Tunnels are driven both in soil and in rock. The transition between soil and rock is not sharp, and there are many kinds of rock, which may be considered either as soft rock or as soil. If one refrains from the separation by arrays of joints, the strength of rock is usually modelled in the same way as the strength of soil. The differences are then quantitative, but not qualitative. On the other hand, if the size of the individual rock blocks is comparable with the tunnel diameter, then continuum-mechanical considerations are inappropriate, and one must regard the individual blocks. This requirement proves often to be rather academic, since we hardly know in advance the position of the individual joints. Thus, in most cases jointed rock is considered as a homogeneous medium with whatsoever assumed mechanical properties.
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- Behaviour of soil and rock
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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