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Über dieses Buch

The major subjects of the book cover modeling, analysis and efficient management of information in Internet of Everything (IoE) applications and architectures. As the first book of its kind, it addresses the major new technological developments in the field and will reflect current research trends, as well as industry needs. It comprises of a good balance between theoretical and practical issues, covering case studies, experience and evaluation reports and best practices in utilizing IoE applications. It also provides technical/scientific information about various aspects of IoE technologies, ranging from basic concepts to research grade material, including future directions.



Challenges Beyond the Internet of Things


Context-Aware Systems: Technologies and Challenges in Internet of Everything Environments

The Internet of Things (IoT) and Internet of Everything (IoE) paradigms have emerged in the last years, thus generating new challenges in the pervasive computing area. IoT is a computing paradigm that has been recognized for allowing the connection of the physical and virtual worlds by giving processing power to the daily “things”. IoE goes beyond the IoT by breaking the barrier of just “things”. In IoE, the people, data and processes also make part of the connected world. Context awareness has becoming an important feature in IoT and IoE scenarios. Automatic decision making, sensitivity to context, automatic notification to the user, just to name a few, are some examples of situations where a context-aware system is needed in these environments where the characteristics of the data sources are undergoing constant change. In this chapter we present the context-aware definitions and architecture in IoE and it evolution from IoT. Moreover, we present the context-aware life-cycle phases, which is the process done in order to have context information. In addition, we also analyze the current context-aware approaches of IoT/IoE systems, and present some challenges related to context-aware IoE systems.
Everton de Matos, Leonardo Albernaz Amaral, Fabiano Hessel

Enabling User Context Utilization in the Internet Communication Protocols: Motivation, Architecture and Examples

The communication protocols in the Internet protocol stack never explicitly take into account the context information of its dynamic end-users, which affects protocol performance from the perspectives of both end-users and networks. The fast progress in context-aware computing combined with the sensing technologies greatly facilitates collecting and understanding the context information of Internet end-users. Proper utilization of the substantive and abstract end-user’s context information provides major opportunities to strengthen today’s Internet to be a context-aware, intelligent and user-centric communication system. We therefore propose a new functional module, named User-Context Module, to explicitly integrate the end-user’s context information into the established Internet protocol stack. In this chapter, we present this work in three phases: (i) the module’s architectural design; (ii) the module’s applications; (iii) a resource management framework designed for the module.
Yu Lu

Security Challenges of the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in which ordinary and complex consumer products, buildings, bridges, animals or even people, etc. are embedded with sensors, equipped with a variety of communication technologies and given unique identifiers that can enable them connect to the Internet. This allows them to talk to each other, collect data and transfer data over the Internet. IoT has the potential to enhance the way we do things by increasing productivity and efficiency. It also has the prospects of delivering significant business benefits. Nonetheless, implementing secure communication in the IoT and integrating security mechanisms into some of its devices have been a major impediment to its progress, resulting in many privacy concerns. Although IoT is a hybrid network of the Internet, many security solutions for the Internet cannot be directly used on the resource-constrained devices of the IoT, hence the need for new security solutions. In this chapter, we discuss the security challenges of the IoT. First, we discuss some basic concepts of security and security requirements in the context of IoT. We then consider fundamental security issues in the IoT and thereafter highlight the security issues that need immediate attention.
Musa G. Samaila, Miguel Neto, Diogo A. B. Fernandes, Mário M. Freire, Pedro R. M. Inácio

Technologies for Connecting Everything


A Novel Machine to Machine Communication Strategy Using Rateless Coding for the Internet of Things

Internet of things is a shifting paradigm where almost every physical object will be furnished with sensing, communication and processing capabilities that allow them to communicate with other devices. On the other hand, machine to machine communication, which is a key enabling technology for the internet of things, enables billions of multipurpose networked devices to exchange information among themselves with minor or no human involvement. This chapter aims to investigate a novel communication strategy that considerably increases the efficiency of the channel in the multicast setting. Specifically, we consider the scenario where three devices that are close by and want to exchange their messages via a low cost relay or another device in proximity. The main advantage of the proposed scheme is twofold: (1) use of joint channel and physical layer network coding where devices simultaneously transmit their messages, (2) no decoding at the relay where relaying can be as simple as amplify and forward or de-noise and forward. Furthermore, an efficiently scalable technique for disseminating information among a large number of devices is proposed. Simulation results using practical Raptor codes show that the proposed scheme achieves a near optimal sum rate performance. Additionally, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with traditional single user communication scheme and functional decode and forward relaying strategy.
Boulos Wadih Khoueiry, M. Reza Soleymani

Energy-Efficient Network Architecture for IoT Applications

Internet of Things is an emerging technology, which connects smart devices with internet and allows to share their data globally. The major goal of IoT technology is to improve the resource utilization. In IoT network the edge devices (sensors, RFID, actuators, Bio-Chip, etc.) are operated by battery power and they are connected with low power links such as IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE 802.11, etc., which makes IoT network as energy constrained. Designing energy efficient network architecture is a greatest challenge for energy constrained IoT Networks. The network is said as energy efficient, based on its network lifetime. In this chapter, effective combination of two different techniques such as node placement technique and routing technique is proposed in single network architecture, to improve the lifetime of IoT networks. In node placement technique, uneven data traffic is addressed by introducing hierarchical node placement. In routing technique, uneven energy consumption is addressed by residual energy based path computation. Splitting the energy related parameters by two different techniques (node placement technique and routing technique) highly reduces the complexity of network. Our result says, effective combination of node placement technique and routing technique improves the uniform energy consumption and provides better network lifetime.
P. Sarwesh, N. Shekar V. Shet, K. Chandrasekaran

ID-Based Communication for Access to Sensor Nodes

Home automation and intelligent building are the areas where Internet of Things (IoT) has been applied relatively early. Everyday intuitive use of smart things can increase comfort at home and productivity at work. Introducing new solutions for smart devices controlling the natural human environment rises challenges— especially when fast and reliable communication within the hierarchized network is needed. Specifically, we consider scenario, where the network structure is aligned to a building structure. Moreover, we used the hierarchized addressing structure based on unique identifiers to benefit from Information Centric Network based architecture. This chapter describes the design, implementation and test results of the ID-based communication network with a particular emphasis on interworking with a sensor node.
Mariusz Gajewski, Waldemar Latoszek, Jordi Mongay Batalla, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Evangelos Pallis

QoS/QoE in the Heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT)

Applications provided in the Internet of Things can generally be divided into three categories: audio, video and data. This has given rise to the popular term Triple Play Services. The most important audio applications are VoIP and audio streaming. The most notable video applications are VToIP, IPTV, and video streaming, and the service WWW is the most prominent example of data-type services. This chapter elaborates on the most important techniques for measuring QoS/QoE in VoIP, VToIP/IPTV and WWW applications.
Krzysztof Nowicki, Tadeus Uhl

Applicability of Interconnecting Everything


Integration of Internet of Everything (IoE) with Cloud

This chapter presents a roadmap of key developments in IoT-Cloud research in the context of different application domains and its applicability to IoE. IoT can be extended to IoE, if it is possible to connect everything to the Internet. Different layers of IoT protocol stack are discussed in this chapter. In IoT, physical objects connected to the Internet generate huge amount of data. Here, one of the main challenges is to move these data from the underlying IoT to the cloud. Cloud technologies are appealing due to the fact that the requirements for developing such IoE environment match very closely what cloud can offer in terms of computational and storage resources. Various application areas and existing works are also discussed.
Sarbani Roy, Chandreyee Chowdhury

Multimodal Low-Invasive System for Sleep Quality Monitoring and Improvement

The attention on sleep disorders has grown in recent years. Mainly because of the changes imposed by the information and communication Era. These changes have impacted in a hazardous way on our sleep quality. The current mainstream sleep disorder detection and assessment method, the laboratory polysomnography, is very expensive and inconvenient for patients who are extracted from their own sleep-environment. Aiming to avoid the high costs and to perform an assessment in loco, we present in this chapter a multimodal low-invasive system for sleep quality monitoring and its improvement by Internet of Things paradigm. A stand-alone device was designed to provide robustness, scalability and usability to a completely built-in sleep assessment system. The main goal of this in-home device is to give more accurate information to physicians and technical staff, assisting in the screening process, reducing costs and helping to improve the wellbeing of people with sleep disorders.
Fábio Manoel Franca Lobato, Damares Crystina Oliveira de Resende, Roberto Pereira do Nascimento, André Luis Carvalho Siqueira, Antonio Fernando Lavareda Jacob, Ádamo Lima de Santana

On Real Time Implementation of Emotion Detection Algorithms in Internet of Things

This chapter describes the methods for detecting the human emotion using signal processing techniques and their implementation in real time. The first sections present the basic approaches both for emotion detection using face images and speech signals. This work highlights the tradeoff between detection performance and algorithm complexity and describes the architectures of microcontrollers used to implement the algorithms for emotion detection (including preprocessing and basic tasks) and methods for code optimization. These optimizations are made for a real time realization on mobile devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets). Preprocessing tasks run on mobile device and the basic tasks may be run on a server or on device. Finally, the chapter estimates computational effort and memory requirements for image and speech processing involved in emotion detection.
Sorin Zoican

Recognizing Driving Behaviour Using Smartphones

In this chapter at first we will present our methodology for recognizing driving patterns using smartphones, and then we will present in detail the android-based application we have developed to this end, which can monitor driving behavior. The latter can be achieved either using data only from the accelerometer sensor or using a sensor fusion method, which combines data from the accelerometer, the gyroscope and the magnetometer. We can recognize events like hard acceleration, safe acceleration, sharp left turn, safe right turn, sharp left lane change, etc. The application to improve the driving behavior of the driver, displays some hint messages to him after each bad-driving event. All the data from the trips (e.g., driving events that take place during a trip), are stored in a database and the driver has the opportunity to review and analyze them whenever he wants. We believe that organizing drivers in some form of a social network and involving them in a game-like procedure for promoting and rewarding the best driver among them, can motivate drivers to more secure driving customs.
Prokopis Vavouranakis, Spyros Panagiotakis, George Mastorakis, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Jordi Mongay Batalla

New Horizons: Large Scenarios


Cloud Platforms for IoE Healthcare Context Awareness and Knowledge Sharing

Due to the growing in elderly population, research in healthcare monitoring and ambient assisted living technology is crucial to provide improved care while at the same time contain healthcare costs. Although the number of healthcare sensors are increasing as part of the Internet of everything growth, there is no robust system so as to act as a bridge between different sensors and systems to facilitate knowledge sharing and empower their detection and prediction capabilities. These systems cannot use the data and knowledge of other similar systems due to the complexity involved in sharing data between them. Storing the information is also a challenge due to a high volume of sensor data generated by each sensor. However, state-of-the-art cloud platforms can provide services to developers to leverage the previously processed similar data and the corresponding detected symptoms. Cloud-based platforms such as HEAL and CoCaMAAL can provide services for input sensors, Internet of Everything devices and processes, and context providers all at the same time. The ultimate goal of these systems is to bridge the gap between symptoms and diagnosis trend data in order to accurately and quickly predict health anomalies.
Alireza Manashty, Janet Light Thompson

Survey on Technologies for Enabling Real-Time Communication in the Web of Things

The Web of Things (WoT) can be considered as a step towards the Internet of Everything development. The concept of WoT assumes that objects of the Internet of Things (IoT) seamlessly interact with the Web by re-using web protocols wherever possible. One of the most desirable service in the WoT is real-time communication, due to the event-driven character of many IoT applications. This chapter provides an overview of the protocols which are taken into account in order to ensure real-time interaction of WoT objects. We describe two technologies: WebSocket and WebRTC, which are a part of HTML5 specification and are considered as solutions that bring real-time communication capabilities into the WoT. CoAP, a specialized protocol for use in resource constrained devices, is also presented, as well as two solutions that implement publish/subscribe interaction model. Next, we discuss which protocols can have the greatest impact on the WoT development.
Piotr Krawiec, Maciej Sosnowski, Jordi Mongay Batalla, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, George Mastorakis, Evangelos Pallis

Crowd-Driven IoT/IoE Ecosystems: A Multidimensional Approach

During the past few years an astonishing paradigm shift has occurred towards a new participatory value creation model driven by users. Open collaborative innovation practices have emerged in which an increasing number of users mutually collaborate by openly communicating their ideas, sharing best practices, and creating new knowledge across sectors. These online, distributed, crowd-driven networks take advantage of underlying network effects in order to harness the collective power and intelligence of the Crowd. Such novel paradigms fuel an increasing interest in mobile crowdsensing (MCS) methods in the context of IoT/IoE, which leverage the power and the wisdom of the crowd to observe, measure, and make sense of particular phenomena by exploiting user-owned mobile and wearable devices. However, when one examines the design and development of such ecosystems, realises that there is a gap in existing research. While emphasis has been placed upon the technical aspects, the success of such ecosystems is dependent on a number of diverse criteria. This chapter aims to fill this gap by providing a framework, which adopts a holistic approach based on multiple perspectives (namely technical, business, and people perspectives) and facilitates the design and development of crowd-driven ecosystems. This model is examined in the context of a hybrid crowd-driven IoT/IoE ecosystem, IoT Lab, in order to exemplify how these perspectives can be used to promote an ecosystem’s success and detail the challenges faced. This analysis is extended through the introduction of the “Crowd-driven Ecosystem Index (CEI)”, which measures the coverage intensity of each of the key ecosystem parameters, denoting this way the propensity of success of a crowd-driven network.
Xenia Ziouvelou, Panagiotis Alexandrou, Constantinos Marios Angelopoulos, Orestis Evangelatos, Joao Fernandes, Nikos Loumis, Frank McGroarty, Sotiris Nikoletseas, Aleksandra Rankov, Theofanis Raptis, Anna Ståhlbröst, Sebastien Ziegler

Improving Quality of Life with the Internet of Everything

The advent of the Internet of Everything, where things and data providers can connect not only to other things and data providers, but to human entities as well, and are enriched with intelligence, calls for sophisticated data handling, storing, and sharing mechanisms. In this chapter, we present an ecosystem built over the idea of Internet of Everything and featuring a collaborative, intelligent service bus, which gathers information from connected devices and uses it to improve quality of life. All aspects related to data collection, processing, protection of privacy, as well as collaboration between users and interfacing between humans and devices are addressed, while mechanisms supporting decision making towards health related goals are presented.
Despina T. Meridou, Maria-Eleftheria Ch. Papadopoulou, Andreas P. Kapsalis, Panagiotis Kasnesis, Athanasios I. Delikaris, Charalampos Z. Patrikakis, Iakovos S. Venieris, Dimitra I. Kaklamani
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