The most important ores of manganese are oxides, although they may also include manganous carbonate (rhodochrosite) and silicate (rhodonite). Some of the oxide minerals of manganese are shown in Table 1. Since the manganese with oxidation states of +3 and +4 in these minerals is insoluble, its hydrometallurgical extraction requires its reduction to the divalent state. Industrially, this can generally be achieved by roasting with a suitable reductant such as gas, oil, or solid fuel, CO and H2 being other examples of effective reducing agents (Sully, 1955).
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- Bacterial Leaching of Manganese Ores
Henry L. Ehrlich
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg