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Über dieses Buch

This reference work provides a comprehensive overview of bioactive compounds found in underutilized vegetables and legumes around the globe. It describes their pharmacological, biological and health effects in detail, and provides a strategic framework for further research and global development activities.

Using a consistent structure and divided into 9 parts based on the plant source, the book reviews bioactive compounds in various plant species. Each part opens with a leading article discussing the respective plant species.

This book is a valuable reference resource for plant biologists and biotechnologists, pharmacologists, pharmacists, food technologists, nutritionists and other health professions working in academia and industry.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Health Benefits of Underutilized Vegetables and Legumes

Abstract
Plants existing in nature could be used as source of nutrition and bioactive compounds. Some of the wild and underutilized plants such as African baobab, amaranth, tarragon, Malabar spinach, borage, Ethiopian rape, goosefoot, chicory, spider plant, mallow, sea kale, curcuma, squash, roselle, water spinach, bitter melon, drumstick, tassel hyacinth, prickly pear, parsnip, tomatillo, Indian poke, purslane, yellow cresses, black nightshade, and water leaf are used as vegetables, and some other wild leguminous plants including jack bean, rattlepod, Hausa groundnut, lablab bean, pea vines, subabul, Andean lupin, horse gram, deer-eye bean, stinky bean, winged bean, African yam bean, adzuki bean, bambara groundnut, and rice bean are used for proteins and other nutrients. These plants are sources of nutrients and are also rich in bioactive compounds. Studies carried out during the past several decades have shown that bioactive compounds obtained from the underutilized vegetables and legumes (UVLs) have important role in preventing chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. Phytochemicals present in UVLs have demonstrated antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. In the current chapter, we are presenting a review on importance of UVLs, their nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and their biological activities.
Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy, Kee Yoeup Paek

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables: Leafy Vegetables

Frontmatter

2. Bioactive Compounds of Amaranth (Genus Amaranthus)

Abstract
Several species of Amaranthus have a long history of consumption as a vegetable/cereal and usage in traditional medicine. A great miscellany of healthful compounds such as fatty acids, steroids, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and bioactives, including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic acids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and carotenoids have been found in Amaranthus seeds, roots, stem, and leaves, depending on the plant maturity stage, cultivar type, and geographical location. Preclinical studies have shown that the extracts and bioactive constituents of Amaranthus spp. confer several biological activities, including antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, cardioprotective, hypolipidemic, anticancerous, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial, which has ignited the interest of researchers in this modest vegetable all over the world. Although some potential health benefit-based mechanistic studies are available, a need exists to investigate in-depth the roles of these specific bioactives sourced from Amaranthus for their potential use in disease treatment and daily diet for a holistic well-being. Lately, investigators have also started to examine the use of amaranth leaves and seeds for the development of fortified food products whose consumption can lead to beneficial biological effects. Conversely, the plant is still missing recognition in the pharmaceutical and commercial food packaging sectors. The present chapter provides a detailed exploration of current research on the bioactive-constituents of amaranth, its use in traditional medicine, clinical studies validating traditional claims and recent trends in usage of this underutilized vegetable as a nutraceutical and functional food. This insight will be beneficial for encouraging exhaustive research which will promote effective utilization of amaranth.
Puneet Gandhi, Ravindra M. Samarth, Kavita Peter

3. Bioactive Compounds of Fat-Hen (Chenopodium album L.)

Abstract
Chenopodium album L. (family Chenopodiaceae) is a widely distributed species commonly known as fat-hen, white goosefoot, pigweed, lamb’s quarters, and various other names in different regions of the world. It is rich in nutrients and can be used in various value-added food products. Medicinally, it is used to treat the diseases of blood, spleen, heart, and eye and possess anticancer, antipruritic, and antinociceptive properties. The main phytoconstituents isolated from C. album includes phenols, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, and flavonoids. Chenopodium album can be considered as a nutraceutical food due to its bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. C. album is viewed as a potential vegetable and is worth in exploration and utilization.
Amrita Poonia

4. Bioactive Compounds of Paracress [Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen]

Abstract
Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen is an Amazonian leafy vegetable (Peru) popularly known as jambu (in Portuguese and Spanish) and paracress (in English), with great nutritional and bioactive potential. This herbaceous plant is particularly rich in spilanthol, a versatile bioactive compound that is further discussed in this text. However, plants such as paracress are complex organisms with different phytochemical composition according to the investigated organ (e.g., flowers, leaves, stems). The present work attempts to sum up the nutritional, pharmacological, and toxicological aspects of the bioactive compounds of this promising medicinal plant.
Moacir Couto Andrade Jr

5. Bioactive Compounds of Goosefoot (Genus Chenopodium)

Abstract
The biologically active compounds isolated from Chenopodium species are reviewed. These include compounds of diverse chemical nature: polysaccharides, lectins, amines and amides, phenolics and flavonoids, saponins, sterols, monoterpenes, and essential oils. The data for the biological activity of more than 70 compounds isolated or detected in goosefoot species are found in the literature. A wide range of pharmacological activities of chenopods: antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-α-glucosidase, prolipase, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, hemolytic, wound healing, sedative, and analgesic that appeared in the literature are discussed. The research found in literature was done mainly on C. album, C. ambrosioides, C. bonus-henricus, C. botrys, and C. quinoa.
Paraskev T. Nedialkov, Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova

6. Bioactive Compounds of Asian Spider Flower (Cleome viscosa Linn.)

Abstract
The present review puts forth a comprehensive bioactive profile of a Neglected and Underutilized Species (NUS), Cleome viscosa Linn. in the perspective of its ethno-pharmaceutical potential. Commonly known as “Asian spider flower, Bee plant, Tickweed, Cleome, Wild and Dog mustard,” it is an extensively proliferating weed inhabiting the tropics throughout world including India. The species is reported to be a traditional and folkloric asset in India and Thai medicinal systems. The species is bestowed with antiseptic, antihelmintic, carminative, rubefacient, vesicant, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant properties. Owing to the rich bioactive profile, its pharmacological screening and tremendous biological properties thus inferred is intensifying day-by-day in the scientific world. On account of the immense bioactive potential, the species use can be strategized for ensuring and stabilizing medico-nutritional food security.
Veenu Kaul, Shveta Saroop

7. Bioactive Compounds of Mallow Leaves (Corchorus Species)

Abstract
The genus Corchorus consists more than 50 species with diverse origin and applications. Economically the genus is popular as a natural fiber crop (C. olitorius and C. capsularis) particularly in Asian countries. However, utilization of Corchorus leaves as health promoting food gained fresh momentum in today’s health conscious consumer dominating market. In this context, present chapter discussed active bio compounds facilitating possible commoditization of the genus.
Shashi Bhushan Choudhary, Neetu Kumari, Hariom Kumar Sharma, Pankaj Kumar Ojha, J. Uraon

8. Bioactive Compounds of Ceylon Spinach [Talinum Triangulare (Jacq.) Willd.]

Bioactive Compounds of Ceylon Spinach
Abstract
Leafy vegetables are dominant source of nutrition as well as therapeutic potential such as proteins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and bioactive components. Talinum spp. are wide spread globally and utilized for nutritional, medicinal, and ornamental purposes. Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. is a tropical cosmopolitan leafy vegetable commonly called Ceylon spinach, a well-known vegetable in Africa, America, and Asia. This review provides a cross section of nutraceutical potential and bioactive attributes of T. triangulare. Being traditionally used, T. triangulare possess several health benefits to combat anemia, diabetes, hepato-disorders, neuro-disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and other ailments. Although T. triangulare is well-known traditionally for its versatility of nutrition and medicinal values, it has been neglected as a useless weed. This leafy vegetable is capable to safeguard its nutraceutical and medicinal attributes in spite of oven-drying at 60 °C without substantial loss which is an added advantage for industrial applications. Further insight on the mucilage and pigments of T. triangulare will open up new avenues in food, health, and pharmaceutical industries.
Kandikere Ramaiah Sridhar, Mundamoole Pavithra

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables: Fleshy Petioles, Cladodes, Fruits

Frontmatter

9. Bioactive Compounds of Prickly Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.]

Abstract
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill, commonly called prickly pear or nopal cactus, belongs to the Cactaceae family. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant, known, since the dawn of time, for its ability to thrive under environments recognized as stressful for most plant species. Opuntia ficus-indica has been used for a long time as diet, fodder, and beverage for both humans and animals, as well as to prevent soil erosion and to combat desertification. Opuntia ficus-indica has traditionally marked the folk medicine, owing to its therapeutic properties to a plethora of bioactive molecules, involving organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, betalains, carotenoids, vitamins, biothiols, taurine, saponins, fatty acids, and phytosterols. The content of these bioactive molecules varies within cladodes, fruits or prickly pears, peels, seeds, and flowers. Whereas pears were commonly considered as noble fruits, peels have been arisen in the last decades as a promising by-product for both animals and humans health and nutrition. Nowadays, there is compelling evidence that Opuntia cacti are functional foods, source of nutrients, and bioactive molecules endowed with high antioxidant potential, and a large specter of biological, medicinal, and pharmacological applications. Indeed, Opuntia ficus-indica is highlighted as an excellent source of natural pigments, having promising applications in food industry and cosmetic. The present chapter aims to stressing the major classes of bioactive phytochemicals from Opuntia ficus-indica, with a deep understanding of the basis of their antioxidant activities, as well as an overview of their biological and medicinal properties.
Imen Belhadj Slimen, Taha Najar, Manef Abderrabba

10. Bioactive Compounds of Swahili [Cyphostemma adenocaule (Steud. ex A. Rich.) Desc. ex Wild and R.B. Drumm.]

Abstract
Food from plants and its parts have often been an easy answer to micronutrient deficiencies and undernourishment problems experienced especially in the developing nations of the world. Alongside the well-known and cultivated vegetables, there exist a large number of noncultivated, wild, and neglected vegetables. Revalorizing these plants’ species is a necessity and must in recent times to validate their importance especially exposing their inherent phytocompounds. Cyphostemma adenocaule is commonly known as Swahili, one of such neglected vegetable, eaten by rural people in most countries of West Africa. Phytochemistry of C. adenocaule shows only 12 compounds have been isolated from it, these include ceanothane-type triterpenoids though quantification for polyphenols, flavonoids, and phenolics have been reported. These identified compounds have been reported to have health-promoting ability. This overview reports the importance of Swahili and gives evidences why this vegetable needs to be explore more and not neglected.
Oluwasesan Micheal Bello, Abiodun Busuyi Ogbesejana, Oluwasogo A. Dada, Oluwatoyin E. Bello, Mojeed O. Bello

11. Bioactive Compounds of Barbados Gooseberry (Pereskia aculeata Mill.)

Abstract
Pereskia aculeata Mill., a species of the family Cactaceae, is considered a non-conventional leafy vegetable. This species has been consumed mainly for its protein and mineral (iron and calcium) content, and represents a strategy for improving the nutritional value of diets in rural communities. P. aculeata protein is of high quality (with an abundance of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan) and high digestibility. Additionally, P. aculeata seems to be a promising thickening ingredient as it is rich in a mucilage, which has potential to serve as a functional food ingredient that contributes to favorable sensory properties and to dietary soluble fiber requirements. Further, P. aculeata leaves are an abundant source of vitamin C, the provitamin A carotenoids α- and β-carotene, and several xanthophylls, including lutein and violaxanthin. Additionally, the P. aculeata essential oil contains several terpenes and terpenoids commonly found in herbs and spices used as culinary seasonings and in traditional medicinal practices. The objective of this chapter was to gather information on the active compounds present in P. aculeata leaves that can demonstrate beneficial health effects.
Mariana Buranelo Egea, Gavin Pierce

12. Bioactive Compounds of Rhubarb (Rheum Species)

Abstract
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum L.; family, Polygonaceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely sought for their rich nutraceutical values. Several cultivated and wild species of rhubarb commands high demand in international market. Leaves are toxic, while stalk or the petioles are edible as food. Dried root/rhizome command usage in traditional medicine and is scientifically proven to impart a wide array of health benefits. Rhubarb’s therapeutic value is accredited to the presence of bioactive compounds such as anthraquinones, hydroxyanthraquinone, aloe-emodin, emodin, rhein, stilbene, rhaponticin, dietary fiber, and much more. These bioactive compounds are established for exhibiting antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hepatoprotective activities, and much more. Even though several published works are available on rhubarb, in majority of the instances, information remains scattered, especially for the sub-cultivars, and for the actual mechanism of action imparted by the bioactive compounds. In this chapter, some of the interesting research themes published on rhubarb’s use, food and therapeutic values, composition (nutritional and bioactive compounds), and proved bioactivity are presented.
Rajeev Bhat

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables: Seeds

Frontmatter

13. Bioactive Compounds of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi [L.] Sprague)

Abstract
Plants are the rich source of valuable biochemical and bioactive compounds and therefore have been widely utilized for the management of variety of disorders. Current estimate reveal that 25% of the commonly used modern medicines contain compounds isolated from plants. Ajwain or Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (T. ammi) is a medicinal herb belonging to the Apiaceae family; its leaves and seed-like fruits are used as spice. It possesses many extractable compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, sterols, fibers, alkaloid, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids. Volatile oil extracted from the fruit of ajwain includes thymol, p-cymene, c-terpinene, and α- and β-pinene. Minerals included calcium, iron, phosphorus, and nicotinic acid. Fruits extract revealed the presence of monoterpenes, monoterpenoids, gluside, glucoside, and aromatic compounds. Choline and acetylcholine and anticalcifying agents were also reportedly present in ajwain seeds. Scientific reports exhibited that ajwain possesses carminative, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, stimulant, antiviral, bronchodilatory, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antiseptic, nematicidal, antiulcer, antiplatelet, antitussive, and anesthetic effects.
Hafiz Muhammad Asif, Hafiz Abdul Sattar Hashmi

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables: Tuberous Vegetables

Frontmatter

14. Bioactive Compounds of Allium Species

Abstract
Evaluation of different plant species of Allium has resulted in identification of several bioactive constituents/phytochemicals. Some of the bioactive phytochemical constituents include organosulfur compounds, thiosulfinates, polysulfanes, polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fructans, fructo-oligosaccharides, essential oils, amino acids, vitamins, pigments, and much more. Traditionally, majority of the plants belonging to Allium sp. have been proved to be effective in treating flu, cold, cough, asthma, headache, stomachache, arthritis, and other common ailments. Besides, bioactive compounds identified in some of the commonly used Allium sp., they are scientifically proven to contribute towards a wide range of bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-hypercholesterolemic activities and much more. In the present chapter, attempts have been made to identify and report on some of the popular, widely consumed, and scientifically proven bioactivities of plants belonging to Allium species.
Rajeev Bhat

15. Bioactive Compounds of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

Abstract
Curcuma longa, a native species to South Asia, is commonly known as turmeric and traditionally used as a spice and dye in culinary preparations and as a traditional herbal medicine. The bioactive compounds of C. longa have different effects such as antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial, insecticide, larvicide, repellent, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, healing, and gastroprotective properties. In this chapter, we describe the major chemical compounds present in C. longa and how these compounds demonstrate biological potential in human health. C. longa and its bioactive compounds have important health-promoting effects and have the potential for the development of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, or food ingredients.
Josemar Gonçalves de Oliveira Filho, Micael José de Almeida, Tainara Leal Sousa, Daiane Costa dos Santos, Mariana Buranelo Egea

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables: Unripe Fruits

Frontmatter

16. Bioactive Compounds of Culinary Melon (Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis var. conomon)

Abstract
Culinary melon (Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis var. conomon) is an important vegetable crop cultivated in India, China, Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. Fruits are used for preparation of sambar, curry, chutney, and dosa in India, and in Japan fruits are used for preparation of pickles (therefore it is popular as oriental pickling melon) and juice. Seeds are good source of edible oil. Varied phytochemicals such as fragrant compounds, polyphenols, and phytosterols are isolated from this plant. Antioxidant, anticancer, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic properties are attributed to these compounds. In this chapter we reviewed the research work carried out on phytochemicals and their biological activities of this plant.
Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy, So Young Park, Kee Yoeup Paek

17. Bioactive Compounds of Horned Melon (Cucumis metuliferus E. Meyer ex Naudin)

Abstract
Kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus E. Meyer ex Naudin) is a neglected crop from the Cucurbitaceae family with recognized nutritional and medicinal properties, especially in African countries. This review describes the recent findings regarding the nutritional and phytochemical composition of kiwano, supporting the pharmacological properties of this versatile fruit and identifying opportunities for further research. Also, the potential economic valorization of kiwano is discussed, namely, as a source of bioactive compounds for functional food and nutraceutical applications, as well as for the active food packaging sector to extend the shelf-life of packaged food. Overall, this chapter concluded that the nutritional value and functional properties, such as anticardiovascular, antidiabetic, antiulcer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and antiviral properties associated to this crop, suggest its potential medicinal and pharmaceutical uses. Further studies should be conducted to isolate and identify the individual chemical constituents of kiwano and assess their biological efficacy. Also, the valorization of the underutilized kiwano parts (leaves, flowers, and roots) should be promoted in terms of health and waste management purposes.
Elsa F. Vieira, Clara Grosso, Francisca Rodrigues, Manuela M. Moreira, Virgínia Cruz Fernandes, Cristina Delerue-Matos

18. Bioactive Compounds of Hog PlumsCholesterol (Spondias Species)

Abstract
Nowadays, natural products derived from plant origin represent a source for developing novel safe drug candidates possessing various pharmacological activities and exerting a significant effect in ameliorating the human health. Thousands of years ago, herbal drugs represented the foundation stone of traditional medicine used for managing various illnesses around the world and represented an essential part of culture. Genus Spondias belonging to family Anacardiaceae consists of 18 species distributed across tropical regions in the world. Plants of this genus played a remarkable role in traditional medicine in treating and alleviating various diseases due to the wide range of present phytoconstituents. The aim of this chapter is to shed light on the bioactive constituents present in Spondias species and their potential pharmacological activities in targeting various diseases.
Salma Sameh, Eman Al-Sayed, Rola M. Labib, Abdel Nasser B. Singab

19. Bioactive Compounds of Ridge Gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.)

Abstract
Luffa acutangula (Cucurbitaceae), is a vegetable consumed in many parts of India. This perennial plant is also native to southeast Asia and is used in various health conditions; Diabetes, jaundice, and hemorrhoids to name a few. The isolated chemical constituents from the plant majorly include flavonoids, fatty acids, proteins, anthraquinones, and saponins. Furthermore; crude extract and isolated constituents also reported different pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antiulcer, antihyperlipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, CNS depressant, and antimicrobial action. The above evidence along with preclinical toxicological studies shows that human consumption of this plant is safe; however, clinical studies are essential for the transformation of experience-centered knowledge into evidence-based treatment. Further, a plant biomarker study required to evaluate the above pharmacological activities may unveil the mechanism of action of some of its active constituents.
Sateesh Belemkar, Mayank Sharma, Piyush Ghode, Parshuram Nivrutti Shendge

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables: Shoots

Frontmatter

20. Bioactive Compounds in Bamboo Shoot

Abstract
Unconventional, neglected, and underutilized plants are generally a rich source of nutrients and health-promoting bioactive compounds with preventive effects against malnutrition and some chronic diseases. Bamboo shoot, a neglected food item is a storehouse of nutrients and has also a vast array of primary and secondary metabolites such as phenols, phytosterols, saponins, terpenes, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, and more. These compounds vary widely in their chemical structure and functions. Phenols, phytosterols, and dietary fiber are the major secondary metabolites present in shoots. Phenolic compounds, along with their subcategory flavonoids, are responsible for antioxidant properties of bamboo shoot. The major phenolic compounds identified in shoots are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, syringic acid, and chlorogenic acid while major sterols are β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, cholesterol, ergosterol, and stigmastanol. It has been reported that phytosterols have potential antihyperlipidemic and anticarcinogenic properties. Anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, neuroprotective, anticoagulant, and sedative properties are the most important biological activities reported for tannins, coumarins, and saponins. Bamboo shoot is also associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure and protects the body from coronary heart diseases owing to dietary fiber. Bamboo shoots are a rich repository of bioactive compounds, which may be effectively used for the production of functional foods and steroidal drugs.
Harjit Kaur Bajwa, Oinam Santosh, Nirmala Chongtham

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Vegetables: Bark

Frontmatter

21. Bioactive Compounds of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Species)

Abstract
Cinnamon is one of the most important tropical spices, which has different types of essential oils, bioactive compounds to help the human health in numerous ways. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde are the major derivatives present in this spice and possess antioxidants to combat several diseases and their complications. Antioxidants present in cinnamon possess valuable biological activities especially in fighting with the oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Therefore, bioactive compounds extracted from cinnamon could be used in the preparation of different types of traditional medicines and as supplements too. This chapter illustrates an outline of bioactive compounds derived from cinnamon and their potential ameliorative effects to combat the diseases.
Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti

Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Legumes

Frontmatter

22. Bioactive Compounds of Jack Beans (Canavalia Species)

Abstract
Underutilized and less known legumes possess immense nutritional and bioactive attributes based on the traditional knowledge of tribals or local dwellers. The widely distributed genus Canavalia consists of several species serve as the future source of nutraceuticals owing to their capability to grow under extreme conditions. They are well known for proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids. The nutritional attributes of Canavalia seeds are comparable or higher than other food grains (rice, wheat, and soybean) as well as the FAO-WHO protocol. Seeds of Canavalia possess a number of bioactive principles having precise functions like blood grouping, tissue markers, and immunostimulation. Although studies are available on proteins, carbohydrates, concanavalins, canavanine, canatoxin, vitamins, phytates, saponins, and l-DOPA of Canavalia, further emphasis on these compounds will be necessary for specific applications in medicine (antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulation, anticancer, and cytotoxicity), industries (polysaccharides, starch and functional components), and agriculture (pest control and anti-herbivory and nitrogen fixation).
Kandikere Ramaiah Sridhar, Bhagya Balakrishna Sharma

23. Bioactive Compounds of Royal Poinciana (Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf.)

Abstract
The plant Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook) Raffin, family Caesalpiniaceae, grows in Madagascar, India, Africa, and Northern Australia. The plant is well known as flame of forest or royal poinciana and has been extensively used traditionally or in Ayurveda for the treatment of various diseases including jaundice, ulcer, wound, arthritis, malarial, emetic, infection, inflammatory, pain, and diarrhea. Phytochemical studies show that plant D. regia contains flavonoids, tannins, saponins, sterols, steroids, alkaloids, triterpenoids, anthocyanins, carotene hydrocarbons as bioactive secondary metabolites. In this chapter, we present an up-to-date compilation according to the latest references on various phytochemical constituents including bioactive as well as pharmacological effects.
Shweta Jain, Ankur Vaidya, Nancy Jain, Vimal Kumar, Anuj Modi

24. Bioactive Compounds of Moringa (Moringa Species)

Abstract
Moringa species have a wide variety of functional compounds from various vegetative parts, that is, leaves, roots, seeds, and green pods. Such functional compounds are made of carbohydrates, phenolic substances, fatty acids and fats, and proteins and are ideally suitable for several dietary formulations. This review provides information on bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera and other Moringa species. This review aims to identify the bioactive compounds and benefits for food products. Moreover, efficient methods are discussed for extracting and characterizing the bioactive compounds in Moringa species. In addition, the medicinal properties provided by bioactive compounds of Moringa species are also reviewed.
N. Kumar, Pratibha, S. Pareek

25. Bioactive Compounds of Petai Beans (Parkia speciosa Hassk.)

Abstract
Parkia speciosa Hassk. commonly known as petai beans are extensively consumed in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Borneo, Madagascar, Africa, India, and other parts of world as vegetable and salad. Petai beans are also known as yongchak, and sator in many parts of world. Petai beans are extensively explored in past few decades as nutritional and nutraceutical sources because of presence of various functional nutrients in them. The beans have minimum antinutritional factors and are also rich source of various bioactive components, i.e., phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, glucosinolates, iso-thiocyonates, and folates. These compounds possess many health benefits such as antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancerous, and antiinflammatory activity. Having high nutritional value and valuable source of natural antioxidants, P. speciosa can be used as a nutraceutical source as well as functional foods. This chapter emphasis on recent scientific evidences on nutritional and bioactive profile of petai beans, health benefits and applications of these beans in various food products.
Nisha Singhania, Navnidhi Chhikara, Sunil Bishnoi, M. K. Garg, Anil Panghal

26. Bioactive Compounds of Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) Seeds

Abstract
Nowadays, consumers are interested in food mostly for their health benefit than for their nutritional contribution. Thus, research on natural’s bioactive compounds of foods is attracting more attention from the scientific community. During the last two decades, Mucuna pruriens seeds also known as velvet beans, has been the subject of superabundance of research on their bioactive principles and biological activities. In this respect literature revealed that velvet beans, like other legumes seeds contain protease inhibitors, saponins, alkaloids, polyphenols, phytates, and hemagglutinins. Specifically, it has been discovered that the seeds are source of l-DOPA with levels ranging up to 13% in some accessions. The seeds are of significant biological activities, in particular, the market demand of the seeds is high due to their anti-Parkinson’s activity. The commercial forms are seeds powders, capsules, or extracts based on the l-DOPA content. The seeds also exhibit other biological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and hypolipidemic. The following is a comprehensive review on bioactive compounds of Mucuna pruriens seeds and flour, and their related biological activities.
Markusse Deli, Richard Marcel Nguimbou, Elie Baudelaire Djantou, Léopold Tatsadjieu Ngoune, Nicolas Njintang Yanou

27. Bioactive Compounds of Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.)

Abstract
The consumption of pulses such as beans has been linked to reducing the risk of developing chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and different types of cancer, among others. Beans such as runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) are considered a good source of nutritional components such as protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. In addition to these nutritional components, they are rich in phenolic compounds and possess notable quantities of protease inhibitors, saponins, and lectins that have been considered as anti-nutrients. However, some studies have shown that low concentrations of these anti-nutrients could exhibit a beneficial effect on human health. Unfortunately, the runner has not been widely studied in their bioactive characteristics. Therefore, the scope of this chapter is to review the current information on the nutritional content and bioactive compounds of this subtilized bean. It is important to highlight the importance of conducting more studies on its nutraceutical characteristics and hence promoting its consumption.
Leticia X. Lopez-Martinez

28. Bioactive Compounds of Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. [Verdc.])

Abstract
Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. [Verdc.]) is considered as an unexplored and underutilized legume which is mostly cultivated in South Asian countries, Africa, Australia, and the West Indies. It is an ample source of proteins, minerals, vitamins, and has good tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. The presence of nonnutritive bioactive compounds such as proteinase inhibitors, phenolic acid, and phytic acid has shown a significant effect on physiological and metabolic implications in human health. It possesses potent properties to scavenge free radicals. Horse gram is used as a therapeutic agent to treat common cold and fever, kidney stones, constipation, leucorrhea problems, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Molecular docking studies have shown that DL-proline and geranyl geraniol phytoconstituents from horse gram sprouts and mixed sprouts, respectively, are novel antibiotic resistance breakers and can be recommended as a preventive measure for Shigellosis disease. In this chapter, research progress is presented on the bioactive compounds of horse gram, its nutritional composition, molecular docking studies, and potential health benefits. This underutilized crop can be further explored as a source of nutraceutical and functional food.
Krishnananda Pralhad Ingle, Jameel M. Al-Khayri, Pritha Chakraborty, Gopal Wasudeo Narkhede, Penna Suprasanna

29. Bioactive Compounds of Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Abstract
Nutrition and diseases are knottily related; they cannot be separated in any way whatsoever. Epidemiological investigations have reported that consistent intake of plant-based foods, i.e., vegetables, legumes, and fruits, is associated with reduced incidence of heart-related diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Legumes, particularly black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are popularly consumed in many parts of the world and are a staple food in Central America and East and West African countries, where they are a major source of vitamins, proteins, energy, and minerals. This review gathers up-do-date studies on this plant species and has discovered that P. vulgaris is rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, and tannins, and only twenty-eight compounds have been identified to date from this bean. One of the objectives of this review is to gather evidence available in the scientific literature on the observed biology of this bean (in vitro and in vivo studies), which is commonly rejected by many in Nigeria. Anticancer, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects are among the most prominent activities associated with P. vulgaris, making obvious the hidden benefits that this plant species possesses. In contrast, “Phytohemagglutinin,” a toxic protein present in most common beans, includeing P. vulgaris, but cooking for at least 30 min deactivates this compound. There are indications that black beans have enormous potential as a functional food, though more pharmacological facts are needed to justify this claim. Modern metabolomics may be employed to help researchers know the compounds responsible for some of its effects.
Balkisu O. Abdulrahman, Muntari Bala, Oluwasesan Micheal Bello

Bioactive Compounds in Forage and Medicinal Legumes

Frontmatter

30. Bioactive Compounds of Legume Seeds

Abstract
Legume seeds have been recognized for their nutritional and health benefits in human diet and have an important role to play as sustainable food sources. Their importance lies in the fact that they have the presence of different types of bioactive compounds. These compounds can be mainly classified under phenolic compounds, phytosterols, oligosaccharides, resistant starch, and saponins, having good impact on health as well as disease resistance of individuals. Major phenolic compounds in legumes can be categorized into phenolic acids, flavonoids, and condensed tannins. Bioactive compounds are firstly extracted, followed by identification and lastly purification, which involves the use of techniques such as HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Legume seed coats have been reported to be rich in flavonoids especially anthocyanins, phytosterols, and dietary fiber, while cotyledons were rich in non-flavonoid phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides. Moreover, bioactive compounds in legumes have been associated to have good antioxidant activity (AA). The knowledge about AA of bioactive compounds can be used to indicate the role of legume seeds in health-promoting activities and defense against different diseases.
Jatinder Pal Singh, Balwinder Singh, Amritpal Kaur

Backmatter

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