The protection, development, and utilization of water resource have been an important dimension of the socio-economic sustainable development. Historically China had been called a “water controlling society”. However, since the middle of 20
century China has been perplexed by a variety of water issues. “Too much water (flood and water logging), too little water (drought and water shortage), too turbid water (soil and water loss), and too dirty water (water pollution)” is a concise and picturesque description of the situation. Those water issues have not only impeded the economic development in many regions but also affected the public health and welfare.