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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics and materials assembly.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Peptide-Nanoparticle Strategies, Interactions, and Challenges

Abstract
The ability to control and manipulate peptide-nanoparticle interactions is an important goal in achieving biofunctionalized materials with enhanced properties and precise nanostructures for use in sensing, catalysis, and biomedical applications. However, currently, there are many challenges to overcome in order to obtain better design and create these peptide-based functional nanomaterials. These include a need to better our understanding of the mechanisms/forces which drive peptide-nanomaterial interactions, improve characterization techniques to probe the peptide-nanoparticle interfaces, to design and identify new nanomaterial-binding peptides with greater affinities using a combination of advanced combinatorial techniques and next-gen sequencing, and to effectively utilize computational modeling to guide/predict peptide-nanomaterial binding. In this chapter, we describe these technical challenges and highlight recent examples of peptide-nanoparticle interactions, their resultant properties, and how some of these challenges are being addressed.
Joseph M. Slocik, Rajesh R. Naik

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Peptide-Materials Interfaces

Abstract
The investigation of the binding, dynamics and properties of peptides adsorbed on inorganic surfaces is an inherently multidisciplinary endeavor. This chapter is primarily aimed at new researchers in this field, to introduce the basic concepts that span physical chemistry, surface science, structural biology, computational techniques, and materials science; all of which are necessary for gaining a comprehensive overview of peptide-materials interfaces. What are the key insights that can be determined from these interfaces? Usually, this will comprise a blend of thermodynamics, kinetics and structural characterizations. Typically, we might wish to compare the binding strength of a peptide, and concomitantly, the structure(s) assumed by the peptide upon adsorption. We might also seek to characterize the surface diffusion, and/or aggregation (or assembly) of these surface-adsorbed biomolecules. These observations serve to facilitate connections between the composition and sequence of the peptide, and its behavior and properties at the interface. Such connections could be subsequently exploited in bioinformatics models to enable the prediction of new peptide sequences, with designed, predictable interfacial properties.
Tiffany R. Walsh

Chapter 3. Experimental Characterization of Peptide–Surface Interactions

Abstract
Interactions between peptides and proteins with material surfaces are fundamental to a broad range of applications in biotechnology and biomedical engineering. Many different methods have been developed to measure a range of properties that quantify these types of interactions. In this chapter, three of these methods are presented for the determination of thermodynamic parameters that characterize peptide adsorption behavior, each of which is based on a different type of measurement. These three methods are surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR; spectroscopic-based method), atomic force microscopy (AFM; force-based method), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC; thermal-based method). The fundamental principles underlying each of these methods are presented followed by examples of their application for the determination of thermodynamic properties for specific peptide/protein-surface systems. The SPR method is presented for the determination of the standard-state adsorption free energy from adsorption isotherms characterizing the amount of peptide adsorbed as a function of solution concentration. This method, however, is limited to materials that can be used to form nanoscale-thick films about 100 nm thick or less on a gold biosensor substrate. For materials that are not easily formed into thin films, thus not being conducive for use with SPR, an AFM method is presented that can be used with any macroscopically flat surface through the correlation of peptide desorption force measured by AFM with adsorption free energy measurements by SPR. The third approach, ITC, measures thermal energy changes on adsorption with the method being applicable to the interaction of peptides/proteins with particles suspended in solution. The combined set of methods provides the means to quantitatively determine thermodynamic properties characterizing peptide and protein adsorption behavior for materials in either their bulk or particulate form, with important application to the broad range of technologies that involve contact between biological solutions and synthetic material surfaces.
Marion J. Limo, Carole C. Perry, A. A. Thyparambil, Yang Wei, Robert A. Latour

Chapter 4. Interfacial Structure Determination

Abstract
The understanding of biomolecule structure at the nanoparticle interface is critical for the design of sensors containing nanoparticles and biological recognition elements. While many inorganic binding peptides have been identified from phage display and other experiments, the relationship between the peptide sequence, structure, and functional properties at the interface have not been identified. The structure of biomolecules at the interface can be determined with the tools (Circular Dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) traditionally used for protein structure determination.
Peter A. Mirau

Chapter 5. Understanding Biomineral Growth and Assembly for Engineering Novel Green Nanomaterials

Abstract
Nanotechnology has great potential to make significant improvements in existing technologies. One such example is where learning from biology can help to develop bioinspired green nanomaterials. In this chapter, we will learn about uniqueness of biomineralisation. With the help of selected examples, we will discuss how we can take a step forward to design bioinspired technologies by understanding the controlled nucleation, growth and self-assembly typically displayed in biomineral formation. At the end of the chapter, a number of future avenues and challenges are outlined, which will help define future research directions.
Siddharth Patwardhan

Chapter 6. Understanding Molecular Recognition on Metallic and Oxidic Nanostructures from a Perspective of Computer Simulation and Theory

Abstract
In this chapter, surface properties of various solids at the nanometer scale and governing principles of the selective adsorption of molecules, surfactants, and biopolymers are reviewed and illustrated by examples. Clear distinctions emerge between elemental noble metal surfaces, polar pH-responsive surfaces, and ionic surfaces. Whereas the former are much simpler chemically and exhibit very attractive surfaces, many polar surfaces are prone to protonation/deprotonation equilibria and surface reactivity. These differences affect available options to control the assembly of surfactants, polymers, and biomacromolecules and grow nanomaterials from available precursors. Interestingly, we often encounter a wide variety of chemically different surfaces that originate from the “same” principal material. Our aim is to explain from the perspective of accurate atomistic models, simulation, and available results from experimentation the control mechanisms for selective binding to these different materials classes as far as they are known, as well as emerging concepts that play a role and warrant future investigation in detail.
Hendrik Heinz

Chapter 7. Bio-Inspired Nanocatalysis

Abstract
In response to increasing energy concerns, new materials are required that efficiently use and/or produce energy for a variety of applications. One specific and important area would be for catalytic applications that typically are energy intensive, but extremely important. In this regard, biomimetic methods have recently been studied for such reactivity, where the effects of the biointerface on the catalytic functionality have begun to be examined. This chapter focuses on these materials, typically prepared with peptides and viral templates, for a selection of important catalytic processes.
Ryan Coppage, Marc R. Knecht

Chapter 8. Addressable Biological Functionalization of Inorganics: Materials-Selective Fusion Proteins in Bio-nanotechnology

Abstract
Biological systems have developed a wide range of ingenious solutions, which serve as valuable sources for inspiration in designing new materials and systems. The evolutionary pathways through which biological systems have been formed build upon the biomolecular machinery bridging multiple length scales to exhibit a multitude of diverse outstanding properties. With a growing understanding of the molecular processes involved, biological principles are regularly revisited for developing new bio-enabled approaches to materials engineering. A number of biomolecules play important roles in biological systems by performing various tasks based on their functional specificity and their precise molecular recognition capability. Proteins are specifically involved in both collecting and transporting raw materials and interacting with ions. Proteins systematically undergo self- and co-assembly to yield short- and long-range ordered nuclei, substrates and other cellular organelles, as well as to catalyze reactions. The precise molecular recognition and the self-assembly exhibited in these interactions are an outcome of evolutionary process, where proteins have undergone cycles of structural fittings that lead to improved specific interactions. In the last decade, peptides have been utilized as critical building blocks to mimic biomolecular capabilities of proteins and to develop unique novel hybrid materials for a variety of practical applications. Here in, we summarize the inspirations that allow engineers to mimic biomolecular processes and the utility of combinatorial biology-based library systems to screen peptides for materials. Finally, we provide examples of addressable assembly on a variety of surfaces leading to self-organized hybrid systems that employ peptides fused to different functional proteins as building blocks for materials specificity.
Banu Taktak Karaca, Marketa Hnilova, Candan Tamerler

Chapter 9. Environmental Interactions of Geo- and Bio-Macromolecules with Nanomaterials

Abstract
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are mostly synthesized with modified surfaces using various surfactants, polymeric, or biomolecule coatings to achieve desired functionality. When exposed to the environment, coatings on the ENMs will undergo the first set of interactions with natural geo- and bio-macromolecules pre-existing in aqueous and/or soil matrices. Such interfacial interaction will likely alter the conformation and extent of coverage of the synthetic ENM surface coatings via exchange, displacement, and/or overcoating by environmental macromolecules. The exchange kinetics and extent of replacement of the synthetic coatings will profoundly impact environmental fate, transport, transformation, and toxicity of the ENMs. This chapter discusses the state-of-the-art literature to identify key synthetic coating types, their interaction with the environmental and biological macromolecules, and illustrate the existing challenges to determine coating exchange kinetics and its environmental implications on ENMs.
Navid B. Saleh, Jamie R. Lead, Nirupam Aich, Dipesh Das, Iftheker A. Khan

Chapter 10. Mimicking Biomineral Systems: What have we Achieved and Where do we go from Here?

Abstract
Biomimetic synthesis of inorganic crystals and composites has evolved dramatically since its inception. Advances in our understanding of matrix organization, templated nucleation, pathways of mineral formation via disordered precursor phases, mesocrystal formation, and the control of crystal shape have been paralleled by synthetic approaches to exploiting these discoveries. Resolution of current controversies concerning the early stages of nucleation and the mechanisms underlying both particle mediated crystal growth and matrix-directed nucleation will set the stage for further advances in the technology of biomimetic synthesis.
James J. De Yoreo
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