Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The main goal of a P&A operation is to restore the cap rock functionality by establishing competent barriers. When a barrier is established, its functionality needs to be verified. There are different test procedures to verify integrity of permanent barriers. Some include verification of annular barrier (barrier between casing and formation), some include verification of permanent plug inside casing, and some others include verification of barriers in open holes. The main challenge for barrier verification is the lack of direct relationship between laboratory verification and field performance testing. In the laboratory testing of cement, the following parameters are evaluated: mechanical properties (e.g. compressive strength, tensile strength, Young’s modulus, etc.), shear bond strength, hydraulic bond strength and tensile bond strength, fluid migration analysis, static gel strength analysis, etc. In addition, most of laboratory experiments replicate best case scenario with respect to contamination of cement slurry. However, there is no simple way of accurately testing these parameters at expected downhole conditions. In fact, the only tests available to verify cement plugs in the field are hydraulic pressure testing, weight testing and tagging with workstring. The annular barrier is tested indirectly by logging. This chapter will review these field test methods.
It is an electromagnetic force that acts on a charged particle which is moving with a velocity through and electric magnetic field.
Tixier, M.P., R.P. Alger, and C.A. Doh. 1959. Sonic logging. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Nelson, E.B., and D. Guillot. 2006. Well cementing, 2nd ed. Sugar Land, Texas: Schlumberger. ISBN-13: 978-097885300-6.
Rouillac, D. 1994. Cement evaluation logging handbook. Saint-Just-la-Pendue, France: Editions Technip. 2-7108-0677-0.
Gong, M., and S.L. Morriss. 1992. Ultrasonic cement evaluation in inhomogeneous cements. In SPE annual technical conference and exhibition. SPE-24572-MS. Washington, D.C.: Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/24572-MS.
Havira, R.M. 1982. Ultrasonic cement bond evaluation. In SPWLA 23rd annual logging symposium. SPWLA-1982-N. Corpus Christi, Texas: Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts.
Acosta, J., M. Barroso, and B. Mandal, et al. 2017. New-generation, circumferential ultrasonic cement-evaluation tool for thick casings: case study in ultradeepwater well. In OTC. OTC-28062-MS. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Offshore Technology Conference. https://doi.org/10.4043/28062-MS.
Foianini, I., B. Mandal, and R. Epstein. 2013. Cement evaluation behind thick-walled casing with advanced ultrasonic pulse-echo technology: Pushing the limit. In SPWLA 54th annual logging symposium. SPWLA-2013-RRR, New Orleans, Louisiana: Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts.
Khalifeh, M., D. Gardner, and M.Y. Haddad. 2017. Technology trends in cement job evaluation using logging tools. In Abu Dhabi international petroleum exhibition & conference. SPE-188274-MS, Abu Dhabi, UAE: Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/188274-MS.
Kamgang, S., A. Hanif, and R. Das. 2017. Breakthrough technology overcomes long standing challenges and limitations in cement integrity evaluation at downhole conditions. In Offshore technology conference. OTC-27585-MS, Houston, Texas, USA: Offshore Technology Conference. https://doi.org/10.4043/27585-MS.
Patterson, D., A. Bolshakov, and P.J. Matuszyk. 2015. Utilization of electromagnetic acoustic transducers in downhole cement evaluation. In SPWLA 56th annual logging symposium. SPWLA-2015-VVVV, Long Beach, California, USA: Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts.
Lumens, P.G.E. 2014. Fibre-optic sensing for application in oil and gas wells. Department of Applied Physics. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. http://dx.doi.org/10.6100/IR769555.
Rambow, F.H.K., D.E. Dria, and B.A. Childers, et al. 2010. Real-time fiber-optic casing imager. SPE J 15 (04): 1,089–1,097. https://doi.org/10.2118/109941-PA.
Abdel-Mota’al, A. A. 1983. Detection and remedy of behind-casing communication during well completion. In Middle east oil technical conference and exhibition. SPE-11498-MS. Manama, Bahrain: Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/11498-MS.
Delabroy, L., D. Rodrigues, and E. Norum, et al. 2017. Perforate, wash and cement PWC verification process and an industry standard for barrier acceptance criteria. In SPE Bergen one day seminar. SPE-185938-MS. Bergen, Norway: Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/185938-MS.
CSI-Technologies. 2011. Cement plug testing: weight vs. pressure testing to assess viability of a wellbore seal between zones. https://www.bsee.gov/sites/bsee.gov/files/tap-technical-assessment-program//680aa.pdf.
Bois, A.-P., M.-H. Vu, and K. Noël, et al. 2018. Cement plug hydraulic integrity - the ultimate objective of cement plug integrity. In SPE norway one day seminar. SPE-191335-MS. Bergen, Norway: Society of Petroleum Engineers. https://doi.org/10.2118/191335-MS.
- Barrier Verification
- Chapter 9