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Über dieses Buch

This book describes the PREMISS system, which enables readers to overcome the limitations of state-of-the-art battery-less wireless sensors in size, cost, robustness and range, with a system concept for a 60 GHz wireless sensor system with monolithic sensors. The authors demonstrate a system in which the wireless sensors consist of wireless power receiving, sensing and communication functions in a single chip, without external components, avoiding costly IC-interfaces that are sensitive to mechanical and thermal stress.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Due to their ease of deployment, wireless sensors have been used in a wide range of applications, including security, green building, automotive and biomedical. Most of the state-of-the-art wireless sensors use batteries as a power source. It can be easily calculated that for a building with 1000 wireless sensors installed, which can be very common for a smart building, assuming a battery life of 3 years, on average, batteries need to be replaced every day. Therefore, from the point of view of cost, convenience, environment, and reliability, there is a strong demand for battery-less wireless sensors.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 2. State of the Art

This chapter studies trends and expectations in monolithic wireless sensor system design with respect to applications, technology evolution, and system design. Problems and opportunities are analyzed. In later chapters of this book, the ultra-low-power design concept is introduced that takes advantages of the expected opportunities in order to solve the anticipated problems.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 3. System Analysis of mm-Wave Wireless Sensor Networks

In this chapter, a battery-less wireless sensor system is proposed, which is called the Power REduced MonolithIc Sensor System (PREMISS), based on monolithic sensors with functions of wireless power receiving, wireless sensing, and wireless data transfer functions. In the PREMISS system, a base-station transmits RF energy and information to sensor nodes via pencil beams and receives the information back from those sensor nodes. In this chapter, the system analysis of the PREMISS system is presented.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 4. Rectifier Analysis

In monolithic sensor networks, the rectifier is used as the on-chip wireless power receiver. In this chapter, the analysis and modeling of the rectifier are presented. Based on this analysis, a design flow for high efficiency rectifier development is presented.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 5. mm-Wave Rectifiers

In the previous chapters, the analysis of the rectifier for wireless power transfer is presented. Issues of the rectifiers working at the mm-wave frequency are analyzed. In this chapter, based on the discussion of the mm-wave rectifier, solutions are provided to increase the rectifier efficiency, including the inductor-peaking method, local threshold voltage modulation, and increased isolation by output filtering. At the end of this chapter, the implementations and measurement results of mm-wave rectifiers in 65 nm CMOS technology are provided.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 6. mm-Wave Monolithic Integrated Sensor Nodes

This chapter presents the analysis, implementation, and measurement of two fully integrated mm-wave temperature sensor nodes with on-chip antennas. These two sensor nodes provide two solutions for integrating a sensor node with on-chip antenna(s). The first solution contains two on-chip antennas, one for Tx and one for Rx, in which Tx/Rx have separate antennas. The second solution is a one on-chip antenna solution, in which the on-chip antenna is reused by Tx/Rx through an RF switch. These sensor nodes are implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. The first sensor node contains a monopole antenna at 71 GHz for RF power harvesting, a storage capacitor array, an End-of-Burst monitor, a temperature sensor, and an ultra-low-power transmitter at 79 GHz. At 71 GHz, the RF to DC converter achieves a power conversion efficiency of 8% for 5 dBm input power. The second sensor node contains an integrated antenna, an RF switch, an on-chip wireless power receiver, and a temperature-correlated ultra-low-power transmitter. It measures only 1.83 mm2 in 65 nm CMOS and weighs 1.6 mg. With the on-chip 30/65 GHz dual-frequency antenna and a three-stage inductor-peaked rectifier, the node can be wirelessly charged to 1.2 V. The output frequency of the temperature-correlated transmitter varies from 78.92 to 78.98 GHz, with a slope of 1.4 MHz/C.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 7. mm-Wave Low-Power Receiver

In the previous chapters, the rectifier for an on-chip wireless power receiver is analyzed and the mm-wave rectifier is implemented together with on-chip antenna(s) and temperature-correlated sensor in 65 nm CMOS technology to demonstrate the possibility to realize fully monolithic sensor nodes on silicon. In order to provide sensor nodes with more functionality, an ultra-low-power receiver must be co-integrated with the wireless power receiver module to receive commands from the base-station. In this chapter, a mm-wave ultra-low-power receiver architecture is proposed and studied. An injection-locked oscillator based architecture is proposed and implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 8. mm-Wave Front-End Design for Phased-Array Systems

In the previous chapters, a monolithic mm-wave sensor network was introduced. An on-chip wireless power receiver with an ultra-low-power receiver and transmitter front-end was presented. In this chapter, the base-station for monolithic sensor networks with phased-array architecture is analyzed and the key circuits are developed. By using a phased-array architecture, the base-station can achieve better sensitivity for the receiver part, and can also increase the transferred power density at the sensor node location for the transmitter part.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Chapter 9. Conclusions

Due to its ease of deployment, wireless sensors have been used in a wide range of applications, including security, green building technology, automotive and health care. Most of the state-of-the-art wireless sensors use batteries as a power source. It can be easily calculated that for a building with 1000 wireless sensors installed, which can be very common for a smart building, assuming a battery life of 3 years, on average, batteries need to be replaced every day. Therefore, from both cost and convenience points of view, there is a strong demand for battery-less wireless sensors. To overcome the limitations of state-of-the-art battery-less wireless sensors in size, cost, robustness, and range, we proposed a 60 GHz wireless sensor system with monolithic sensors in this book. In the PREMISS system, the wireless sensors consist of wireless power receiving, sensing and communication functions in a single chip. The sensors have no external components and hence avoid costly IC-interfaces that are sensitive to mechanical and thermal stress.
Hao Gao, Marion Matters-Kammerer, Dusan Milosevic, Peter G. M. Baltus

Backmatter

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