affective commitment toward their service provider when they feel guilty. On the other hand, it is expected that normative commitment, rather than affective commitment, will be a facilitating mechanism between guilt and repatronage intention for those in weak commercial friendships.The main study was online survey-based, and the sample consisted of 342 adult respondents that were recruited using a snowball approach. Respondents were randomly exposed to and read one of the three scenarios depicting consumer norm violations that were based on a pilot study: (1) cheating on a service provider (e.g., “I just wanted to try someone new.”), (2) withholding information from a service provider (e.g., “I left without explanation.”), and (3) role failure, or failure to engage in expected behaviors associated with the exchange (e.g., complaining).Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. A measurement model that included the items of the non-moderating constructs was assessed using AMOS 22.0.0, and the results suggested a good-fitting model. Multi-group analysis was used to test the hypotheses that commercial friendship moderates the mediating effects of affective and normative commitment. The results indicate that affective commitment fully mediates the effect of guilt on repatronage intention in the strong commercial group but does not mediate the effect of guilt on repatronage intention in the weak commercial group. In addition, results indicate that normative commitment does not mediate for either the weak or strong commercial group.This research offers implications for marketing managers. Specifically, this work suggests customer-created guilt does not negatively impact the customer-service provider relationship and outcomes. Rather, for those with weak commercial friendships, guilt positively affects repatronage intention. For those with strong commercial friendships, not only does guilt increase repatronage intention, it also has an additional benefit of strengthening the relationship via affective commitment.

Kathrynn Pounders, Julie Moulard, Barry J. Babin
I Am Feeling Back to Those Days: The Three-Way Interaction Effect of Nostalgia, Age, and Gender on Youthfulness in Nostalgia Advertising: An Abstract

Although the extant literature on nostalgia’s positive effects might support the belief that it is an effective marketing communication strategy, it is unreasonable to predict that its effectiveness can be generalized to nearly all consumers. Two studies are conducted in a different context to test how each group of consumers by age and gender responds to nostalgic feelings. Study 1 manipulates nostalgia through narrative writing tasks, and Study 2 replicates it through experimenter-generated print ads. The results across two studies consistently reveal a significant three-way interaction effect of nostalgia, age, and gender on consumers’ perceived youthfulness. Specifically, older women tend to feel less youthful than older men when nostalgic feelings are induced. Our mediated moderation analysis shows that these differences in older adults’ perceived youthfulness are due to self-discrepancy between current and ideal body image. Furthermore, we identify that nostalgic feelings in advertising benefit as a marketing communication strategy because they generate positive emotions initiated by youthfulness, resulting in positive attitudes toward the ad. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, and future research directions are offered.

Young K. Kim, Mark Y. Yim
Idle Speculation or Proficient Prognosis? How to Employ Celebrity Endorsement Models Smartly: An Abstract

Celebrity endorsement is a promising form of marketing communication. Verily, a celebrity endorsement can yield 30 times its costs. On the other hand, a failed celebrity endorsement can likewise cause financial damage: In 1989, PepsiCo had to withdraw its endorsement of pop diva Madonna due to substantial protest and calls for boycott. The loss has been estimated at six million dollars. This ambiguity hints at the fact that celebrity endorsement has to be carried out in a methodical and smart way: In order to help advertising managers to make the right decisions, countless celebrity endorsement models and indices have been designed: Among them are the well-known, established ones, which are the Source Credibility Model, the Source Attractiveness Model, the Match-Up Hypothesis, the Meaning-Transfer Model, the Q Score, and the Davie-Brown Index. However, there are also lesser known models and indices, which are as follows: the Four Fs, FRED, TEARS, Celebrity Endorsement Model, Dual Entertainment Pass Model, E-Score, and Celebrity Performance Index. All have their virtues and advantages; but which of them are most advisable and reliable? Which cover the critical decision factors of celebrity endorsement in the best way? Additionally the question arises, whether the primacy of the established models is really justifiable. In other words, are the established models and indices really decidedly better than all the rest? Answering these questions is the aim of the study at hand. To this purpose, at first the overlying perspective will be elucidated. Subsequently, a literature review is carried out, in order to reveal all aspects that are relevant for smart celebrity endorsement. Thereby, a list of attributes arises. These constitute the basis for the ensuing assessment of the models and indices. The results imply that concerning models, a combination of Celebrity Endorsement Model and FRED is the best solution for advertising managers. In terms of indices, the Davie-Brown Index and E-Score are best suited. Finally, the results are employed to design implications for advertising managers and point out research gaps.

Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Walter von Mettenheim
The Effects of Celebrity Attractiveness and Identification on Advertising Interest

Celebrities are frequently used in advertising to promote a product or a brand. A variety of possible mechanisms have been proposed to explain celebrity influence. One of the most frequently examined is physical attractiveness; however, it is not clear if physical attractiveness will be effective for all products or simply attractiveness-related products. This study also examines whether that a mechanism found in health communication may also be important in consumer products – parasocial identification. An experiment was used to test the viability and relative power of these two factors in shaping product interest. A sample of 235 respondents saw eight different advertisements. Results show that, firstly, interest in the ad increased for female respondents when the celebrity was attractive, while for male respondents, both attractiveness and identification were important. This confirms that attractiveness plays a role in generating interest in product advertising. Secondly, the effects of identification appear to be more limited in power than attractiveness, in this case restricted to male customers. These findings can be used to reconcile research which demonstrates that physical attractiveness is more relevant for products that are beauty-related. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

Priscilla Patel, Michael Basil
Physical Attractiveness in Advertising: Can an Endorser Be Too Attractive? An Abstract

Attractive product endorsers are typically more effective than their less attractive counterparts. But can they be too attractive, perhaps to the point of offending viewers? This study examines the importance of endorser attractiveness of both celebrities and noncelebrities in shaping the effectiveness of advertisements. An online experiment using 16 existing ads each with different endorsers was conducted to examine the importance that attractiveness plays in advertising. The results show that although endorser attractiveness generally makes an ad more effective, with opposite sex viewers, there is a linear effect between attractiveness and interest in the product; but when evaluated by same-sex viewers, if the model in the advertisement is highly attractive, interest in the advertisement decreases curvilinearly. This research demonstrates that negative repercussions may occur for highly attractive models for both women and men but only for same-sex models. This theoretical advancement has important practical implications for advertisers to avoid unrealistically attractive or thin models. Although the pattern for attractiveness was the same for both celebrities and noncelebrities, respondents reported being more interested in products advertised by celebrities than noncelebrities, supporting the value of celebrity advertising in general.

Rachelle Jantzon, Michael Basil
Scale Development Incorporating Cluster Heat Maps: An Abstract

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has long been used to identify factors for construct development. EFA mainly relies on factor loadings, average variance extracted, and item-to-total correlations to build constructs. Unidimensionality, or the existence of a single trait, is the main issue for new scale development. However, the evaluation of unidimensionality is not intuitive when the number of items increases. In addition, no validation has been provided to confirm the dimensions of the factors. As the number of items increases, visualizing different factors to further reveal hidden relationship among items and factors gives researchers a better way to develop constructs. By employing cluster heat maps, this study is one of the first to systematically combine this method with EFA.Traditional factor analysis relies on factor loadings, average variance extracted, and item-to-total correlations to build constructs. Unidimensionality, or the existence of a single trait, is the main issue for new scale development (Gerbing & Anderson, 1988). However, the evaluation of unidimensionality is not intuitive when the number of items increases. In addition, no validation has been provided to confirm the dimensions of the factors. Using the heat-mapping technique as a supplementary technique for factor analysis, this study contributes to the measurement and dimensionality for scale development. Specifically, performing cluster heat-mapping is beneficial for researchers to identify the dimensionality of the scales. The cluster heat map is unique for representing data points, items, and scales or constructs in a single picture since the picture shows not only both of the horizontal axes for the items and their corresponding dendrogram plot of the hierarchical cluster tree of the items but also two of the vertical axes for all of the data points and their corresponding dendrogram plot of the hierarchical cluster tree of the data points. The change of the color gives a visual representation of the distribution of data points among items and scales. The context of this study is to investigate the issues that are pertinent to marketing researchers, the big data revolution. Primarily, the following variables are identified to be relevant and coherent to help direct research and practice in the big data and marketing research discipline. The variables are big data analytics (BDA), traditional marketing analytics (TMA), knowledge types, data fusion, and knowledge and information fusion.

Zhenning (Jimmy) Xu, Gary L. Frankwick, Edward Ramirez, Kallol Bagchi, Pan Liu
Meet with Editorial Reviewers: An Interactive Discussion of the Difficulties and Issues Facing Authors in the Journal Review Process: An Abstract

With the existing insights on writing and publishing marketing journal articles and the discipline’s rapid expansion of publishing opportunities in new U.S. and international marketing journals, one intuitive prediction is marketing scholars’ publishing success of important scientific articles is rapidly becoming a more common occurrence. Yet, this trend prediction is perplexing and contradictive because the prestigious and top 25 ranked marketing-oriented journals consistently report annual acceptance rates ranging between 7% and 18%. The low acceptance suggests a disconnect gap between conducting important, relevant quality research and ultimately publishing that research in quality journals.In an effort to begin closing this disconnect gap, the primary objective of this special session is generating meaningful discussions between journal reviewers and the audience on difficulties, critical issues, and pitfalls authors face in submitting manuscripts to high-ranking journal review processes.An unique element of the session is the interactive framework of using the “question and answer” format between panel members and the audience to create meaningful dialogue and opportunities of exchanging invaluable writing, organizing, and publishing insights toward improving the journal quality factor of manuscripts submitted to journal review processes. Opportunities exist for gaining invaluable insights of the specific components of a manuscript that reviewers use in evaluating a manuscript’s value and contribution to the body of marketing knowledge (or the literature).Anyone struggling in getting their research successfully through journal review processes can gain a clearer understanding of the role, responsibilities, and expectations of journal reviewers. Discussions will focus but not be limited to “fixable manuscript problems” such as: (1) general manuscript sloppiness – including grammar, style, syntax, spelling errors as well as failure to follow the target journal’s style guidelines; (2) development of hypotheses that are illogical and/or poorly supported by theory or extant literatures; (3) attempts at trying to analyze too many variables and test too many hypotheses and/or ineffectiveness in presenting a coherent set of findings; (4) using a well-written literature review that does not present the right development background for supporting the manuscript’s main story line; (5) ignoring alternative theoretical explanations for unsupported relationships; and (6) using the lack of support of hypothesized relationships as the only contribution to the literature.

Les Carlson, Michael J. Dorsch, Diana Haytko, David J. Ortinau
How Does Nostalgia Affect Donor Giving Behavior?

The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the effects of nostalgia on donor giving behavior and conceptually add to an existing model of charitable giving. This paper adds two antecedents to two different types of nostalgia: significant emotional memories influence personal nostalgia and myth formation influences vicarious nostalgia. A previous conceptual model that depicted personal nostalgia’s effect on donor charitable intentions was extended to include empathy, existential guilt, and donor loyalty. Propositions are offered throughout the paper, a theoretical model on donor giving behavior is extended, and suggestions are offered for future research.

Kristina Stuhler
Exploring the Role of Religion in Consumer Acculturation and Ethnic Identification of the Second-Generation British Pakistanis: An Abstract

During the last five decades, the sociocultural fabric of many western societies has been affected by the continuous waves of immigrants choosing to settle in these countries. The majority of immigrants traverse cultural and national borders in search of a more prosperous life, embarking on an often ambitious journey of acculturating to foreign and alien cultural conditions. The burgeoning of such influential minority ethnic communities is not only of interest to social scientists but is also of significance to business practitioners and researchers, particularly those in the marketing domain. Extant literature on consumer acculturation literature thus far has paid scant attention to the issues, incongruities and conflicts of the second-generation immigrants whose daily realities and consumption lives oscillate between the conflicting often polarized social and cultural demands of the ethnical/parental and majority cultures. Particularly there is increasing interest in understanding the role and impact of religion on the complex dynamics of consumer acculturation and the ethnical identification processes of immigrants.In recent times, scholars are raising the question whether religion will supersede and replace ethnicity as the most significant marker of identity for the second and higher generations of immigrants. This is especially true with respect to Islam that is considered as the world’s fastest growing religion and not just in Muslim majority nations. Researchers aver that in this contemporary era of globalization, which has created tremendous social, cultural and economic change, there is a need to reconsider our existing assumptions on how religion and ethnicity interact in complex ways to materialize in everyday life through consumption. Individualized Muslim identities which are deemed as anomalies in a world still grappling with coming to terms with modernity and which remain at best anecdotes in glitzy newspapers need to be explored. By conducting phenomenological interviews of the different generations of Pakistani Muslim ethnic community in the UK, which is one of the biggest Muslim Diaspora in Europe, this study interrogates the relationship between religion and identity projects and explores how consumption is implicated in constructing, maintaining and communicating Muslim identities as they circumnavigate the nexus of globalization, markets and religion.

Zeeshan Rafiq
Social and Spatial Distance in Decision-Making: Can Culture Play a Role? An Abstract

With the innovation of technology and growing usage of social media, integrated marketing communications are targeting the customers from worldwide. Construal level theory has been extensively used to explain the effect of psychological distance on evaluation, prediction, and behavior (Trope et al., 2007). Psychological distance is defined as “the subjective distance between an actor and an event in the actor’s psychological space (Kim et al., 2008).” This multidimensional construct includes temporal distance, social distance, spatial distance, and hypotheticality (Liberman et al., 2007). Social distance and spatial distance are two dimensions that have been studied independently in previous literature. The author hypothesizes that the interaction effect of social distance and spatial distance on consumers’ evaluation varies from Western culture to Eastern culture. Moreover, this study intends to offer insights into the use of construal level theory in tourism advertising. Destinations targeting visitors from different cultures might adjust their marketing communications to be appealing. In conjunction with the tourism context, this research reviews the effects of two psychological distance dimensions, social distance and spatial distance, and the potential moderating effect of culture on customers’ attitudes and behavior intention. A 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design is purposed to test the hypotheses.

Shuang Wu
The Impact of New Product Introduction on Inter-tier Price Competition: An Abstract

Extensive research exists in two important research domains: (1) short-term price competition between high-tier brands and low-tier brands and (2) how new brand introductions influence customer choice among existing alternatives. The current research integrates these two research streams. Specifically, the research examines the impact of new brand introductions on the nature of short-term price competition between high-tier and low-tier brands. Using a conceptual framework based on prospect theory, the research derives a number of research propositions that predict how the nature of price competition between a high-tier brand and a low-tier brand is influenced by reference price contexts as well as the attributes of the newly introduced brand. Implications for understanding inter-brand competition and new brand introduction, guidelines for managerial practice, and future research directions are delineated.

K. Sivakumar
Switching from Free to Fee: More than Just a Price Increase? An Abstract

This research investigates customers’ reactions to free-to-fee switches (i.e., price introductions for products or services that were previously available for free). Specifically, it compares a free-to-fee switch to a conventional price increase, where the initial price was not zero. Building upon cognitive appraisal theory and drawing from 18 qualitative in-depth interviews, a conceptual model is developed and tested in a field experiment. Findings demonstrate that compared to price increases at different levels, a free-to-fee switch leads to higher perceived betrayal and anger and, subsequently, fewer actual purchases. Moreover, providing a justification for the price change is identified and tested as one moderator. While providing customers a justification reduces the feeling of perceived betrayal and anger, and lead to more purchases, it also interacts with the type of pricing decision, such that providing a justification is more beneficial in a free-to-fee switch compared to a price increase. Overall, the findings provide insights into the mechanisms of customers’ response to free-to-fee switches as well as how they differ from conventional price increases.

Gerrit P. Cziehso, Tobias Schaefer, Monika Kukar-Kinney
Cause-Related Marketing and Price Endings: Right-Digit Effect: An Abstract

Cause-related marketing (CRM) campaigns have become common features of the marketplace. CRM often involves a for-profit business agreeing to contribute a specified amount to a cause when the business’s customers engage in revenue-generating exchanges (Adkins, 1999; Varadarajan & Menon, 1988). Despite the central role that price is likely to play in a consumer’s decision to purchase or not purchase an offer associated with a CRM campaign, to our knowledge, very few have examined price-framing effects in a CRM context. This paper explores the effect of rightmost digits manipulation in prices on participation intentions for CRM campaigns.Strahilevitz (1999) concludes that if giving is about feeling good, then the extent to which a promised donation to charity will add value to a product should be a direct reflection of how successful that incentive is in making consumers feel good about their purchases. Strahilevitz and Myers (1998) view this bundling approach (product and a donation) as a method of offering consumers “two distinct positive outcomes,” for the same price. A gain in acquiring the product as well as a gain, in good feelings, generated from knowing that one is supporting a worthy cause, i.e., helping. CRM gives consumers the option of being caring citizens while doing their routine shopping; however, they are more likely to accept a lower and harmless request than a large one because donating less per CRM transaction involves a smaller cost, i.e., a smaller, perceived, cost being passed on to them (Chang, 2008; Strahilevitz, 1999). Jaber (2008) adds that when buyers are presented with a low price CRM offer, they are more likely to deliberate on the benefits of helping, due to the low perceived cost to benefit ratio. On the other hand, as the offer price increases, deliberation on the cost of helping starts to overpower the affective factors; thus potential buyers will contemplate more on the cost of helping. In the case of 99 price endings, subtracting one cent from a round price creates a price “just below” a round number, and the leftmost digits are reduced, thereby creating an illusion that the price is lower than it actually is (Manning & Sprott, 2009).Overall our results extend previous work on cause-related marketing and right-digit effect in pricing to show that consumers that are exposed to the no ending (even) priced CRM offers tend to be affected less by it compared to consumers exposed to 99 ending CRM offers, who are affected more by the tactic and exhibit an increase in participation intention. We also examine process measures to explain this effect, and our SEM results show that in the 99 ending condition, while offer elaboration has a positive effect on offer attractiveness and ultimately participation intentions, perception of the product quality has a negative effect on offer attractiveness and eventually participation intentions. On the other hand, anticipated guilt and quality perception will have a positive effect on offer attractiveness and ultimately participation intentions.

Mazen Jaber, Kylie Jaber
Can Academics Provide Value to Practitioners? The Practitioner Response to Academic Research Output: An Abstract

Ten years have passed since Van de Ven and Johnson published their original Academy of Management Review article on engaged scholarship. With over 1,000 citations, this article has gained significant attention. Yet questions remain as to whether the behavior of the academic community has truly changed in a manner that engages business community stakeholders with respect to creating customer value through the co-creation of knowledge. While the engaged scholarship approach faces many obstacles within academia, the current study explores the external obstacles, specifically the degree to which top managers utilize published research along with how manager’s attitudes about research impact this process. In addition, this research explores business leader’s perceptions about what academics do and what they should do from the practitioners’ perspective.Positioning practitioners as the consumers of academic output, the current paper explores the gap between academic knowledge and practitioner knowledge, and this analysis shows evidence of a practitioner dissatisfaction effect. In addition, practitioners perceive practitioner and academic knowledge to be distinct forms of knowing. However, there is also evidence of a knowledge transfer problem in the mediated relationships between business press usage, applied research usage, and academic research usage. This mediated effect is moderated by both practitioner expectations of academics and practitioner perceptions of academics.

Christian Hinsch, Joseph Horak, Josip Kotlar
Virtually Enhancing the Real World with Augmented Reality Holograms: Use and Gratification Perspective: An Abstract

While the variety of technologies that allow consumers to explore the physical world through the lens of augmented reality is ever expanding, limited research has explored consumers’ reactions to these innovative media technologies. Specifically, the influences that determine the consumers’ intention to use these technologies remain unclear. To provide further insights into this research question, the current study utilizes use and gratification theory as a theoretical foundation to examine expected gratifications related to using augmented reality smart glasses. Results of a structural equation model support several gratifications that users associate with augmented reality smart glasses. Interestingly, these gratifications are highly context specific depending on whether the user is intending to use the device at home or in public. As a result, future studies should incorporate multiple contexts to more accurately assess consumers’ reactions, attitudes, and adoption intentions associated with these new wearable technologies.

Philipp A. Rauschnabel, Nina Krey
Adoption of Augmented Reality Technologies in Tourism: Visitors’ Acceptance of Smart Glasses: An Abstract

To establish a competitive advantage, tourism destinations managers show a keen interest in new technologies to guide visitors. Recent developments indicate that a new form of wearable technologies, augmented reality smart glasses, might tremendously advance the tourism landscape. Yet, not much research has been done to understand this new form of technology. As a result, the literature lacks profound understanding of how visitors react to these wearable technological advances. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior and Hofstede’s cultural framework, we develop a model to better understand usage intention of augmented reality smart glasses. Results of a survey among tourists vacationing in Malaysia show that (1) attitude, perceived behavior control, and social influences relate to usage intention and (2) several cultural variables moderate the strengths of these relationships.

Aarash Baktash, Nina Krey, Vikneswaran Nair, Philipp A. Rauschnabel
Cause-Related Marketing and Millennials: Impact of Product Type and Donation Style: An Abstract

The goal of the current study was to explore the impact of CRM on Millennials’ overall perceptions of companies and likelihood of purchasing from a company and if this is impacted by the type of product and the donation style used in the campaign. The average number of CRM campaigns accurately identified was low (H1), with 76.2% of the sample identifying half or fewer of the six campaigns correctly and no participants correctly identifying all six. A regression examining the impact of hours spent per week on social media on number of correctly identified CRM campaigns revealed a significant relationship (B = 0.190, F = 4.494, p = 0.030), indicating that for every additional five hours per week spent on social media, an individual can be expected to correctly identify one additional CRM campaign. The most-recognized campaign was TOMS, which has the purest “one-for-one” style of CRM of all the campaigns examined.The effect of CRM on favorability and purchase likelihood (H2) varied by product. Laptops had no significant effect on favorability or purchase likelihood. For both hats and water, there was a strong effect of CRM on favorability (p < 0.001); however, post hoc analysis revealed that while there were significant differences between non-CRM and both traditional and one-for-one CRM, there was no difference between traditional and one-for-one CRM. For purchase likelihood of hats and water, hats followed the same pattern of statistical significance overall (p < 0.001), but post hoc differences were only found between non-CRM and both traditional and one-for-one CRM. For water, the statistical significance (p = 0.003) was found post hoc to be related to the difference between one-for-one and non-CRM, with traditional CRM differing neither from non-CRM nor one for one. For the restaurant scenario, there was a significant finding for favorability (p = 0.012), driven by a post hoc difference between non-CRM and one for one. For purchase likelihood, the significant difference (p = 0.019) was driven by post hoc differences when comparing one for one with both non-CRM and traditional CRM. Thus, in terms of perceived favorability of the company, CRM does appear to affect Millennials’ perceptions of the company behind the campaign. While there was no impact for the laptop scenario, for the remaining three items, CRM was significantly associated with more favorable views. For one of those three (restaurant), however, only the one-for-one campaign was associated with increased favorability. Increased favorability though did not always translate into increased likelihood of purchase. When CRM did appear to make a difference in purchase likelihood, one for one was generally superior to traditional CRM. The results suggest that Millennials’ purchases of food may be particularly susceptible to a CRM strategy.

K. Bryant Smalley, Jacob C. Warren, Jacqueline K. Eastman
The Cause-Related Marketing Paradox: Purchasing Products with a Cause Licenses Self-Interest, Self-Indulgence, or Less Helping Behavior: An Abstract

As competition increases, social causes assume a more prominent role in the profit-seeking efforts of corporations. Cause-related marketing (CRM), i.e., the creation of a relationship between a product and a cause for promotional purposes, is one of today’s fastest-growing marketing strategies. Previous research has linked participation in CRM with altruism or a “warm glow.” However, our research demonstrated that CRM does not always induce other-benefit behaviors. Research on licensing effect suggested that a person who has taken a virtuous act might compensate by behaving in a less virtuous or a more indulgent manner in a subsequent context. We further explored how the licensing effect differs with two moderating variables: product type and cause type. Product type (hedonic vs. utilitarian) has been identified as an important factor in CRM. Two major types of cause are identified: “self-benefit” and “other-benefit”.We designed five experiments to investigate the licensing effect after purchasing a cause-related product. Study 1 demonstrated that a priming task involving CRM and an actual purchase has a negative impact on money-sharing behavior. Study 2 confirmed this effect by using an “E-drawing” task to measure a person’s subconscious self-focused/other-focused tendency at a point in time. Study 3 employed a food choice to assess the licensing effect of purchasing a product with a cause. Study 4 used a field setting to explore the moderating role of product type in the licensing effect. Study 5 tested whether the licensing effect is eliminated when the purchaser perceives the promoted cause type as self-benefit.The results of five experiments showed that exposure to CRM may contribute to a sense of altruism, but the actual purchase of a product associated with a cause licenses self-interested and self-indulgent behavior and reduces helping behavior in a variety of domains. Compared with purchasing utilitarian products with a cause, purchasing hedonic products with a cause is more likely to enhance this licensing effect. Remarkably, the licensing effect disappears if the cause associated with the product is perceived as beneficial to oneself. Mediation analyses support our theoretical explanation that the licensing effect operates by providing a temporary boost in empathetic altruism.The insights from this research make important contributions to theory. First, we observed opposing patterns of behavior after exposure to products with a cause and after an actual purchase of such a product. Second, we showed that purchasing a product with a cause satisfies at least some of the consumer’s empathetic altruism, which mediates the subsequent preference for a self-indulgent option or less helping behavior. Third, we explored differences in the licensing effect following the purchase of a hedonic product with a cause versus a utilitarian product with a cause. Fourth, we found that a cause which benefits the self (“self-benefit”) reduces licensing effect than a cause which benefits others (“other-benefit”). Our findings also provide managerial implications. For marketers and policy makers, CRM can be a paradox. Public policy makers and other concerned parties can raise consumers’ awareness of the subtle dangers of the licensing effect. The glories of CRM should not be overemphasized, and proper attention must be given to the possible detrimental side effects.

Xing-Yu Chu, Chun-Tuan Chang
Ties That Bind: Exploring Existing Brand and Cause Relationships in Cause-Related Marketing Campaigns: An Abstract

Over the last several decades, cause-related marketing (CRM) has become an important piece in building the relationship between for-profit corporations and non-for-profit organizations (Elliot, 2009). Under the umbrella of “doing well by doing good,” firms have been able to attract consumers that are socially and environmentally conscious through CRM initiatives. These individuals seek out products and services than go above and beyond simply meeting their wants and needs but that extends assistance or charity to their local communities, natural environment, or starving populations around the world. In light of the growing consumer interest in cause-related products and services, this study aims to better understand the relative influence that various factors, including pre-existing connections to the cause and brand, can have on individual emotions and an individual’s intent to purchase products from firms associated with a cause.Various aspects of cause-related marketing efforts have been studied. While previous research has examined the effects of a consumer’s connection to, or involvement with, a cause (Grau & Folse, 2007; Lafferty, 1996), few studies have focused on the effects of brand loyalty or brand engagement in CRM situations (as noted by Laffery et al., 2016). Similarly, while several studies have examined the motives associated with consumer CRM support (Bower & Grau, 2009; Chang & Chang, 2015), the effects of emotions such as obligation and anticipated guilt on CRM purchase and attitudinal outcomes have not been fully explored. This current research is intended to fill this gap in the literature and provide insights for CRM managers.This research utilizes a two-study approach. First we conduct a qualitative study, whereby we administered an open-ended survey via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. The results of that survey and previous literature are used to develop a model of CRM purchase behavior which includes pre-existing brand and cause connections, consumer emotions related to the cause-related campaign, and their ultimate purchase decision, among other factors. This model is then tested using a second MTurk sample. Results and implications are discussed. The results of this study begin to fill gaps in the existing literature, offer ideas for future research, and give managerial insights regarding the role of pre-existing brand and cause commitment.

Alisha Horky, Carri Tolmie
Seeing Is Believing … Or Is it? The Effect of Product Review Modality and Valence: An Abstract

Imagine you are shopping online for certain products and you search the Internet for online reviews. However, these reviews come in different forms, video and/or text, and different degrees of valence, positive and negative. You find yourself confused and not sure which reviews you should believe. You are not certain which reviews are more credible and useful and which one you should believe. To answer this question, we examine how consumers respond to online reviews that come in different formats and valence.According to a concept called review modality, online reviews are presented primarily in two different formats: text information and visual information. However, consumers often see reviews presented in different combinations of these two formats (Chau et al., 2000). Traditional research on negativity bias would suggest that negative reviews will trump positive ones (Feldman & Lynch, 1988; Lee et al., 2009), regardless of other factors. However, we believe that other factors, for instance, review modality, may enhance or hinder the effect of negative or positive reviews. How a consumer processes online reviews may vary based on how reviews are presented. Past research finds that visual information is more effective on message recall and attitude than text-only information (Liu & Stout, 1987). Moreover, visual information helps reducing the perceived risk (Park et al., 2005). On the contrary, according to dual-coding theory (Paivio, 1986), consumers may be overwhelmed by greater visual attention to process the visual information in video reviews. Additionally, Borup et al. (2015) find the superior quality of text-only feedback because they are easier to access, more efficient to read as fast or as carefully, and more concise. Through an experiment, we find that consumers have less favorable attitude and purchase intention when they read negative online reviews, regardless of review modality. Moreover, we examine further and find that consumers have less favorable attitude and purchase intention when they are exposed to a negative text review than a negative video review. Interestingly, the results show no difference in both attitude and purchase intention when consumers are exposed to either a positive text or video review.These results suggest that review modality is relevant to how consumers process online reviews. Our research provides evidence that product reviews in the text form are more influential than visual presentation such as video reviews, especially for a utilitarian product such as vacuum. The results from this study offer useful insight into the management of online consumer reviews and social media activities. This research suggests that product managers should pay closer attention to text reviews, both negative and positive, since they are more influential. Moreover, managers may be able to offset negative video reviews by increasing positive text reviews.

Chatdanai Pongpatipat, Michaela Hoogerhyde
E-Service Quality and eWOM: The Moderating Role of Customers’ Risk Orientation and Moral Identity: An Abstract

The study provides a novel attempt to house customer characteristics within a study of eWOM antecedents. Unlike prior research, this study posits that moderating effect of customers’ risk orientation and moral identity bridges the gap in the consumer behaviour literature concerning the boundary conditions of the e-service quality–eWOM relationship. In essence, we investigate the effect of customer perceived e-service quality on eWOM and how this link is impacted by two moderating factors: customers’ risk orientation and moral identity. We collected data through a survey targeting consumers who shop online and reside in the United Kingdom. The survey consisted of five main sections, e-service quality, eWOM, moral identity, risk orientation and customer characteristics. In the survey, participants (N = 217) were asked to answer a series of questions based on their last online shopping experience. We adopted all scales from prior research published in well-established and academic journals. We used eTailQ framework (Wolfinbarger & Gilly, 2003) to measure e-service quality; eWOM through a four-item scale by Srinivasan, Anderson and Ponnavolu (2002); risk orientation with two dimensions from Westaby and Lowe (2005); and moral identity with the two dimensions (internalization and symbolization) used by Reed, Aquino and Levy (2007).We found that the direct effect (e-service quality → eWOM) was strongly positive and significant Furthermore, risk orientation is found to be a moderating factor of this relationship meaning that people with higher risk orientation do not engage in positive eWOM activities. This finding suggests that customers who are more inclined to take risk are less likely to be participant with positive eWOM actions. Similarly, the internalization dimension of moral identity significantly moderates the effect of e-service quality on eWOM, showing how at the same level of perceived e-service quality individuals with higher levels of internalization are keener to participate in EWOM activities.The symbolization dimension returned a non-significant effect on the relationship between e-service quality and eWOM. Surprisingly, symbolization on itself presented a significant direct effect on the action of eWOM. This finding may indicate that people who scored higher on this dimension might provide eWOM despite the influence of any other factors.Our study contributes to previous literature by introducing a new moderator (moral identity) as a factor influencing the propensity customer has to share their e-service experiences. We also suggest strategies managers can implement to leverage the different dimensions of moral identity to stimulate positive eWOM.

Alessandro Biraglia, Shahin Assadinia, Vita Kadile
Investigating Online Reviews: The Interaction Between Online Review Volume and Valence: An Abstract

Evidence shows that products with online reviews have a higher chance to stay in the consideration set of consumers than products with no online reviews do. Components of online reviews, such as consumer-generated content, affect consumers’ purchase decision-making process. Most of the studies in this area have looked at valence and volume of online reviews. Generally, valence and volume of online reviews are considered to positively influence sales; however, the findings in the literature are inconclusive. While some studies have reported a positive relationship between valence/volume and sales, others have failed to find any significant relationship. In this research, we explain some of these inconsistencies in the literature by investigating the interaction between valence and volume. The results of our study showed that the effects of both valence and volume are contingent on the valence range. While valence has a stronger effect in low and high valence ranges, volume was more important only when valence reached at least the medium level.Furthermore, this study will enable practitioners to more effectively fine-tune their marketing apparatus. The rise in doing business online requires companies to think about new ways of marketing their product and services, in a way that enables them to skim the online market. The finding of current research can be used as a guideline to companies. The results of our study showed that if generally speaking, the current valence of the item on company’s website is highly negative, there is no point in increasing the number of reviews, unless the firms can offer incentives to satisfied customers to postpositive reviews. Then once the valence is within acceptable/medium range, companies should try to increase the number of online reviews as the results of our study have shown that, at medium levels of valence, higher volume has a positive effect on purchase intention.

Elika Kordrostami, Yuping Liu-Thompkins, Vahid Rahmani
The Moderating Effects of Fatalism and Traditionalism on Innovation Resistance

This article highlights the importance of understanding the factors of innovation resistance towards discontinuous (or radical) innovations. Such innovations involve change for individuals, and resistance to change is an expected behaviour. This paper examines passive innovation resistance: a general willingness to resist innovations prior to new product evaluations. Previous literature emphasised the important role of culture and consumer personality in passive innovation resistance.Building on previous conceptual models of innovation resistance, the authors empirically examined how two important cultural variables – traditionalism and fatalism – influence passive innovation resistance. To do this, data were collected from three countries in the Middle East from house owners contemplating adopting solar panels: a form of discontinuous innovation.The results show the influence of the factors of consumer innovativeness (personality) and traditionalism (culture) on passive innovation resistance. Innovativeness showed the expected inverse influence; however, traditionalism exhibited a significant moderating role in the relationship between consumer innovativeness and innovation resistance. Fatalism was not found to have an influence contrary to previous studies.

Nasir Salari, Eric Shiu, Tao Zhang
Perceived Security Risk and Shopping Behavior: An Exposition in Emerging Markets: An Abstract

Perceived security risk refers to consumers’ perceptions of the likelihood of becoming a victim of crime (Rader, May, & Goodrum, 2007). Consumers’ cognitive perception of the threat of criminal victimization and associated emotional fear may drastically affect their daily lives and behavior (Rader et al., 2007). For instance, perceived security risk may influence consumers’ conspicuous consumption, shopping intentions, shopping times and locations, and brand-directed behaviors. Although crime and perceived security risk are prevalent in all countries and economies, they are heightened in emerging markets and, as more firms look to emerging markets for growth, it is important to understand the effects of perceived security risk on consumption.However, there is limited research on perceptions of crime and security risk on consumer behavior. Studies on criminology, law, and sociology (e.g., Garofalo, 1981; Stanko, 2009) indicate that perceptions of security risk increase consumers’ anxiety, which in turn leads them to behave differently than under normal circumstances and creates defensive behaviors to minimize potential crime consequences. However, most studies concentrate on fear of crime or victimization (i.e., emotional response to crime) and do not address how perceived security risk (i.e., cognitive response to crime) affects consumption behavior.Using a series of interviews and an experiment conducted with consumers in a major metropolitan area of Southwestern Colombia, this study explores effects of perceived security risk on consumption behaviors. The results indicate that perceived institutional risk increases perceived security risk, which in turn, decreases purchase intentions. Tendency toward risk does not affect either perceived security risk or purchase intentions. However, consumers create risk reduction strategies to reduce perceived security and institutional risks and engage in modified consumption behavior. For consumers, security and convenience are traded off for a good bargain; they minimize perceived security risk by changing their appearance, hiding their valuables, etc. so they can get a good bargain despite security risks and lack of institutional safeguards. Consumers use different strategies, including not displaying and/or using the items purchased, to minimize security risk. Future studies can validate results by including a broader number of emerging markets and identifying differences in effects of and responses to perceived security risk across emerging and developed markets.

Enrique Becerra, Vishag Badrinarayanan, Maria Cecilia Henriquez-Daza
The Revenge of the Nerds: Uncovering Practices of E-Sports and Fantasy Sports: An Abstract

In recent years marketplaces around the world experienced a boom in several unconventional competitive events in online environments. E-sports and fantasy sports are two of the popular current examples. Not only there is a growing number in these competitive events, but they are also becoming culturally and financially very attractive. Media houses are seeking collaboration with these events, for example, ESPN is now televising E-Sports tournaments, as does TBS and Twitch, a website that works as a central platform for streaming E-sports events and has a viewership of about 43 million a month, acquired by Amazon for $930 million in August 2014. The phenomenon became so popular that some of the universities in the USA offer athletic scholarship for E-sports players. Recently, the NBA started its own E-sports league with the goal for each NBA “real” team to own an E-Sports team and compete in a virtual NBA championship. This paper discusses some of the explanation behind the popularity of the aforementioned trends from a practice theory perspective. Practice theory is an appropriate lens in this research, as it takes the performative character of social life if foregrounded and it privileges its analysis. We specifically focus on fantasy sports and E-sports.The consumption of fantasy sports and E-sports relates to the consumption of traditional sports, perceptions and knowledge of sports, and consumer identities evolving around sports consumption and fandom. Overall, the consumption of fantasy sports and E-sports is becoming increasingly popular among consumers and involves many self-related and social complexities, and therefore, it could be beneficial in understanding these phenomena through the lens of practice theory. Practice theory helps us understand how the intersection of sport consumption practices in everyday life influences overall sports consumption and consumer identities evolving around sports practices. Fantasy sports and E-sports consumption is shaped by understanding of traditional sports, one’s self-concept and skills, and social activities that evolve around sports. As a result of such consumption, consumers find the opportunities to develop new relationships, strengthen their relationships that evolve around fandom of certain sports, develop various skills, and experience sports at a more intense level. Consumers start to see more “coopetition” rather than competition or cooperation aspects of sports and routinize sports as a part of their everyday selves. These practices help consumers personalize and intensify their experiences with sports in general and, as a result, enable a higher level of immersion into virtual sports.

Arne Baruca, Ebru Ulusoy
Reciprocal Intentions: Effects of Promotional Giveaways on Consumers’ In-Venue Spending Intentions: An Abstract

“Inscrutably involved, we live in the currents of universal reciprocity.”Martin BuberTwentieth-century philosopher, religious thinker, political activist, and educatorExtant literature on in-venue sports promotions has demonstrated their positive effect on game attendance (Boyd & Krehbiel, 2003, 2006; Kappe, Blank, & DeSarbo, 2014; McDonald & Rascher, 2000). Promotional stadium giveaways are among these types of sports promotions and are inherently being adopted in practice. For instance, in 2016, all Major League Baseball (MLB) franchises participated in this promotional strategy, totaling to 233 scheduled games with stadium giveaways (Cracknell, 2016). Surprisingly, promotional giveaways have not attracted much scholarly attention beyond their effects on gate revenues. The present research provides a field study examination of promotional giveaways on customers’ reciprocal behaviors in the context of a particular MLB franchise. Theoretically, this study contributes to the exploration of promotions in sports marketing as well as consumer reciprocation within seller-buyer relational exchanges (Morales, 2005; Palmatier, Jarvis, Bechkoff, & Kardes, 2009).Findings demonstrate that promotional giveaways increase consumers’ in-venue spending intentions with attendance frequency moderating this relationship. We believe that reciprocity (cf., exchange theory; Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005) may explain this positive relationship. Since promotional in-venue giveaways represent a significant relationship marketing investment for sports marketers, it is expected that customers may have reciprocal intentions in return. A boundary condition for customers’ reciprocal intentions after receiving promotions is that promotional in-venue giveaways do not have the same effect on frequent sport consumers. Our reasoning behind this boundary condition is that such consumers may value the promotional giveaways as the reciprocal behavior of sport marketers in exchange of their existing loyalty; thus, they would not need to show further reciprocal behaviors. This boundary condition not only contributes to the understanding of promotions in sports marketing but also extends the literature on seller-buyer relational exchanges: Relationship marketing investments (such as promotional in-game giveaways) increase seller performance outcomes (Huang, 2015; Palmatier et al., 2009); however, their effects may be different for consumers in different stages of relationship.

Mujde Yukse, Robert Smith, Catherine McCabe
The Truth About Transparency and Authenticity on Social Media: How Brands Communicate and How Customers Respond: An Abstract

There is a broad consensus among practitioners and academicians that the success of social media communication relies heavily on the perceived authenticity of the content. Also, transparency – not to be confused with authenticity – has received significant attention in both the literature and the mainstream media in recent months. Both big business and politics have given the general public reason to doubt both their authenticity and transparency.Undoubtedly, authenticity and transparency are often used interchangeably despite the concepts’ fundamental differences. Authenticity is related to image consistency and perceived genuineness, while transparency is more concerned with being forthcoming with all information that can affect the relevant stakeholders of the firm. Examples include Amazon’s damaged credibility stemming from incentivized reviews, a presidential candidate’s refusal to disclose tax returns, and deceptive advertising complaints filed against the Kardashian family regarding their consistent failure to disclose they were paid to post certain content on social media. This special session presents three research projects that leverage basic marketing principles to examine the effects of authenticity and transparency in the realm of social media.Clearly, there is an increasing concern with transparency and authenticity in the American culture, and many are pushing for more stringent regulations moving forward. A brand’s engagement in social media marketing represents new territory and the potential need for more specific policies to protect consumers. Therefore, the potential for consumer deception through paid social media posts is examined in the first presentation.The second presentation examines the role of permission marketing in social media marketing authenticity. Marketers have targeted sponsored content on the consumer’s space on social media. However, the effectiveness of this practice in comparison to a more permission-based (opt-in or opt-out) approach to social media marketing is yet to be examined. At the heart of this presentation is a comparison between interruptive and permission-based approaches to social media marketing as it relates to social media marketing authenticity.Finally, despite authenticity’s buzzword status in social media marketing, it is unclear exactly what produces an authentic social media presence. Moreover, consumer responses to more or less authentic social media content are not yet well understood. Therefore, the role of congruency between a brand’s personality and the personality of its branded social media content is investigated in the third presentation.

Kesha Coker, Katharine Howie, Holly Syrdal, Rebecca Vanmeter, Parker Woodroof
A Holistic Approach to Educational Servicescape: An Abstract

Traditionally, multiple studies have examined the influence of classroom environments on student behavior and academic performance. However, considering that an average student spends 12–15 h a week in a classroom setting, additional environments should also be considered when assessing students’ academic success. Given the service nature of education, this study draws from the servicescape framework to examine the influence of environmental stimuli in the academic learning environment. Specifically, diverging research streams drive the conceptualization of a new framework of the transformative educational servicescape. Thus, we propose four distinct environmental dimensions – physical, social, socially symbolic, and natural – that impact the servicescape and, subsequently, students’ academic success. As such, this article offers educators insights to an optimal educational servicescape beyond classrooms by implementing a holistic approach to student academic performance.

Nina Krey, Joanne T. Cao, Jennifer A. Espinosa
Wizardry in Qualitative Marketing Analysis: A Toolbox for Teaching

The teaching of qualitative marketing research requires a systematic and robust toolbox. This toolbox should offer a comprehensive and systematic means of substantiating the insights of qualitative marketing analysis. This will only be possible when the respondent data, the propositions and the theoretical corpus can be analysed for logical consistency. To do so, the semantic format of respondent data needs to be converted into a formal system of representation. Thus, this study will develop a rigorous system for truth verifiability, via the rules and principles of symbolic logic and critical reasoning. This study will be novel and unique as extant studies of qualitative marketing research do not offer a systematic means of training students to analyse and substantiate the findings of qualitative marketing research. It will do so by verifying the categories, themes and propositions of qualitative marketing research. This verification will elevate the data into premises and conclusions. This will ensure that the retrospective and prospective verification of the themes and propositions of the study. Thus, our study will be invaluable to teachers, students and practitioners.

Varsha Jain, Philip J. Kitchen, B. E. Ganesh
Bringing Practitioner into the Classroom: Student Reflections and Learning Types: An Abstract

We witness a growing interest in the marketing area regarding the relationship between marketing theory and marketing practice, the usefulness of marketing models, or how firms carry out their marketing practice. The business discipline has since long taken an interest in the practical use of theories, i.e., as stated by Kurt Levin (1951): “There is nothing as practical as a good theory.” However, the theory-practice linkage has to a limited degree been transferred into the classroom, and only a few studies have so far focused on the effects of bringing practice into the classroom. There are some notable examples of nursing and medicine studies and disciplines that are known for applying reflective practice. However, there is a lack of this research within management and marketing literature. A common way of achieving practice-related assignments is to bring the students into the field, but what happens when you bring the field to the classroom? This can, for example, be done by introducing practice into the classroom by involving practitioners – i.e., executives, managers, consultants, and so forth – in student assignments. Well managed, this means that (a) the student gets to engage in a real-world-like setting and (b) that the student can reflect upon both his or her action and all the nuances of the (practical) event. In this study, we aim to contribute to our understanding regarding the effect of bringing marketing practitioners into the class-learning situation by (i) investigating how such learning experiences affect the students learning and (ii) what kind of learning the practitioner-based activity gives. Our goal is to shed some light on what kind of learning process “practice” in the classroom leads to and what kind of obstacles and benefits there are. We do this by carrying out an explorative study following grounded theory. Our research is inspired by grounded theory and it complements current marketing and management pedagogy studies. While working with cases allows the teacher to design a learning opportunity with clear intended learning outcome (ILO), or using simulation tools, these are artificial situations that do not reflect all the nuances of a “real-life” business situations. Internships do offer the student these nuances, but they are hard to connect to specific ILOs. We focus on a learning methodology that integrates the best of these two practice-oriented methods – i.e., having clear ILOs and bringing business atmosphere into the classroom. The study span 60 individual written student reflections and the results indicate different aspects of the students’ learning process. We coded the students’ renderings and categorized the findings into second-order constructs. Thereafter, the results were compiled, through axial coding, into a conceptual model that should be used for further development and exploration. The model indicates that learning is not only related to the student’s qualities and form of learning triggers; it is also moderated by the student’s emotions and how well the assignment is carried out and understood. The study is a novel attempt to increase our knowledge of how this type of assignments affects the students as well as lead to the fulfillment of ILOs.

Peter Ekman, Eva Maaninen-Olsson, Angelina Sundström
Is Two Really Better than One? The Effects of Dual Language Labelling on Consumer Perceptions and Purchase Intention: An Abstract

In quite a number of countries, companies do not only use the local language in order to describe their products but additionally use at least one second language (Krishna & Ahluwalia, 2008). Not in all cases, companies make a well-researched decision with regard to the choice of that second language but follow a strategy of cost reduction and standardization. Our research was conducted in the context of a food company that started to operate internationally and describes its food products in two languages to save costs. However, the company is without knowledge about the consequences of its dual language labelling approach on consumers’ perceptions of the product in the home market.As to our best knowledge, marketing studies on choice of language were often conducted within the scope of bilingualism and advertising (Kubat & Swaminathan, 2015) or with regard to country-of-origin effects (Berry et al., 2015). Our study aims to clarify the impact of dual language labelling on product perceptions (i.e. perceived quality, evaluation of information) and purchase intention without contrasting specific cultures but focusing on monolinguals, who are characterized by not communicating in two languages regularly. We therefore extend research by exploring the effects of two different dual language labelling strategies by applying a new approach of looking at language labelling effects as we manipulate the comprehensibility of the language.We conducted a between-subjects online experiment with one manipulated factor: dual language labelling (control group including German language only vs. dual language labelling including German and English (comprehensible second language) vs. dual language labelling including German and Spanish (non-comprehensible second language)). A total of 88 participants (Mage = 25.8, 55.7% female) completed the study. We show interesting insights on how these language labelling strategies affect consumers’ perceptions in negative ways. The negative effect of a dual language labelling strategy on consumers’ purchase intention can be explained via reduced information evaluation and perceived quality. However, this only holds true in the condition in which a non-comprehensible language was used as all the effects were significant. With regard to the second dual language labelling strategy (English as comprehensible language), no significant effects were detected. Interestingly enough, the direction of all presumed and postulated effects was negative. Companies should be aware of possible negative effects of dual language labelling. Whereas usage of English does not have a significant negative effect on purchase intention, usage of Spanish significantly diminishes purchase intention.

Sabrina Heix, Linda Wulf, Sören Köcher, Hartmut Holzmüller
Cool or Uncool? Using Associative Groups to Promote Healthy Eating to Young Consumers: An Abstract

Social marketing campaigns focusing on positively influencing health-related behaviors face challenges relating to conflicts between short-run costs/benefits and long-run costs/benefits.This research seeks to address this challenge by examining one strategy that in the short run might allow benefits to outweigh the cost for healthy eating behaviors, based on the notion that social influences tend to a have strong impact on behavior, especially for a younger audience (Cialdini, 2006). The study focused on promoting healthy eating among youth through the social influence of celebrities’ appeal to a reference group, expecting that in the short run, the benefit of aligning with an associative group or distancing one’s self from a dissociative group may outweigh any perceived disadvantages to eating healthy. Through focus groups with high school students, we identified two young popular celebrities who, based on Internet searches, were confirmed to indeed try to eat healthy and exercise: Channing Tatum and Katy Perry. For comparison to older celebrities, we selected Ted Danson and Meg Ryan as ones known for their healthy diet. Subsequently we designed four different versions of small signs, each with the picture of one of the four aforementioned celebrities along with a message stating: “Did you know? [Name of celebrity] eats several servings of fruits and vegetables daily.” Data were collected from five high schools in the same district of a metropolitan area in the West Coast. First we collected data on purchase of fruits and vegetables during lunch on days without any signs to serve as a benchmark. Then, we collected data again on days when the same menu was available. This ensured that the same fruits, vegetables, and competing options (other food items) were available for purchase on the days without the manipulation and the days with the manipulation. The number of fruits and vegetables purchased was assessed by the staff working in the cafeteria of each school in the field study. A key finding was that the use of endorsers who were perceived as uncool actually decreased the effectiveness of the message. This can have important implications for promotional efforts that aim at encouraging healthy behaviors among young students. Using older spokespeople, independent of credentials and credibility, may actually have a worse effect than not trying a promotion at all.

Vassilis Dalakas, Kristin Stewart
The Cross-Modal Effects of Colour in Food Advertising: An Abstract

In 2015 global expenditure on food items was expected to exceed $US7 trillion (IFC, 2014). As such, every day around the world, consumers make a large number of decisions about food choices. In many of these decisions, the visual appearance of the food, in particular the product colour, will be the primary choice determinant. This is because the colour of a food product presents the consumer with critical information related to edibility, as well as the identity and intensity of flavour (Shankar et al., 2010). Many of the associations between food colour and its potential edibility or quality are learned from experience. However, evidence also suggests colour influences human perception at an innate, biological level (Labrecque et al., 2013). Importantly, colour – a purely visual stimulus – has the potential to influence other sensory modalities, for example, situations where colour influences perceptions of taste, smell and texture (for a review, see Spence et al., 2010). However, it would appear that the link between colour and physical reactions in other sensory modalities has mostly been restricted to situations involving food consumption. As a result, there is limited research demonstrating these cross-modal effects in situations where consumption does not take place, for example, in advertising, where much of consumer decision making is based on ‘expectations’ of consumption. The current study addresses this gap in the extant literature by examining the cross-modal relationships between vision (colour) and touch (food texture) in food advertising. This study examines the cross-modal influence of colour on consumer ‘expectations’ of product texture (creaminess/crunchiness) as a result of food advertisements. The study also examines the moderating effects of advertising copy and an individual’s sensory sensitivity, as well as the resulting influence on various marketing metrics. Findings demonstrate that the cross-modal effects of colour on expectations of creaminess and crunchiness are conveyed through advertising, that a form of Stroop interference moderates the effect when ad copy is included and that a person’s sensory sensitivity (using ‘need for touch’ as a proxy) causes a moderated moderation. The cross-modal effects are tested against marketing metrics, with findings demonstrating that the influence of colour on expectations of quality, purchase intent, pleasure and likability is mediated by an individual’s expectations of product creaminess, for those consumers who have a low ‘need for touch’ (Peck & Childers, 2003), creating a moderated mediation effect.

Gavin Northey, Mathew Chylinski, Liem Ngo, Patrick van Esch
An Expectancy Model of Green Product Consumption and Green Brand Equity

Drawing from the expectancy theory, this paper proposes a model of green product consumption and green brand equity. Consumers’ green product evaluation results in some expectations regarding their consumptions. These expectations are categorized in material and ethical outcomes and are ensued by the instrumentality effect. This effect is reflected in the possession rewards for material outcomes and in the moral rewards for ethical outcomes. Green product consumption and green brand equity is contingent on the weighted valence of the respective rewards. The paper is the first study to examine green product consumption and green brand equity from an expectancy theory perspective.

Ramazan H. Arikan, Chuandi Jiang
Clarifying the Creative Consumer: An Abstract

The future of marketing involves consumers taking a more active role in the marketing process. Reflective of this is the fact that over the past decade, many researchers have described, investigated, or discussed the creative individuals who engage in innovative activities with existing market offerings. Because the literature is fragmented and the terms used to describe and explain the actions and implications of these creative individuals are highly varied, there is no common understanding of the creative consumer construct and how it fits in with existing literature on consumer innovation. As this trend in marketing appears to be growing stronger and will only become increasingly important for marketing practitioners and researchers in the future, there is a need to synthesize existing research. In other words, who are creative consumers? What are the important conceptual and practical differences between the various terms used in literature to describe consumers who engage in innovative activities? What is their output? In order to answer these questions, a common language to discuss this phenomenon is required. Providing clarity and a common language around the creative consumer is the goal of this paper.

Karen Robson, Matthew Wilson
Formation of Satisfactory and Dissatisfactory Experiences with Augmented Reality: An Abstract

Augmented reality technology is intended to enhance user’s experience in shopping or seeking entertainment. If enhancement is low or nonexistent, it may not be because augmented reality (AR) is faulty; it may be because AR did not provide sufficient attributes to satisfy customers. Based on a study with adult consumers, this study examines the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction achieved by some users of AR in shopping and entertainment. The results show a significant discrepancy between what consumers expected to be offered when engaging augmented reality in shopping or entertainment and what they actually experienced. Consumers expected high levels of interactivity, high quality of augmentation (realistic view and telepresence), high levels of information, and the availability of crucial utilities (search features, narration, quick response, and need for touch). Consumers experienced fun, pleasure, and connectivity, but they also encountered low levels of interactivity and low levels of information. Important implications for researchers and managers are drawn from this discrepancy.

Atieh Poushneh, Arturo Vasquez-Parraga
Seeing Things that Don’t Exist: Conceptualizing an Augmented Reality Atmosphere: An Abstract

Augmented reality technologies aim at integrating virtual elements into a user’s perception of the real world while keeping the experience as realistic as possible. In particular, a new technology termed augmented reality smart glasses (ARSGs) provides users with the opportunity to integrate three-dimensional, realistic virtual elements into their vision field in real time. Although AR holds great appeal within the consumer community, very little is known about how these 3D holograms influence a user’s perception of the atmosphere. Furthermore, altered sensations and perceptions within these artificially designed environments have not received much attention from researchers. Therefore, this research aims at conceptualizing augmented reality atmosphere and developing and validating a multidimensional measurement scale. This new concept can aid in better understanding how people perceive AR environments and how AR stimuli influence consumer behavior and in turn the overall consumption experience. For managers, these new developments can guide app developers in creating successful and impactful apps. Lastly, marketers can use this scale to assess if apps trigger perceptions and experience consistent with their intended brand perception. Our methodological approach integrates a very novel, cutting-edge form of augmented reality smart glasses: Microsoft HoloLens.The purpose of this study is to approach AR from an atmospheric and sensory marketing perspective to enrich the theoretical foundation of this new literature stream. Specifically, we are developing the artificial reality atmospheric scale capable of capturing the perception of AR users. We implemented a multi-method approach to collect preliminary details related to artificial reality atmosphere. Previous studies related to AR, VR, and virtual experiences were reviewed for potential scales or scale items. The search was expanded to related areas, such as gaming, store atmosphere, customer experience, sensation, and so forth. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were conducted with users who have tried various apps on the Microsoft HoloLens device. Moreover, we extracted additional statements from self-descriptions of manufacturers and from user discussions on social media.A final list of items was discussed with experts in atmosphere, AR, usability, or related research or management experience. Upon evaluating the expert ratings, a final set of items pertaining to enjoyment, sensation, perception, stimulation, privacy, and immersion was integrated in a questionnaire for further item purification. We then carried out an experiment consisting of physically interacting with the HoloLens and completing a questionnaire tailored toward the AR experience and the perception of the environment.Data will be analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to identify potential dimensions of the new scale. Furthermore, item purification will continue by collecting additional data and validating the scale with a variety of samples.

Mahdokht Kalantari, Philipp A. Rauschnabel, Nina Krey
Why Do Consumers Share Content on the Internet? The Uses and Gratifications Approach: An Abstract

With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, user-generated content has become more and more prevalent on the Internet. Consumers can publish their own articles, share photos or videos, express their opinions, and interact with other consumers on the Web (Stefanone & Lackaff, 2009). The Internet has become an important communication technology that allows consumers to share content that is generated by themselves. Drawing upon uses and gratifications theory (Rubin, 1984; Rubin & Perse, 1987), this study attempts to examine how consumers’ motives for Internet use influence their online content sharing behavior. Life satisfaction and Internet satisfaction are also included as different representations of gratifications received when consumers use the Internet. After analyzing 873 responses collected from a national representative sample, the results show that ritualized motive is related to Internet satisfaction positively, and social motive affects life satisfaction and Internet satisfaction positively. Both life satisfaction and Internet satisfaction have positive impacts on consumer content sharing behavior on the Internet. Finally, this study concludes with several theoretical and practical implications.

Cheng-Chieh Hsiao
Content Curatorship and Collaborative Filtering: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach

This paper explores the premise whether sophisticated algorithms that drive curatorship of content for consumers consider a symbolic interactionist perspective on consumer desire for content and whether content offerings, personalisation and the consequent shaping of curatorship algorithms can be based on such an understanding. Curatorship of online content, whether this be product or information based, drives value, consumer engagement and profitability. Curatorship and recommender systems also deliver a personalised experience of the product or services. A review of the reasoning behind such systems reveals that most follow an empirical perspective, namely, the use of statistical tools and information systems algorithms on a behavioural dataset. A theoretically driven approach appears to be lacking. This paper seeks a theoretical approach to online content curatorship embedded in symbolic interactionism. In addition, it seeks to tease out the approach to one that embraces both notions of content curation based on similarity but also on a desire for difference and change. The paper looks at symbolic interactionism in the context of social and individual selves, its role in collaborative filtering, advances a set of propositions for a curation and collaborative filtering model and ends with the possible implications for marketing.

Kerry Chipp, Carola Strandberg, Atanu Nath, Meyser Abduljabber
Incentivizing Consumer Sharing in Social Media: The Role of Audience Size: An Abstract

A key issue in social media marketing is insufficient consumer participation and engagement. Most economic exchanges which are used to stimulate social sharing failed to consider the social dynamics of the social media environment. This research aims to answer the following research question: how can companies target different conditions with different incentives to maximize consumer sharing through social media? The experimental study was conducted. The findings of the study show that non-monetary incentives are more effective when sharing to a wide audience is requested, but incentive type does not make a difference when sharing is limited to specific individuals.

Yueming Zou, Yuping Liu-Thompkins
The Potential Benefits of Offering Suitable Mobile Commerce Experience to Your Customers: An Abstract

Mobile devices have become increasingly popular in recent decades: It is estimated that there are more mobile devices than individuals around the world. Individuals spend considerably more time on their smartphones than on their computers; however, m-commerce (i.e. purchase of goods or services through a mobile device) represents only 11.6% of the total e-commerce market in the USA. To design more effective m-commerce environments, marketers must fully understand which consumer motivations drive value perceptions. This study investigates the role of consumers’ hedonic (e.g. fun and enjoyment) and utilitarian (e.g. instrumental and functional) motivations on perceived trust and value. In line with the regulatory fit theory, promotion-oriented consumers (e.g. eager and aspirational) appear more likely to use m-commerce because of hedonic motivations, whereas prevention-oriented consumers (e.g. vigilant and risk-averse) appear more likely to use m-commerce because of utilitarian motivations. This effect is the result of the fit experience (i.e. enhanced engagement and a ‘feels right’ sentiment) that leads to increased perceptions of trust and value. These results offer invaluable insights to marketers, who, due to mobile devices’ reduced screen sizes, must carefully select which content and design elements to use in their m-commerce environments to deliver valuable, trustworthy and engaging solutions.

Narongsak (Tek) Thongpapanl, Abdul R. Ashraf, Luciano Lapa
Hedonic Pricing Method, the Third Law of Demand, and Marketing Strategy: An Abstract

The main contributions of this paper can be divided into the theoretical side and the empirical side.On the theoretical side, we integrate the third law of demand with the multiple-characteristic theory, aka the hedonic pricing method, to explain how marketers deliver different product positioning concepts to customers by means of the different arrangements of the product attributes in the multiple-attribute product. In fact, the arrangement, or the adjustment, of product attribute structure in the multiple-attribute product not only influences the perceived concept of product positioning but also affects the relative price between products of different positioning. For example, when all the product attributes in a product are all first-rate, it helps this first-rate multiple-attribute product lowers the relative price between this first-rate product and its second-rate substitute. This explains why most product attributes in a luxury vehicle, like a BMW, are superior to those attributes in a middle-class vehicle, like a Toyota. Furthermore, the arrangement, or the adjustment, of the product attributes also alters the quantities demanded of different products. In comparison with selling the first-rate multiple-attribute product in other market segments, when the first-rate multiple-attribute product is sold in its target market segment, the ratio of quantities demanded of the first-rate product over the second-rate product is higher. For example, the ratio of the sales volume of the higher-rate BMW model over the lower-rate BMW model is higher than the ratio of the sales volume of the higher-rate Toyota model over the lower-rate Toyota model.On the empirical side, by means of integrating the hedonic regression model with the third law of demand, in this paper, we introduce how the hedonic pricing method determines the product attributes that can alter the product positioning of the multiple-attribute product. One of the most significant implications of our research is that our research approach integrates marketing research with economics, and this integration helps us to reconsider the marketing strategy, including market segmentation, the choice of the target market, and product positioning, based on the economic principle. For example, our research approach deciphers how the level of involvement in consumption influences customers’ consumption behaviors in a highly systematic way.

Chih-Ning Chu, Ting-Yuan Huang, Sandra S. Liu
Identifying Brand Sentiment Through Analytics: An Abstract

Right now, hundreds of thousands of data are generated and added to the accumulated data. This immense amount of real-time and retrospective data has helped change the previous paradigms and led to a new one: big data analytics. Social networks, blogs, social bookmarking, and review sites are considered very important in the big data era. Nowadays, there is strong interest among academics and practitioners in studying branding issues through analytics. In this article, given the necessity of monitoring the perceived value of brand authenticity, “to protect a popular brand against the heartbreak of genericide” (Walsh, 2013), we examine the sentiments toward a brand, via brand authenticity, to identify the reasons for positive or negative sentiments on social media. Moreover, to increase sentiment precision, we investigate sentiments polarity on a five-point scale. From a database containing 2,988,560 tweets with the keyword “Starbucks,” we use a set of 1857 coded tweets both for brand authenticity and sentiment polarity. We analyze the data to establish a framework in which we predict both the brand authenticity dimension and its sentiment polarity. Results from support vector machine (SVM) analyses illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure of brand sentiment analysis. It shows high accuracy for both the brand authenticity dimensions’ prediction and its sentiment polarity. In summary, this research contributed both theoretically and managerially to the brand sentiment literature. The proposed procedure and the research findings on brand authenticity sentiment analysis could facilitate further inquiries into sentiment analysis for all other brand constructs and in several related domains, such as e-word-of-mouth studies. Practically speaking, this research could provide marketing practitioners with a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the level of sentiments toward a brand more specifically and more accurately, which could lead to proposing appropriate strategies to strengthen their brand authenticity. This study has some limitations that offer opportunities for further research. First, we studied brand authenticity sentiments with 2Q cross-sectional data, while we acknowledge that customer sentiments could even change over a short period of time. Second, we did not consider the brand’s following-up interventions about the shared tweet, which could change upcoming sentiments. Third, as we collected the data in a real-time manner, we did not have the data about the amount of likes and retweets a post received, which could show the effectiveness of the tweet.

Hamid Shirdastian, Michel Laroche, Marie-Odile Richard
Do Brands Appearing in Textbooks Influence Students? Insights from an Exploratory Study: An Abstract

Product placement is defined as the inclusion of brand and/or brand identifying items within mass media programming such as cinema and television (Balasubramanian 1994; Karrh 1998). Many studies have examined product placements in movies (e.g., Babin and Carder 1996), television shows (e.g., Law and Braun 2000), and video games (e.g., Nelson 2002), but it has also been studied in music videos (e.g., Schemer et al. 2008), novels (e.g., Brennan 2008), and even textbooks (Brennan and McCalman 2011).This study explores the effects of brand names or logos appearing in a marketing textbook, not only on recall and recognition but also on higher-order outcomes (attitudes, consideration set, and purchase intentions). While brands appearing in textbooks are likely unsponsored word-of-author placements and are added by the authors and publishers to improve student learning, they may also implicitly influence students’ consumer and job choices.This exploratory study examined these research questions:1.How are brand examples presented in textbooks?2.Do brand appearances in textbooks produce beneficial outcomes for brands, such as cognitive outcomes of recall or recognition, more favorable attitudes, or conative outcomes such as brand inclusion in the consideration set or higher purchase intention toward the brand?3.What role does brand familiarity and form and valence of the brand appearance play in such outcomes?4.Is recall or recognition of the brand necessary to observe higher order outcomes for the brand or are higher-order outcomes possible in the absence of memory of brand appearance?Two hundred six unique brands were identified in the first four chapters of CB7 (Babin and Harris, 2016) and coded with regard to how they were featured and whether the appearance was positive, negative, or neutral. The exposed group (n = 37) completed the survey immediately after taking an exam over the four chapters, and the control group (n = 21) completed the survey after taking a different exam that same day. Dependent variables included memory-based consideration set, attitude toward the brand, purchase intention, and free recall and recognition of a number of brands. Analyses of the multitude of brand appearances revealed difficulty in answering the research questions and identified future research avenues.

Laurie Babin, Mathieu Kacha, Jean-Luc Herrmann, Barry J. Babin
Don’t Dare to Blur Our Boundaries: Balancing Between Current and Past Identities

The study offers evidence that in historically connected markets (HCMs), consumers might harbor disidentification toward the consumption patterns of foreign countries’ consumers. Findings indicate that disidentification acts as a strong predictor of consumer behavior and outweighs ethnocentric tendencies in affecting product judgment and willingness to buy foreign products from HCMs.

Justina Gineikiene, Vida Skudiene
Country of Origin and Brand Positioning for High-Involvement Health-Care Services: An Abstract

Country of origin and brand positioning are important factors to consider for high-involvement services such as health-care organizations competing for international patients. These factors become more important in high-involvement service industries because consumers do not have the information needed to evaluate service quality, and the cost to the patient of poor quality is high. Therefore, consumers may rely on country of origin and brand positioning signals more heavily relative to goods or hedonic services. This paper explores the relationship between country of origin and brand positioning in the context of the high-involvement service of health care. An analysis of brand positioning of health-care institutions using promotional materials from a large international health-care conference is presented using a sample of 170 health-care organizations located in 14 countries. The findings indicate that European and Middle Eastern health-care organizations most frequently employ foreign consumer culture positioning, while American institutions tend to use global consumer culture positioning. However, American organizations may be missing an opportunity to capitalize on the appeal of their country and cities and may not be appropriately considering their global competition in their market positioning. The findings are important for hospitals competing globally for patients seeking care abroad.

Katherine A. Meese, Thomas L. Powers, S. Robert Hernandez, Andrew N. Garman, Tricia J. Johnson
Investigating the Malinchism-Nationalism Paradox in Hispanic TV Advertising: An Abstract

We explore the coexistence of the malinchism-nationalism paradox within the TV advertising context. Generally, the malinchista concept refers to those who engage in anti-nationalist acts. The stereotype originates from La Malinche, a Mexican-Indian interpreter, to the Spaniard conqueror Hernan Cortes, whose preference for and support given to the conquerors in significant events during the conquest of Mexico (circa 1500) secured them the victory. Within the marketing arena, a malinchista is defined as a consumer exhibiting preference for imported products. We propose the use of malinchism instead of cosmopolitanism, considering that malinchism is embedded in a historical perspective, in a similar fashion than the nationalism construct.Using semiotic analysis, we investigated the plots used in advertisements aired on Spanish language networks. The sampled advertisements were selected using five sampling criteria: (1) must be ads shown on Univision or Telemundo (two popular Hispanic television networks), (2) must promote a consumer product, (3) must have more than 50 views at the time of the download, (4) must be less than 3 min long (excluding short documentaries and infomercials), and (5) must include narrative plots that contain conceptual richness. Of the 89 advertisements collected, the 70 included in the final sample were required to meet the set criteria. Two independent coders who are Spanish/English bilinguals conducted the evaluation and interpretation of the advertisements. Each evaluator performed an analysis independently, and the findings were then brought together for comparative analysis.The findings revealed the following plots: (1) malinchista upper middle class main plot with two subplots, (a) successful woman with bicultural appeal and (b) empowered woman, and (2) nationalist main plot with two subplots, (a) soccer cult and (b) family ritual. Consistent with the scant literature, we found Hispanic ads portray two contradictory historical tendencies. In particular, we concluded that Hispanics have a strong nationalist predisposition perpetuated by cultural rituals. Unlike previous work, the cosmopolitanism or preference for foreign goods among Hispanics was not very palpable. Indeed, our findings confirmed that despite high nationalist predisposition, preference for bicultural appeals is evident among Hispanic groups.

Adesegun Oyedele, Monica D. Hernandez
Customer-Based Brand Equity in the Digital Age: Development of a Theoretical Framework: An Abstract

In online purchasing, the ability to draw on the experience of other consumers may lead to decision-making based more on product facts and less on the emotional attachment to a brand (Simonson and Rosen 2014; Thomson et al. 2005). Obviously, there is a shift from traditional brand management in which the company created the image of a brand to shared experiences between consumers about brands in the online environment (Quinton 2013). Hence, we developed a conceptual model of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) which is adapted to the paradigm-shift from manager-ruled to consumer-ruled brands. Our model builds on the four brand equity dimensions of Aaker (1991), namely, brand awareness, brand image and associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty and relates these dimensions with electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). Based on qualitative interviews with consumers and company representatives, our study reveals a consistent influence of (product) functionality on brand equity compared to established models, where (a) functionality varies substantially by category and where (b) brand equity is based on a strong emotional attachment of the consumer to the brand (Keller 2001). On the contrary, consumers doing their online purchases rather separate the product(s) from the brand and refer to product-related eWOM. However, the impact of eWOM on CBBE diminishes with an already pre-existing brand image of the consumer. Nevertheless, unknown brands can benefit from positive online reviews, as consumers may indeed develop a new brand image based on eWOM. Additionally, the focus laid on the product itself in eWOM becomes evident. Thus, we conclude that the effects of eWOM might solely address a specific product instead of the whole brand in the online environment. In that case, eWOM directly influences purchase decisions, without affecting the appropriate brand equity dimensions, if the consumer strictly separates the product from the general brand. Apparently, product performance outperforms CBBE in the online environment but according to our model rather for unknown brands. Well-established brands still benefit from their brand image – even in the light of negative eWOM – to which consumers seem to refer while purchasing online.

Agnieszka Zablocki, Bodo Schlegelmilch, Elena Schant
Customer-Based Online Reputation: One Key Antecedent and Some Consequences

Although online reputation has attracted significant attention among marketing practitioners, research in this area is still limited. In this paper, the authors examine one key antecedent and some important consequences of online reputation from the customer’s perspective. A structural equation modeling approach is used to test the model based on data from a survey of 1100 French online buyers. The results show the impact of website quality on online reputation, as well as how online reputation affects perceived risk, perceived value, and word of mouth. This research provides used insights about the relationships between online reputation and other important key variables which has several conceptual and managerial implications.

Chebli Youness, Pierre Valette-Flotence
Ten Million Followers and Counting: How Digital Brand Alliances Between Online Influencers and Brands Impact Consumer Value: An Abstract Perceptions

Brand alliance has long been regarded as a strategic tool for enhancing brand equity, accessing new markets, reducing risk, and maximizing shared resources, amongst others (e.g. Besharat, 2010; Simonin and Ruth, 1998; Singh, 2016). Recently, with the growth in online consumption, brands are increasingly forming alliances with individuals who act as social influencers and operate online via social media channels. For example, L’Oréal launched a makeup line in partnership with Michelle Phan, a YouTube blogger with over 8 million subscribers. The primary role of these online influencers is to extend a brand’s reach. Consumers are believed to rely on personal recommendations from the online influencers they follow and admire, for their purchasing decisions (Godes and Mayzlin, 2004). These influencers are also suggested to shape consumers perceptions (Lee and Watkins, 2016). Given the impact of word-of-mouth and peer recommendations on consumer decision-making (e.g. Berger, 2014), brand alliances with online influencers are an increasingly important part of brands’ marketing strategy. In addition, the pervasiveness of social media and its ever-increasing influence on how consumers think and behave has created the need for an enhanced understanding of such human-computer interactions. The impact of the alliance between a brand and an online influencer on brand attitudes, consumer value, and purchase intention, however, is not yet understood. Aiming to address the above gap, this study examines the impact of digital brand alliances on consumers’ value perceptions and on their willingness to buy.The study employed a scenario-based experiment consisting of five real-life digital brand alliances (beauty, travel, food, gaming, and fashion). For data collection, a self-administered questionnaire was designed embedding the five scenarios to represent each brand alliance category. Respondents included a convenience-based sample of UK consumers, (49% female, 51% males, all aged 18+). The data were analysed with partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) employing SmartPLS 3.0 (Ringle et al., 2014). The results show considerable explanatory and predictive power of the model. The study findings reveal that digital brand alliances have a significant and positive influence on all four dimensions of consumer value, which, in turn, influence purchase intention. The findings also demonstrate that reference group influence has a moderating effect on the relationship between digital brand alliances and consumer value perceptions. For those consumers who are influenced by the opinions of others, brands should ensure that the alliance is with a favourable online personality. For those who are not influenced by others, however, brands should focus on building a positive attitude towards the brand. Moreover, for consumers with high RGI, brands should explicitly communicate value for money, in order to encourage purchase. The study makes important theoretical contributions to the literature streams on brand alliance and consumer value perceptions. First, it investigates the impact of digital brand alliance towards consumer value perceptions and purchase intention, which has been largely overlooked in extant research. Second, it furthers knowledge on how digital brand alliances shape the way consumers evaluate brands.In sum, this research offers support for assumptions about the efficacy of digital brand alliance, across different product categories. Future research could examine how other factors such as brand loyalty and self-image can impact the effect digital brand alliances has on consumer value perceptions and purchase intention.

Jaywant Singh, La Toya Quamina, Tao Xue
Drivers of Brand Page Attachment: An Abstract

While there are behavior-related constructs like brand engagement that measure the success of activities in social networks, a psychological, pre-behavioral construct is missing in literature. Therefore, brand page attachment as strength of the bond connecting the brand page with the self of the user is introduced. Based on an empirical study with 590 German Facebook users, brand page attachment is revealed as strong predictor of behavior like brand page participation (like, comment, and share posts). Concerning the drivers of brand page attachment, social value had the largest effect, followed by infotainment and economic incentives. Based on these results, brand page attachment should be considered as psychological, pre-behavioral construct in social media research and practice.

Rico Piehler, Michael Schade, Barbara Kleine-Kalmer, Christoph Burmann
Service Provider Absenteeism: What Happens When You’re Not There? An Abstract

Service provider absenteeism is defined as an instance in which a preferred service provider is not present at the expected time of service provision. Service provider absenteeism is a topic that has remained untouched in the relationship marketing literature, and yet instances of service provider absenteeism may represent possible transformational relationship events (Harmeling, Palmatier, Houston, Arnold, and Samaha, 2015). As such, this topic should be of concern to practitioners and academics alike. The purpose of the present research is to begin the process of understanding the effects of service provider absenteeism on business-to-consumer relationships.In order to understand absenteeism, we first conducted a review of teacher absenteeism and general workforce absenteeism. Next, we provide an overview of the research methodology and results. Due to the exploratory nature of this study, the authors utilize critical incident technique to examine themes among and categorize instances of service provider absenteeism. Using an internet-based platform, 178 incidents were collected. In these incidents, the authors find two emergent consequences of absenteeism (emotional consequences and resolutions). Based on these emergent themes, the authors identify three categories of service provider absenteeism effects. These are inconsequential, consequential-harbored, and consequential-settled.Inconsequential cases are cases in which the emotional response to the event was weak or nonexistent. Respondents sometimes made positive assumptions about why the provider was not present, but others demonstrated a jaded attitude toward service provision. In these cases, respondents were generally indifferent to future encounters. In consequential-settled cases, strong negative emotional responses were usually reported. Unique to these cases were that some form of settlement, understanding, or resolution seemed to be reached, or the respondent made assumptions about why the provider was not present so as to put negative feelings to rest. Often times, these respondents were not opposed to future interactions, but reservations or lowered expectations were often reported. In consequential-harbored cases, which are the largest group of cases, respondents harbor ill will toward the service provider. While it was not always clear whether or not service providers had made an attempt to provide an explanation or apology, it was frequently observed that respondents either did switch providers, wished that they could switch providers, or entertained the idea of switching service providers.The authors close with managerial implications and suggestions for future research. The authors specifically discuss working toward a model that explains the effects of service provider absenteeism on customer loyalty and switching behavior.

Joshua Denton, Melissa Moore, Robert Moore
The Spillover Effects of Negative Supply Chain Information on Consumers’ Perceptions of Product Attributes

Research shows consumers moving from passive recipients of products and services to becoming a more integral part of supply chain operations and even strategies. As consumers are exposed to, and take interest in, more supply chain information, questions are arising concerning the impact this information has on product-related attributes and evaluations. This study examines the extent to which messages about a company’s supply chain activities, specifically those dealing with social responsibility, affect consumer evaluations of products sold by the company. Results indicate this “spillover effect” is most likely to occur when the message is negative. Positive messages are less influential. This effect is generalized across two sample populations, while accounting for relevant individual differences in consumer behavior.

Jon Kirchoff, Bridget Nichols, Hannah Stolze, Connor Brown
Stakeholder Considerations in Corporate Efforts of Business Sustainability: An Abstract

Zsolnai (2006) writes that the extended stakeholder view is based upon the premise that companies have a responsibility to contribute to societal well-being and to nurture the physical environment in which they operate. Boesso and Kumar (2009) comment that companies are increasing their reliance on their stakeholders, especially those that are external to the company. Companies have furthermore become adept in orchestrating relationships with stakeholders in society, markets and business networks, with the objective of generating customer value.This study aims to develop and empirically test both the reliability and validity of a stakeholder construct (contextualised within the realm of business sustainability). Furthermore, it endeavours to determine the extent to which upstream and downstream external stakeholders in society and the company’s markets and business networks, as well as internal company stakeholders, are taken into account with respect to the business sustainability efforts of the company.A total of 110 usable questionnaires were returned in the Norwegian study, constituting a response rate of 42.1%. A total of 89 usable questionnaires were returned in the Spanish study, constituting a response rate of 38.5%. A structural equation modelling approach was followed, so as to empirically test the research model, which consists of five stakeholder constructs in both Norway and Spain, as follows: (i) focal company (exogenous), (ii) upstream (endogenous), (iii) downstream (endogenous), (iv) market (endogenous) and (v) societal (endogenous).The current study contributes to predicting focal company considerations of other stakeholders’ business sustainability efforts in supply chains (e.g. upstream and downstream) and beyond (e.g. market and societal). It also contributes to validating the original findings of corporate Norway in a subsequent follow-up study of corporate Spain. Furthermore, the Norwegian study contributes to building a framework of stakeholders in connection with business sustainability in supply chains.The Spanish study contributes to building a framework across context and through time – that is, two countries and two time periods. Evidently, the current studies have limitations, by virtue of being restricted to the supply chains of Spanish and Norwegian companies. One suggestion for further research is therefore to validate and critique the tested research model and empirical findings of prediction and explanation for target stakeholder constructs in a non-European and non-Western context, such as Africa or Asia.

Göran Svensson, Carlos Ferro, Nils Høgevold, Carmen Padin, Juan Carlos Sosa-Varela
Value Creation for Emergency Supply Chain Members: An Abstract

In disaster management, a response to an incident that affects various people, communities, and organizations involves multiple parts of the supply chain. When a disaster occurs, people from the entire emergency supply chain are pulled together into one response team in order to ensure an effective disaster response. The whole team needs to work jointly as one unit, because even a small mistake can pose a serious threat to disaster victims’ and team members’ safety, health, and well-being.Research shows that individuals involved in emergency response teams suffer from stress, depression, and anxiety (Tomazin, 2013). Further, the disaster can affect their lives and threaten their well-being (Thompson & McKenna, 2012). In such harsh and unstable working conditions, motivating team members is one of the most critical factors for ensuring a disaster response’s success (Pettit & Beresford, 2009). Supply chain leaders need to develop an environment where team members are able to create value that will improve their morale and dedication. The current research is attempting to answer the question: how do supply chain leaders create value for the disaster team members?

Iana Shaheen (Lukina), Robert Hooker
Marketing Mix-Based Facebook Posts and Potential Consumers: An Abstract

The overall purpose of this study was to test the relationship between satisfaction of marketing mix-related social media communications (i.e., Facebook posts), brand equity, and purchase intention within a fitness setting. Although fitness and the promotion of healthy lifestyles have become commonplace in our society, health and fitness clubs continue to face membership issues. In fact, only 16% of Americans belong to health/fitness clubs (Steiman, 2014). Furthermore, research has indicated that fitness club members typically end their membership due to what could be deemed brand-related issues (Tharrett & Peterson, 2012; Williams, Pedersen, & Walsh, 2012). Subsequently, there is a need to improve the fitness industry’s business practices regarding the rising number of health club brands and lack of consumption of the services provided by the industry.To test the proposed model, data were collected from a sample of 393 prospective fitness club members. After being exposed to sample Facebook posts from a simulated fitness club brand relating to marketing mix dimensions (e.g., product, price, place, promotion, people, physical evidence, and process), participants responded to items aimed to measure social media communication satisfaction, brand equity, and purchase intention. Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the relationship between social media communication satisfaction and brand equity and brand equity and purchase intention was both positive and significant. Consequently, the results of this study suggest that satisfaction of certain Facebook posts may lead to the development of brand equity and purchase intention for fitness club prospects.

Benjamin K. Wright
Content Strategies for Facebook Marketing: A Case Study of a Leading Fast-Food Brand Page

Executing effective posting strategies is becoming a key success factor in social media marketing campaigns. This article aims to identify which types of posts are mostly effective in enhancing consumers’ engagement behaviours in Facebook brand pages. In the case of a leading fast-food brand page, 144 brand posts were analysed to test the effect of four content types on enhancing consumers’ engagement behaviours. The number of likes, shares and comments that the posts received were used as an indicator for its popularity. Posts with an entertaining content received the biggest number of “likes” from consumers in the brand page. Additionally, posts with a relational content received the most “comments”. Finally, posts with high levels of incentive content are the mostly likely to be “shared” by the fans of the brand page.This article provides fast-food brand managers with some guidelines for effective posting strategies when adopting Facebook marketing. Traditionally, there has been an extensive academic interest in studying the effectiveness of advertisements in traditional offline media. Given the novelty of social media networks in marketing, this study contributes with conclusions and implications and in directing effective marketing strategies for this new media.

Len Tiu Wright, Hazem Gaber, Robin Robin, Huifen Cai
New Media Celebrity and Social Media Promotions: An Abstract

Cord-cutters are disrupting advertising models because they bypass traditional pay television [cable] often by using paid services such as Netflix and HBO NOW or by illegally downloading or streaming shows (Banerjee, Rappoport, and Alleman, 2011). The number of households using traditional paid television services is decreasing and forecasted to be less than 50% of adults by 2025 (McQuivey, 2015). Millennials are the most likely to be cord-cutters and are thus harder to reach by traditional advertising methods than any previous generation (Barnes, 2015); however, millennials are far more likely to voluntarily follow celebrities (both new media and traditional) who promote products on social media, and 77% of them have purchased something after a social media recommendation (Forder, 2016).New media celebrities, like the Kardashians, utilize the massive number of new media communication mediums, such as social media, to build their fame. Unlike traditional celebrities, who are required to have mediated quasi-interactions to disseminate their talent, this allows new media celebrities to avoid interactions such as these that concretize the parasocial nature of a celebrity’s relationship with their fans (Thomson, 1995). Because of this more personal relationship, new media celebrities have a greater ability to make promotional posts. This research shows that new media celebrities are promoting outside products – products not owned or managed by the celebrity – on Instagram with greater frequency than traditional celebrities. These findings suggest that new media celebrities are a significantly different form of celebrity that functions in a substantially different way than is currently constructed in the literature. A residual analysis is conducted to see how the individual celebrities affect this analysis. The results suggest that this construct warrants further exploration because new media celebrity endorsements could provide multiple benefits including cost-savings, reductions in wasted coverage, and increases in trustworthiness even when a celebrity endorses multiple competing products.To those who are not active Instagrammers, the phenomena of a generation that cuts cords to avoid television advertisements only to actively follow people whose primary purpose is to be a walking endorsement may seem bizarre. However, personalities are constructed such that the endorsements feel thoroughly authentic (Piazza, 2011) which may open multitudinous avenues for new promotional strategies.

Alyssa J. Reynolds
Exploring the Impact of Brand Selfie on Brand Attitude in the Twittersphere: An Abstract

Enabled by Web 2.0 and mobile technologies, selfies have become an important social and cultural phenomenon on the Internet. Brand selfie, created and consumed by ordinary consumers in social media, is a new form of user-generated content (UGC). Brand selfies, in which the individuals are featured with brands, are of particular interest to marketers and advertisers. This paper aims to explore the impact of brand selfie on brand attitude in the Twittersphere.Specifically, the authors examine how brand attitude is influenced by four characteristics of brand selfies: physical attractiveness, emotion, product experience, and social influence. This paper used a mixed-method approach. First, a qualitative study was conducted to identify selfie characteristics that can potentially affect brand attitude. Content analysis was applied to derive insights from participants’ responses. Study one identified four important characteristics of brand selfies: physical attractiveness, emotion, product experience, and social influence. Second, in a quantitative study, the authors performed multiple regression to examine the empirical impacts of the four selfie characteristics that were identified in study one. Study two provided empirical support that those four brand selfie characteristics significantly impacted brand attitude.This paper makes contributions to the marketing literature in two ways. First, it is the first paper to examine the impacts of brand selfies on brand attitude on the Twitter platform. The findings from two studies demonstrate that brand attitude can be impacted by brand selfies. More importantly, brand attitude is impacted by four features of brand selfies: physical attractiveness, emotions, product experience, and social influence. Second, the results provide valuable insights for UGC researchers and marketers into the application of brand selfies in online product promotion and advertisement.

Xia Liu
Creating Value in an Introduction to Marketing Course Using a Simulation: An Abstract

The successful education of marketing students today entails developing marketing knowledge and workplace skills, so students need to be exposed to more than lectures (Laverie, 2006). By placing less emphasis on lecturing and more on developing skills and exploring course material, students are involved in higher order thinking (i.e., analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; Hunt and Laverie, 2004). Experiential learning can be a powerful way to develop necessary knowledge and skills (Diamond, Koering, & Iqbal, 2016). One effective method to employ experiential learning is through a marketing simulation. This paper contributes by exploring the value of implementing a marketing simulation in a large introduction to marketing course. Specifically, we explore how using a simulation influences learning outcomes and the development of skills required in the workplace.We collected data in the form of reflection papers on the achievement of learning outcomes from over 200 students. In addition, we collected survey data asking students to consider how the simulation has impacted their learning, application of course material, and the overall value of the class preparation for workplace skills, affect, and engagement. The qualitative data from reflection papers will be analyzed using the constant comparative method (Glaser & Straus, 1967) using NVivo software. We will discover themes and structured relationships that emerge in the qualitative data. Further, we will analyze the online survey data and present the results from this quantitative analysis.The results will provide compelling evidence to demonstrate the power of simulations in developing deep learning in a team-based experiential learning environment. We will detail how a faculty member can collect data tied to student learning outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively, to demonstrate to departments and accrediting bodies that simulation is tied to deep learning, higher-order thinking, workplace skills, and achievement course-based student learning outcomes. Specifically, we will demonstrate the value of a simulation in employing team-based experiential learning in a large section of an introductory marketing class. We discuss the value added to the course both with qualitative and quantitative data. Our results will detail the impact the simulation had on student learning outcomes and workplace skills. We will present the results of the analysis of survey data asking students to consider how the simulation has impacted their learning, application of course material, and the overall value of the class preparation for workplace skills, affect, and engagement.

Debbie Laverie, Miles Condon, William Humphrey, Corky Mitchell
Perceived Value of an Online Interactive Learning Tool and Its Critical Antecedents: An Abstract

With the rapid advancement of information technology, students show increasing interest in technology-enhanced pedagogies (Jackson et al., 2011; Sun et al., 2017), and experiential learning can be promoted by interactive online teaching. Previous study reveals that online courses with great levels of interactivity combine higher levels of student motivation, enhanced learning outcomes, and satisfaction over interactive learning environments (Espasa & Meneses, 2010). LearnSmart is an adaptive learning tool that evaluates students’ knowledge levels by tracking the topics students have mastered and thus identifies the areas that need further instruction and practice (Norman, 2011). Based on constructivism theory (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 2006), it is important for marketing professors to emphasize the engaging learning experience among college students. This study extends the literature on interactive learning and teaching and empirically evaluates the perceived value of LearnSmart as a subjective evaluation measure of student learning effectiveness, with respect to several relevant factors in the literature such as perceived competence, perceived challenge, satisfaction with LearnSmart, semesters, instructors, course delivery format, and devices to access the course.The data was collected through an online survey from several undergraduate marketing and management courses over two semesters, offered at a public university in the western US. Total of 236 valid questionnaires were received. All latent constructs were tested to have acceptable reliability (Churchill, 1979), as well as adequate convergent validity (McDonald & Ho, 2002) and discriminant validity (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The regression results showed that perceived competency (β = 0.408, p = 0.000), perceived challenge (β = 0.088, p = 0.017), and satisfaction with LearnSmart (β = 0.442, p = 0.000) are positively related to perceived value. In addition, perceived value of LearnSmart varies across different instructors (β = −0.355, p = 0.000), different course delivery formats (β = −0.184, p = 0.009), and different devices to access LearnSmart (β = −0.273, p = 0.029). However, no significant difference was found for perceived values across the two semesters.The findings indicate that the use of LearnSmart improves student’s perceived competency and their satisfaction with LearnSmart, thus increasing their perceived value of using LearnSmart. Although perceived challenge is negatively associated with satisfaction with LearnSmart, it actually increases the perceived value of LearnSmart. One possible explanation is that students who are challenged might work harder and thus perceive better value from the use of LearnSmart. In addition, the devices used to access LearnSmart have a significant impact on perceived value of LearnSmart. Course delivery format was also found to negatively impact the perceived value of LearnSmart. Additional analysis would help disclose insights on the use of different devices and course delivery formats to enhance student learning experience and learning effectiveness.

Qin Sun, Yann Abdourazakou, Thomas J. Norman
Experiential Learning and Value Co-Creation in the Classroom: A New Examination Using Social Media Monitoring

Recent research has explored maximizing value in classrooms through experiential learning to focus on longer-term positive benefits for students such as intellectual development, cognitive enhancement, and improved attitudes. One way to emphasize longer-term benefits is through implementing experiential learning and allowing students to co-create value in their education. In marketing, value co-creation assumes consumers’ active participation in creation of value together with the firm. A recent review outlines core elements of value co-creation to include (1) coproduction and (2) value-in-use. Value-in-use extends beyond coproduction to focus on the customer’s experiential evaluation of the product/service proposition beyond functional attributes to apply their own meaning to generate usage value. As such, value co-creation can readily take place in the classroom by giving students the opportunity to co-create their educational experience. Students are given the opportunity to take the ownership of the project and derive meaningful and transformative learning that leads to personalized value-in-use of the new skills they acquire. In this paper, we detail our experiential learning class project that allowed us to observe value co-creation in the classroom.

Leigh Anne Donovan, Chiharu Ishida, Peter Kaufman
The Use of Brand Concept Maps and Network Analysis Tools to Examine Brand Associations Networks: An Abstract

Examination of the structure of brand associations is a necessary first step to understand brand image and build a brand with strong equity. Brands create associations in the minds of consumers which constitute brand image which is one of the two components of brand knowledge. According to the customer-based brand equity framework, brand knowledge, which embodies components of brand awareness and brand image, determines consumers’ response to the marketing of the brand. In other words, brand knowledge is the source of brand equity (Keller, 2003, p. 596), and the effectiveness of future branding strategies is influenced by the structure and content of the memory. Therefore, developing insights about the network structure of brand associations stored in the minds of consumers is crucial for brand managers.The concept mapping technique is an effective way to elicit brand associations networks (John, Loken, Kim, & Monga, 2006). Additionally, the use of network analysis, which offers a myriad of tools that could advance the examination of brand associations, provides a great conceptual toolkit to study brand associations networks (Henderson, Iacobucci, & Calder, 1998, 2002). The use of these elicitation technique (i.e., brand concept mapping) and analysis tools (i.e., network analysis) in combination could provide several useful insights on branding. Therefore, this study proposes a new technique which involves the use of brand concept maps to elicit the network structure of brand associations and the use of network analytic tools to examine those brand associations networks analytically.In this study, an unstructured concept mapping approach, in which no list of brand associations was provided to the participants, was adapted and the participants were asked to generate a concept map for a focal brand (i.e., Nike). Those individual brand concept maps were aggregated to a brand consensus map using network analysis. A cluster analysis with the Girvan and Newman (2002) algorithm was performed on the aggregated brand consensus map to discover the groupings of brand associations. The clustering results provided high face validity. Additionally, after a median split of the sample, comparisons between brand consensus maps of light versus heavy users of Nike products were made after conducting a quadratic assessment procedure (QAP) test. Light users refer to the participants who owned less than 20 Nike products, while heavy users refer to the respondents who owned 20 or more Nike products. According to the QAP test results, there is a correlation of 0.67 between brand consensus maps of light versus heavy users. This study contributes to the branding literature by advancing our understanding on the examination of brand associations networks systematically.

Abdullah Demirel
Data Fraud in Research: Types, Detection, and Consequences to Data Quality as well as to Research Results, Findings, Implications, and the Body of Marketing Knowledge: An Abstract

As advances in data collection methods and sources continue to grow with technology advances associated with the Internet, there are disturbing concerns relating to increases in what is termed “data fraud” activities within the processes of conducting marketing research. Recently, the term “data fraud” has replaced the past concept of data falsification. Data fraud is a boarder umbrella use to represent to more serious activities beyond the traditionally acknowledged potential categorical types of errors acknowledge exist within and of the different processes making up marketing research activities (e.g., respondent, sampling, scale measurement, data analysis errors). Today, marketing research industry experts (methodologists) suggest that data fraud comes from many sources and costs buyers of research data and reported findings billions of dollars for useless and/or misleading information. Some experts indicate that the bad information directly influences poor managerial decisions leading to even greater losses in the billions. For example, within the mobile advertising industry, digital marketers recognize that data fraud has evolved from fake traffic numbers generated by bots to fabricated data passed on by publishers. In contrast, there has been very little formal discussion about data fraud and its sources within academic-oriented research. The over objective of this session is to create a meaningful dialogue among academic researchers on disturbing data fraud issues and sources associated with conducting academic research and the consequences affecting not only data quality but also reported results, findings, implications, and the body of marketing knowledge. Discussion topics will focus on types of data fraud sources (activities), methods for detecting data fraud activities, as well as methods for controlling data fraud behaviors. The main portion of the session will use a “Question and Answer” format with the audience. The special session will emphasize, but not limited to, identifying and discussing of potential types of data fraud behaviors undertaken by survey and experimental design subjects participating in online and offline academic research projects as well as the impact on the value of the empirical and statistical insights reported in the research studies. By using a combination of short presentations, expert panel insights, and an interactive format between panel members and the audience, this session will prove to be very informative, insightful, and valuable to the audience members.

David J. Ortinau, Barry J. Babin, Joseph F. Hair, John B. Ford, James S. Boles
Predictive Validity in Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: A Comparison of Hypothetical and Incentive-Aligned ACBC with Incentive-Aligned CBC: An Abstract

Up to the present day, conjoint analysis is one of the most widely applied methods in marketing research for understanding customer requirements and anticipating consumers’ purchase decisions (Kim, Bailey, Hardt & Allenby, 2016; Voleti, Srinivasan & Gosh, 2016). Implications extracted from conjoint analysis often have great influence on managerial decision-making regarding product innovation processes, pricing questions, and market penetration decisions, leading to strong demands that conjoint results should be trustworthy (Aaker, Kumar, Leone, & Day, 2013).Against this background, we explore the differences in predictive validity by comparing two well-established conjoint techniques: choice-based conjoint (CBC) and the newer, adaptive choice-based conjoint (ACBC) analysis. In a study on Sony’s PlayStation 4, ACBC analysis incorporated all four stages (BYO, screener, choice tournament, and calibration) to allow for an analysis of the impact that the optionally applicable calibration section has on the results’ predictive validity. Moreover, we took appropriate incentive-aligning mechanisms into account, because, in the domain of CBC, incentive alignment has already been shown to enhance predictive validity (e.g., Ding, Grewal & Liechty, 2005; Ding, 2007). Implementing a lottery procedure that rewards one participant in each condition, we applied the direct mechanism procedure (Toubia, de Jong, Stieger & Füller, 2012) to induce incentive alignment in CBC, while introducing a new mechanism for incentive aligning ACBC. More precisely, we integrated the final winner concept of ACBC’s choice tournament section as a reward option besides the participant’s holdout task choice. Potential buyers of PlayStation 4 participated in the study, either undergoing an incentive-aligned CBC, an incentive-aligned ACBC, or a hypothetical ACBC.We find incentive-aligned ACBC to perform slightly better than its hypothetical counterpart. More importantly, in both cases, the prediction quality increases significantly if the “None” parameter is derived from ACBC’s calibration section, allowing ACBC to even outperform incentive-aligned CBC which, to date, represents the gold standard (Steiner & Hendus, 2012; Wlömert & Eggers, 2016). Other parameters, such as the mean absolute error and the mean hit probability, support the results. Consequently, our results highlight a new field of inquiry, as incentive-aligned ACBC may help companies gain the maximum benefit from marketing research studies, preventing, e.g., product failures and additional expenditure.

Verena Wackershauser, Marcel Lichters, Bodo Vogt
Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value
herausgegeben von
Nina Krey
Patricia Rossi
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