It is relatively easy for a human listener to attend to a particular speaker at a cocktail party in the presence of other speakers, music and environmental sounds. To perform this task, the human listener needs to separate the target speech from a mixture of multiple concurrent sources reflected by various surfaces. This process is referred to as
auditory scene analysis
. While humans excel at this task using only two ears, machine separation based on two-microphone recordings has proven to be extremely challenging. By incorporating the mechanisms underlying the perception of sound by human listeners,
computational auditory scene analysis
(CASA) offers a new approach to sound segregation. Binaural hearing – hearing with two ears – employs the difference in sound source locations to improve sound segregation. In this chapter, we describe the principles of binaural processing and review the state-of-the-art in binaural CASA, particularly for speech segregation.