Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This book presents a practical framework for the application of big data, cloud, and pervasive and complex systems to sustainable solutions for urban environmental challenges. It covers the technologies, potential, and possible and impact of big data on energy efficiency and the urban environment.

The book first introduces key aspects of big data, cloud services, pervasive computing, and mobile technologies from a pragmatic design perspective, including sample open source firmware. Cloud services, mobile and embedded platforms, interfaces, operating system design methods, networking, and middleware are all considered. The authors then explore in detail the framework, design principles, architecture and key components of developing energy systems to support sustainable urban environments. The included case study provides a pathway to improve the eco-efficiency of urban transport, demonstrating how to design an energy efficient next generation urban navigation system by leveraging vast cloud data sets on user-behavior. Ultimately, this resource maps big data’s pivotal intersection with rapid global urbanization along the path to a sustainable future.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Urgent Need for Advancing Urban Sustainability

Abstract
The growth of global urbanisation and the unprecedented rise and spread of information and communication technologies (ICTs) are seen by some as two of the most important trends in the modern world. Another is the ever-changing needs and lifestyles of urban residents. To these three, we would add a fourth, which we regard as even more important than those already mentioned: the rise of global environmental challenges, including, but not restricted to, global climate change. This introductory chapter looks at the first trend (global urbanisation) in the light of the fourth trend, discussing the various environmental and resource problems that cities will increasingly face in the coming decades. Ongoing global warming is also expected to have a disproportionate impact on cities and the risks their residents will face, given their dense concentrations of both people and built infrastructure.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 2. Urban Health and Well-Being Challenges

Abstract
This chapter is a detailed look at urban sustainability from a health and well-being viewpoint, and is thus a complement to Chap. 1, which emphasised the biophysical aspects of urban sustainability. Two globally important health problems are the ageing of the population and the widespread rise in health costs as a share of national income. The health and well-being of urban residents, which goes beyond the mere absence of physical and mental illness, are examined for both OECD and non-OECD countries. The creation of a truly sustainable city in the future not only requires simple increases in energy efficiency. The personal quality of life for urban residents—the creation of livable, stable and vibrant communities—is also important, and will become increasingly so in future. The urban problems of China, home to 20% of the global urban population, are given particular emphasis.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 3. The Potential for Big data for Urban Sustainability

Abstract
This chapter first looks at existing data collection in cities, and its limitations, then at the reasons why making cities sustainable will need vastly increased amounts of data in future. It next describes the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) and how the data from vast numbers of urban sensors could make cities ‘smarter’. The chapter also gives a number of examples of how big data and IoT is presently being used in various cities. Since the impact on sustainability in smart cities is presently minimal, we also look at the more advanced use of big data in other sectors. But big data alone will not in itself guarantee urban sustainability: supporting policies, including those for reducing energy and private transport use, and improving public health, will also need to be in place.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 4. Barriers to the Implementation of Big Data

Abstract
This chapter sounds a cautionary note about big data applications. In general terms, it discusses, in turn, the potential serious challenges to its use, including privacy, data security, reliability, cost, technical challenges, and potential barriers to its acceptance, which will need to be overcome. The barriers to acceptance and use vary greatly from one application to another, being close to zero for some applications (for example, urban weather forecasting), to possibly serious for more sensitive applications that involve even anonymised personal data. We conclude that big data is not a panacea for all urban problems—some important areas of urban sustainability are probably best tackled by traditional small data approaches or a judicious use of both big and small data. The barriers for some applications, particularly those based on personal data, will for some time be greater in the cities of many industrialising countries than in OECD cities.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 5. Big Data for Sustainable Urban Transport

Abstract
This chapter re-examines the general solutions proposed to improve the environmental sustainability of transport discussed in Sect. 1.3.2, with a view to understanding the potential for big data in each of these approaches. How can big data be used to reduce transport energy and emissions in cities? Specifically, how can big data encourage modal shift from cars to more environmentally friendly modes, and reduce vehicular transport overall through better trip planning? The chapter also includes a case study of a ‘personal transport planner’ designed for use in Beijing, based on the idea of a monthly personal transport energy quota.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 6. Big Data for Urban Energy Reductions

Abstract
This chapter first discusses the smart grid, which will be a necessity if electricity production in the future is to be sustainable. The chapter then looks at energy in an urban context, emphasising domestic energy consumption and the role of big data in its reduction. It is found that experience to date shows that data provision alone, for example that made possible by smart meters, can not on its own effect the large cuts needed in household energy use. However, in future, householders could well be both consumers and producers of energy (for example, from rooftop PV cell arrays). Householders will inevitably become far more aware than they are now of the price of electricity and how this varies over time.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 7. Big Data for Urban Health and Well-Being

Abstract
This chapter examines the potential for big data in improving urban health and well-being, in the face of the ageing of global society and the rise in real healthcare costs. It looks at how more use of big data could help solve these and other health challenges, then gives actual or planned examples of its use in healthcare. The Quantified Self movement, discussed next, could prove a forerunner of a more general move to greater patient involvement in monitoring their personal health. The data would come from various apps on their smart phones, wearable devices, or body sensors. The chapter stresses the connection with the transport and energy chapters, given the role of these two sectors in urban air pollution, UHI and global warming and for transport, traffic-related casualties. As a specific example, a case study of a design of an instrumented chair (‘Virtual Spine’) to improve spinal health and general well-being is included.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Chapter 8. Big Data for a Future World

Abstract
This chapter looks to the future, given that applications of big data for urban sustainability are still in their infancy, and it could be many years before it can make a real difference. We try to place big data and urban sustainability problems in the year 2050 or even later, by first describing what the world of 2050 might look like, assuming that nations seriously tackle the global environmental and resource problems the planet increasingly faces. We then explore the possible role of big data in the cities of such a world, both in OECD and non-OECD countries, both in the transition period and later.
Stephen Jia Wang, Patrick Moriarty

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen