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Über dieses Buch

Becoming a Food Scientist is designed as a reservoir of ideas for those beginning a graduate education in food science or beginning a professional career in the field. Although at times it may read as a how-to manual for success in graduate school, it is meant to encourage each reader to study the research process, to challenge conventional wisdom, and to develop a career path that maximizes the probability of success both in school and beyond. The author has viewed food science graduate programs through the lenses of programs at four universities and service in numerous activities with the Institute of Food Technologists. This book is thus focused on the field of food science, but it may have relevance to other scientific disciplines.

The book introduces the concept of research as process in the first chapter. Subsequent chapters focus on individual unit operations of research: idea generation, problem definition, critical evaluation of the literature, method selection, experimental design, data collection, processing and analysis, and knowledge dissemination. Successful graduate students in food science must master each of these operations. The final section of the book pushes the reader beyond graduate school into its practice in the real world. Topics covered in the maturation of a food scientist include the scientific meeting, critical thinking, science and philosophy, ethics, finding and managing the literature, planning, grantsmanship, laboratory setup and management, and career development. This book should be a meaningful companion for any graduate student in the field and those transitioning from graduate school to the food science profession.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Research as Process

Abstract
I am assuming that my readers are contemplating seeking a degree in food science or are currently in graduate school in food science. Current graduate students may be at one of many different stages of development. This book should help in developing as a research scientist. Many students think of graduate school as an advanced form of undergraduate education. I contend that the two are fundamentally different. Most major professors assume that their students know the differences and don’t see any reason for any orientation. This book should help students understand those differences and what they need to do to prepare themselves. Here are some of those differences. Graduate education is primarily about
Robert L. Shewfelt

UNIT OPERATIONS OF RESEARCH

Chapter 2. Idea Generation

Abstract
“the act of generating new and useful ideas, or of re-evaluating or combining old ideas, so as to develop new and useful perspectives in order to satisfy a need” (Quantumiii—http://www.quantum3.co.za/CI%20Glossary.htm)
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 3. Problem Definition

Abstract
Even though we lump scientific investigation into one word—research, there are many types of research. Some research is directed at achieving a specific goal like finding a cure for cancer or creating the prefect food. Most scientific research is directed at solving specific problems. Most of these problems are narrowly focused. Other research is aimed at developing methods. In food science we may also be looking at optimizing a food process or ingredient formulation. While most food research is applied, basic research seeks a deeper understanding and usually has no immediate application. More will be said on these types of research in the second half of this chapter.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 4. Critical Evaluation of Literature

Abstract
An effective scientist must develop a balance between the literature and the laboratory. A thorough knowledge of the literature is necessary to learn what research has been conducted in a certain area and identify future needs. Publication of our results must be placed in the context of previous work and point to future directions. This chapter focuses on what to look for and how to evaluate what we find. For details on finding the appropriate literature and how to organize it, see Chap. 14.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 5. Method Selection

Abstract
Chances are the major professor has a clear idea of what a student project will be and what methods to use. It may involve the operation of an important piece of laboratory equipment in the lab. Sometimes, however, projects take a turn requiring development of a specific method to provide specific data. This chapter will cover some of the things to consider when developing methodology. First let us review the two previous unit operations—Problem definition (Chap. 3) and critical evaluation of the literature (Chap. 4).
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 6. Experimental Design

Abstract
Statistics can be manipulated by other professions; it is critical that scientists follow strict rules in the use and application of statistical techniques. The use of statistics becomes our referee to help us decide if our ideas and suppositions are correct. If we design our experiments intelligently, collect our data accurately and analyze them correctly, we can determine if our experimental treatments produce clear effects. Statistical analysis does not provide 100% certainty, but it does provide us an objective basis to draw conclusions based on recognized techniques and accepted guidelines rather than mere hype or speculation. A statistically significant difference does not necessarily mean that the treatment will have a practical effect. For example, a small, but statistically significant color change may or may not affect consumer acceptability of a chocolate pudding as the typical consumer may not be as sensitive to color differences as a colorimeter or trained sensory panel. Likewise, if no statistical significance is found in the development of an off-flavor, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the experimental treatment. There may be consumers that can detect the specific off-flavor, but the general population shows no effect.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 7. Data Collection

Abstract
Every step performed before starting to collect data is to prepare the way to collect data. To review, an idea we generate is formulated into a testable problem. The literature we read is selected to illuminate our understanding of that problem and then read in context of the problem. Our reading may modify our idea and force a reformulation of the problem. Methods are selected on the basis of the criteria we develop to test our idea and experiments are designed to give us an answer.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 8. Processing and Analysis

Abstract
Now that the data have been collected, they must be analyzed and processed. Computers are wonderful instruments to process data. We take them for granted now, but some major professors did not have a computer as an undergraduate. It is only since the 1980s that computers have become common fixtures on professors' desks and only since the 1990s that we had the Internet and email. Ask an old-timer about punching cards and floppy disks, and watch them smile.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 9. Knowledge Dissemination

Abstract
No research is completed until it has been written up. Scientists establish their reputations on the basis of numbers of refereed publications and funded grants. Grant funding is largely based on numbers and quality of refereed publications. This chapter will cover the process of writing a manuscript, submission to a journal, review by referees, the decision of it by the editor, revision and resubmission of accepted manuscripts, and dealing with rejected manuscripts. An accepted manuscript is described as being “In Press” until it is published and becomes an article.
Robert L. Shewfelt

MATURATION OF A SCIENTIST

Chapter 10. The Scientific Meeting

Abstract
There are many types of scientific meetings. The most familiar meetings are those sponsored and convened by a scientific organization. These organizations can be international, national, regional, or state. The primary organization for food science is IFT, Institute of Food Technologists. Other important organizations for food scientists are ASM (the American Society for Microbiology) and ACS (the American Chemical Society). A list of organizations of interest to food scientists can be found in Table 10.1. IFT is a unique organization in that it combines a scientific meeting with a trade show (see Fig. 10.1). Every food scientist needs to attend the IFT meeting at least once in a lifetime. It must be experienced to be appreciated. Every practicing scientist should become a member of a scientific organization. University food scientists usually belong to at least one additional organization that is more aligned with their disciplinary perspective such as ACS or ASM. For postharvest physiologists, ASHS (American Society for Horticultural Science) and ASPB (American Society of Plant Biologists) offer alternatives. Few alternatives to IFT have a major trade show at their meetings analogous to IFT. Industrial food scientists usually divide up responsibilities among relevant societies within the company to cover each of the important areas.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 11. Critical Thinking

Abstract
As discussed in Chaps. 4 and 9, we must carefully evaluate the articles we read in the scientific literature. Effective analysis of the scientific literature requires special skills, generally grouped as critical thinking. Many sources describe critical thinking (Fisher, 2001; Paul and Elder, 2002; McInerny, 2005; Browne and Keeley, 2011; Burton, 2008). Critical thinking has been defined as
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 12. Science and Philosophy

Abstract
The scientific method has evolved over the years. Sir Francis Bacon, the first experimentalist may also have been the first food scientist. He used snow to freeze a chicken (Bolles 1997). Initial research was verification. Investigators developed a hypothesis and then conducted an experiment to “prove” their hypothesis. If the experiment didn’t work out, they needed to change their hypothesis and retest it.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 13. Ethics in Science

Abstract
Most of us know right from wrong. Ethical practice is basically doing what is right and avoiding the temptation to resort to shortcuts, lies, cheating, and fraud. I write this chapter in trepidation fearing that rather than providing guidelines for appropriate behavior I may be providing temptation for bad behavior. As scientists we like to believe that we have higher standards than politicians. To be able to claim a higher calling we must not only practice ethics, but we must also be vigilant in holding colleagues and organizations to the same standard.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 14. Finding and Managing the Literature

Abstract
In Chap. 4, we looked at evaluating the literature sources that we read. To make sure that we are finding all the relevant information, we need to develop our skills to search for those materials and organize them into a form that can be readily retrieved when needed. This chapter provides insight into how to develop those skills.
Monica Pereira

Chapter 15. Planning

Abstract
Strategic planning differs from other types of planning in that it is broad in scope, starts with a mission or long-range goals, and develops strategies to achieve those goals. There are many definitions available, most of which deal with organizations, but I prefer the definition advanced at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/strategic-planning.html
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 16. Grantsmanship

Abstract
Grants are the lifeblood of any scientific investigator at a university. It is almost impossible for an Assistant Professor with a research appointment in Food-Science to be promoted and tenured without obtaining grants. Grants are needed to purchase new equipment, fund graduate students, and grind out publications. The politics of obtaining funds from industry and government are somewhat different, but both require justification and written reports to obtain the necessary monetary support to run a lab. In industry, funding tends to be directed at reducing operating expenses or generating profit for the company although some companies still retain a basic research component that serves as a long-range incubator of product ideas and a status symbol. Government tends to operate more like universities but with a more rigid structure of project proposals, periodic reporting, and performance review. The rest of the chapter will be devoted to grant writing by university researchers, but both business entities and governmental researchers may be involved in pursuing federal grants. Industry scientists may never write a formal grant proposal, but they may be required to serve as liaison to a university project being funded by their company. Likewise, a governmental scientist may be asked to review grant proposals by various agencies.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 17. Laboratory Setup and Management

Abstract
To this point we have worked in a laboratory, probably our major professor’s. Soon we will probably become the lab manager. It looks easy when an underling. It becomes a much bigger deal when it is all of our responsibility. We most likely will be taking over an existing laboratory. This transition is the easiest one in the short-term, but it is frequently the most constricting long-term. We will definitely want to add some of our personality to the lab. We may be involved in renovating an existing laboratory. This opportunity will delay our ability to get up and running quickly, but it will provide us with more flexibility later if we plan well. Sometimes in our career, we may have the opportunity to design a new laboratory. It is a great experience if we know what we want, but it can become a real drag on our time during the process. Finally, we may be involved in designing a new laboratory as part of the design of a new building. Again, a new building is exciting but very time consuming. Detailed descriptions of laboratory design and all the things we need to consider are provided by Dahan (2000) and DiBerardinis et al. (2001).
Robert L. Shewfelt

Chapter 18. Career Development

Abstract
It may be hard to focus on a career when still in school, but it is never too early to start developing a long-range plan. Developing a career is more than just seeking a job. This chapter will start with job seeking and then put it in the context of a career plan as was discussed in Chap. 15.
Robert L. Shewfelt

Backmatter

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