Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Defining professions seems straightforward but attempting to do so raises many questions and reveals assumptions in the many definitions on offer. These assumptions and meanings of profession, professionalism and professional are examined in this chapter while resisting definitional closure. Professions’ functionalist model was strongly critiqued several decades ago, resulting in a ‘death of professions’ idea imagining professions were finished or deprofessionalised. This unhelpful narrative forgot that professions are more important than ever. Professions today are often required to fit into large organisations with adjusted expertise and control responsibilities. The present discussion reframes definitions of professions by applying five ideas: ‘profession’ as a sociologically rich concept, the scientific idea of canonical forms, a paradigmatic shift and the deprofessionalisation hypothesis, and ‘profession’ in relation to the one-phenomenon-or-many concept.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abbott, A. D. (1988). The system of professions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Adams, T. L. (1998). Gender and women’s employment in the male-dominated profession of dentistry: 1867–1917. The Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, 35(1), 21–42. CrossRef
Adams, T. L. (2007). Interprofessional relations and the emergence of a new professions: Software engineering in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. The Sociological Quarterly, 48(3), 507–532. CrossRef
Aronowitz, S. (1988). Science as power. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. CrossRef
Becker, H. S., Greer, B., Hughes, E., & Strauss, A. (1961). Boys in white: Student culture in medical school (3rd print 1984 ed.). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Braverman, H. (1974). Labour and monopoly capital. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Brint, S. (1994). In an age of experts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Broadbent, J., Dietrich, M., & Roberts, J. (1997). The end of the professions? The restructuring of professional work. London: Routledge.
Burns, E. A. (2007). Positioning a post-professional approach to studying professions. New Zealand Sociology, 22(1), 69–98.
Butler, N., Shiona, C., & Muhr, S. L. (2012). Professions at the margins. Ephemera, 12(3), 259–272.
Conrad, P. (1992). Medicalization and social control. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 209–232. CrossRef
Davies, C. (1996). The sociology of professions and the profession of gender. Sociology, 30(4), 661–678. CrossRef
Davies, C. (2007). Rewriting nursing history—Again? Nursing History Review, 15, 11–28. CrossRef
De Landa, M. (2006). A new philosophy of society: Assemblage theory and social complexity. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (2007 ). A thousand plateaus. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Dent, M. (2002). Professional predicaments: Comparing the professionalization projects of German and Italian nurses. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 15(2), 151–162. CrossRef
Derrida, J. (1990). The force of law: The mystical foundation of authority. Cardozo Law Review, 11(5–6), 919–1046.
Dingwall, R. W. J. (1977). Atrocity stories and professional relationships. Sociology of Work & Occupations, 4(4), 371–396. CrossRef
Dingwall, R. W. J. (1983). Accomplishing profession. The Sociological Review, 24(3), 331–350.
Dingwall, R. W. J. (1999). Professions and social order in a global society. International Review of Sociology, 9(1), 131–140. CrossRef
Duffy, T. P. (2011). The Flexner report—100 years later. Yale Journal of Biology & Medicine, 84(3), 269–276.
Evetts, J. (1992). Dimensions of career: Avoiding reification in the analysis of change. Sociology, 26(1), 1–21. CrossRef
Evetts, J. (1999). Professionalisation and professionalism: Issues for interprofessional care. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 13(2), 119–128. CrossRef
Evetts, J. (2006). Directions. Current Sociology, 54(1), 133–143. CrossRef
Evetts, J. (2014). Professionalism: Theoretical changes and challenges. Travail Emploi Formation, 11, 90–110.
Faulconbridge, J., & Muzio, M. (2012). Professions in a globalizing world: Towards a transnational sociology of the professions. International Sociology, 27(1), 136–152. CrossRef
Fletcher, J. (2001). Disappearing acts: Gender power, and relational practice at work. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Flexner, A. (1915). Is social work a profession? School & Society, 1(26), 90–111.
Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
Fournier, V. (1999). The appeal to ‘professionalism’ as a disciplinary mechanism. The Sociological Review, 47(2), 280–307. CrossRef
Fournier, V. (2000). Boundary work and the (un)making of the professions. In N. Malin (Ed.), Professionalism, boundaries and the workplace (pp. 67–86). London: Routledge.
Freidson, E. (1970). Professional dominance. New York: Atherton.
Freidson, E. (1983). The theory of professions: State of the art. In R. Dingwall & P. Lewis (Eds.), The sociology of the professions (pp.19–37). London: Macmillan.
Freidson, E. (1986). Professional powers: A study of the institutionalization of formal knowledge. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Freidson, E. (1994). Professionalism reborn: Theory, prophecy, and policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism: The third logic. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Goode, W. J. (1957). Community within a community: The professions. American Sociological Review, 22(2), 194–200. CrossRef
Goode, W. J. (1960). Encroachment, charlatanism and the emerging professions: Psychology, sociology and medicine. American Journal of Sociology, 25(6), 902–914.
Gordon, R. J. (2016). The rise and fall of American growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
Gorman, E. H., & Sandefur, R. L. (2011). ‘Golden age.’ Quiescence, and revival: How the sociology of professions became the study of knowledge-based work. Work & Occupations, 38(3), 275–302.
Grey, C. (1994). Career as a project of the self and labour process discipline. Sociology, 28(2), 479–497. CrossRef
Grey, C. (2004). Management as a technical practice: Professionalization or responsibilization. In P. Jeffcut (Ed.), The foundations of management knowledge (pp. 44–65). London: Routledge.
Hall, R. H. (1968). Professionalization and bureaucratization. American Sociological Review, 33(1), 92–104. CrossRef
Harding, S. (1991). Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from women’s lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Harding, S. (1998). Is science multicultural? Postcolonialisms, feminisms, and epistemologies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Healy, K., & Meagher, G. (2004). The reprofessionalization of social work: Collaborative approaches for achieving professional recognition. British Journal of Social Work, 34(2), 243–260. CrossRef
Hunter, I. (2006). The history of theory. Critical Inquiry, 33(1), 78–112. CrossRef
Johnson, T. J. (1972). Professions and power. London: Macmillan. Republished Routledge, 2016.
Johnson, T. J. (1995). Governmentality and the institutionalization of expertise. In T. J. Johnson, G. Larkin, & M. Saks (Eds.), Health professions and the state in Europe (pp. 7–24). London: Routledge.
Jones, S. D. (2003). Valuing animals. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Khoury, R. M. (1980). The sociology of the professions: Are we headed down a dead-end street? Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 8(1), 31–36.
Kronus, C. L. (1976). The evolution of occupational power: An historical study of task boundaries between physicians and pharmacists. Sociology of Work & Occupations, 3(1), 3–37. CrossRef
Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Larson, M. S. (1977). The rise of professionalism: A sociological analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Larson, M. S. (1990). On the matter of experts and professionals, or how impossible is it to leave nothing unsaid. In R. Torstendahl & M. C. Burrage (Eds.), The formation of professions (pp. 11–23). London: Sage.
Larson, M. S. (2017). Professions today: Self-criticism and reflections for the future. https://www.academia.edu/34978672/Professions_and_professionalism_today_a_self-criticism_and_some_reflections_for_the_future.
Macdonald, K. M. (1995). The sociology of the professions. London: Sage.
Macdonald, K. M., Ritzer, G., & Hall, R. R. (1988). The sociology of the professions: Dead or alive? Work & Occupations, 15(3), 251–273.
Mclaughlin, J., & Webster, A. (1998). Rationalising knowledge: IT systems, professional identities and power. The Sociological Review, 46(4), 781–802. CrossRef
Merritt, A. C., Effron, D. A., & Monin, B. (2010). Moral self-licensing: When being good frees us to be bad. Social and Personality Psychology, 4(5), 344–357. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00263.x. CrossRef
Mitleton-Kelly, E. (2003). Ten principles of complexity and enabling infrastructures. In E. Mitleton-Kelly (Ed.), Complex systems and evolutionary perspectives of organisations: The application of complexity theory to organisations (pp. 1–31). Bradford, UK: Elsevier.
Nader, R., & Smith, W. (1996). No contest: Corporate lawyers and the perversion of justice in America. New York: Random.
Noordegraaf, M. (2015). Hybrid professionalism and beyond: (New) forms of public professionalism in changing organizational and societal contexts. Journal of Professions & Organization, 2(2), 187–206. CrossRef
Pescosolido, B., & Olafsdottir, S. (2010). The cultural turn in sociology: Can it help us resolve an age-old problem in understanding decision making for health care? Sociological Forum, 25(4), 655–676. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1573-7861.2010.01206.x. CrossRef
Polanyi, M. (1958). Personal knowledge. New York: Harper.
Rose, N. (1990). Review of ‘Technical workers in an advanced society: The work, career and politics of French engineers’ by Stephen Crawford. Sociology, 24(4), 691. CrossRef
Rossides, D. W. (1997). Professions and disciplines: Functional and conflict perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Saks, M. (2005). Professions and the public interest: Medical power, altruism and alternative medicine. London: Routledge. CrossRef
Schudson, M. (1990). Origins of the ideal of objectivity in the professions. New York: Garland Press.
Scott, S., & Matthews, A. (2015, September 10). Doctor who sparked report into surgeon bullying and harassment shocked by extent of findings. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-09-10/doctor-shocked-by-extent-of-bullying-report/6766332.
Siegrist, H. (1990). Professionalisation as a process: Patterns, progression and discontinuity. In M. C. Burrage & R. Torstendahl (Eds.), Professions in theory and history: Rethinking the study of professions (pp. 177–202). London: Sage.
Stevens, R. (2001). Public roles for the medical profession in the United States: Beyond theories of decline and fall. Milbank Quarterly, 79(3), 327–353. CrossRef
Swedberg, R. (2019). On the use of definitions in sociology. European Journal of Social Theory. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368431019831855.
Teubner, G. (1987). Juridification: Concepts, aspects, limits, solutions. In G. Teubner (Ed.), Juridification of social spheres: A comparative analysis in the areas of labor, corporate, antitrust and social welfare law (pp. 34–38). Berlin: De Gruyter. CrossRef
Toren, N. (1972). Social work: The case of a semi-profession. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Toren, N. (1975). Deprofessionalization and its sources: A preliminary analysis. Sociology of Work and Occupations, 2(4), 323–337. CrossRef
Torstendahl, R., & Burrage, M. C. (Eds.). (1990). The formation of professions: Knowledge, state and strategy. London: Sage.
Turner, B. (1987). Medical power and social knowledge. London: Tavistock.
Villanueva-Russell, Y. (2008). An ideal-typical development of chiropractic, 1895–1961: Pursuing professional ends through entrepreneurial means. Social Theory & Health, 6(3), 250–272. CrossRef
Wall, K. (1991). Chandra: A biography of S. Chandrasekhar. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Wilensky, H. L. (1964). The professionalization of everyone? American Journal of Sociology, 70(2), 137–158. CrossRef
Wilkinson, A., Hislop, D., & Coupland, C. (Eds.). (2016). Perspectives on contemporary professional work. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar.
Witz, A. (1992). Professions and patriarchy. London: Routledge. CrossRef
Young, M., & Muller, J. (Eds.). (2014). Knowledge, expertise and the professions. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
- Beyond Defining Professions
Edgar A Burns
- Chapter 2
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta