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"Bio-Stabilization Case Studies: Treatment and Performance Evaluation" describes and evaluates 30 projects from across the United States where bio-stabilization was employed to address a detrimental naturally occurring process or byproduct of the built environment. Bio-stabilization (or soil bioengineering) refers to the use of plant materials, primarily live cuttings, arranged in the ground in different arrays to reinforce soils and protect upland slopes and/or stream banks against surficial erosion and shallow slope failures. Examples included in the collection represent different regions of the country and their specific conditions and challenges. Each project is illustrated with a number of distinctive photographs to support the reader's understanding and showcase the wide scope of projects and techniques presented. The volume is ideal for civil and environmental engineers and environmental scientists working on watershed, infrastructure projects, and municipal scale installations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Bioengineering is steadily gaining in popularity. Its practice is seen as both traditional and at times quaint and old fashioned, as well as cutting-edge and technically advanced. The practice of bioengineering or biostabilization has been around a long time. While remaining rooted in tradition and empirical performance, the field has evolved to incorporate modern construction materials, improved science related to design specifications, and broader targeted features and benefits. The treatments found within this book range from familiar and ancient measures, to creative, sophisticated, and even whimsical measures (such as “live smiles”), each suitably adapted to the context of its site and project goals.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Great Lakes Area

Frontmatter

Project #1: Fleming Creek

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Fleming Creek is a scenic, meandering stream that flows into the Huron River. It drains an area of 31 square miles, through the town-ships of Ann Arbor, Superior, Northfield, and the City of Ann Arbor. Fleming Creek runs through the Parker Mill County Park and once provided motive power for that mill. It also flows through the University of Michigan, Matthaei Botanical Gardens. The stream bank remediation site is located adjacent a walking trail along Fleming Creek (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #2: Gateway Garden

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The Gateway Garden sits at the head of a large ravine in a glacial moraine (Fig. 1). The ravine is part of the Huron River drainage that flows into Lake Erie. The garden is located in a 17-acre sub watershed that includes a cemetery and roads that generate significant amounts of runoff. An intermittent stream that flows through the garden drains a watershed of approximately 33 total acres that includes not only the cemetery but also roads, parking lots, and building roofs. The stream is fed entirely by storm water runoff, so it fluctuates between being nearly dry and discharging large amounts of water.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #3: School Girl’s Glen

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The ravine, known locally as School Girls Glen, is part of the Huron River drainage that flows into Lake Erie. High runoff from impervious surfaces in the surrounding water-shed combined with direct discharges from street drains resulted in large storm flows and serious erosion problems.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #4: River Landing

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The Huron River which drains into Lake Erie has a drainage area of 730 sq. miles, a daily mean stream flow of 380 cfs, and a maximum recorded peak discharge at the site of 3,330 cfs (1968). Dams immediately upstream and downstream of the site tend to regulate flow and suppress peaks in this reach of stream. The river is also quite wide at the site which tends to decrease velocity and depth of flow.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #5: Nichols Drive

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Nichols Drive is an unpaved, riverine road that is supported atop a streambank next to a sharp outside bend in the Huron River (Fig. 1). The streambank lies at the base of a steep glacial moraine. The Huron River has a drainage area of 730 sq. miles, a daily mean stream flow of 380 cfs, and a maximum recorded peak discharge at the site of 3,330 cfs (1968). Dams upstream and downstream of the site now tend to regulate flow and suppress peaks in this reach of stream. The river is relatively narrow at the site which tends to increase velocity and depth of flow.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #6: Harvard Road

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Broad sloping valley on the flank of a glacial moraine. The site received concentrated runoff from street drains along Harvard Road, a long, steep roadway ending in a cul-de-sac located above the valley.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #7: Malletts Creek

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Malletts Creek watershed is 11-square miles in area; the creek flows into the Huron River. The watershed lies primarily in an urban area. During the last 40 years, the watershed has been extensively developed with shopping malls, new subdivisions, parking lots, etc. About 37 % of the land is covered with impervious surfaces.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #8: Toboggan Hill

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Toboggan Hill is artificial mound (hill) consisting of industrial waste covered with

a clay cap and top soil layer

(Fig. 1). Toboggan runs were constructed on one side of the hill. The facility was incorporated into a county park running along Edward Hines Drive and paralleling the Rouge River.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #9: Argo Cascades

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Argo Cascades (Fig. 1) is a former millrace or canal, about 1,500 ft long below Argo Dam, that supplied water to a Detroit Edison hydropower station. The canal was held in place by an earthen embankment that was constructed parallel to and adjacent the Huron River. The site lies in a valley that cuts through glacial moraines on either side. Canoes and boaters using the Huron River could enter the canal from an impoundment above Argo Dam; however, a portage from the canal was required to reenter the river below. The millrace canal was transformed into a series of pools connected by short drops that have eliminated the need for a portage.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Western USA

Frontmatter

Project #10: Asaayi Lake

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

A narrow valley over 1,400 ft long with a tributary drainage area to Lake Asaayi of 200 acres. The original, natural grade in the valley was 6 %. The total runoff flowing down the valley was approximately 800 cfs (based on a 25-year storm condition).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #11: Hollywood Hills

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Rugged terrain surrounding Lake Hollywood consisting of larger, lower 11-acre water storage reservoir and upper, much smaller one (see Fig. 1) in the Hollywood Hills [below the famous landmark Hollywood sign]. Total site acreage including watershed area is some 200 acres. The fill disposal, facilities locations and mitigation sites covered about 40 acres. Only one of the canyon fills, Area “F,” is described herein (see Fig. 2).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #12: Geyserville

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Bridge site is located on the right descending bank of the Russian River, a broad meandering river that flows on deep alluvial soils (Fig. 1). Flows in the river vary seasonally, attaining values as high as 10,000 cfs during winter floods. The soils at the site consist of riverbed alluvium and floodplain deposits. These soils are well drained and not subject to ponding. They are mainly cohesion-less and vulnerable to erosion and scour.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #13: Buckhorn Mountain

GEOMORPHIC SETTING

: Buckhorn Mountain is an exposed decomposed granite batholith which separates Shasta and Trinity Counties in NW California. Highway 299 W traverses Buckhorn Mountain for almost 15 miles over steep mountainous terrain. The Shasta Bally Batholith granitics have a high percentage of biotite and mica-type minerals that weather easily. Weathering is extensive because the batholith is deeply fractured, thus allowing the intrusion of water.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #14: Buckhorn Summit

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Buckhorn Mountain is an exposed decomposed granite batholith, which separates Shasta and Trinity Counties in NW California. Highway 299 W traverses Buckhorn Mountain for almost 15 miles over steep mountainous terrain, elevations of 1,000–3,000 ft at the summit. The Shasta Bally Batholith granitics have a high percentage of biotite and mica-type minerals that weather easily. Weathering is extensive because the batholith is deeply fractured, thus allowing the intrusion of water.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #15: Stafford

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Steep drainage basin with a watershed of about 140 acres and a length of about a mile. Sides of basin are mantled with colluvium. An intermittent stream in the drainage basin flows northward through the town of Stafford and discharges into the Eel River. The stream channel drops about 1,745 ft in elevation, in its 1-mile length. The steepest stream gradient is about 67 % (33°) near the head of the basin.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #16: Pacifica

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Steep hillside with colluvium-filled bedrock hollow (see Fig. 1). These hollows are a fairly common geomorphic feature of the coast ranges in California. The hollows can become saturated during storm events thereby causing pore water pressures to rise and triggering slope failures and debris flows.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #17: Branciforte Creek

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

High, steep riverbank along outer bend that is subject to frequent flooding and bank scour. Branciforte Creek rises in the Santa Cruz mountains to the east and flows into the San Lorenzo River. The creek is 9-miles long and has numerous tributaries. Branciforte Creek is prime Coho salmon habitat (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #18: San Vicente Creek

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Northern California coastal stream with a 9-mile long main stem that drains a watershed with an area of 4,500 acres. The creek flows entirely within Santa Cruz County and discharges to the Pacific Ocean. Its waters rise on the west facing slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains; its mouth is located at the community of Davenport. San Vicente creek is prime Coho salmon habitat.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #19: Opal Cliffs

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Sea cliff subject to active erosion and periodic retreat. The Opal Cliffs-Capitola reach is characterized by an irregular shoreline backed by cliffs ranging from 35 to 75 ft in height. The coastal cliffs throughout most of the city of Santa Cruz and neighboring Capitola are composed of erodible sediments of the Purisma Formation (siltstone and sandstone) along with the Santa Cruz Mudstone. These sedimentary rocks are often capped by 6–20 ft of unconsolidated marine and non-marine terrace deposits. The horizontal bedrock stratigraphy is easily visible in exposed or bare sections of the cliffs.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #20: Lower Sulfur Creek

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION:

Turtle Bay/Redding Arboretum, North Redding, CA.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #21: Secret Canyon

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION:

Redding Arboretum, Redding, CA

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Eastern USA

Frontmatter

Project #22: Greenfield Road

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Residual soil with variable thickness overlying a quartz–mica schist bedrock exposed in a road cut along a scenic state highway in north west Massachusetts.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #23: Buffalo Bayou

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

High, steep riverbank next to bayou that is subject to frequent flooding and partial inundation from controlled releases upstream (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #24: Little Topashaw

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Fourth-order stream. Floodplain stratigraphy is characterized by dispersive silt and clay soils underlain by sand that overlies consolidated cohesive material. Sandy deposits are often found along the bank toe. The channel is tortuous, with an average sinuosity of 2.1, an average width of about 115 ft, and an average depth of 13 ft (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #25: New Concord

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Slope along major interstate highway and state road underlain by either stiff or compacted clay both of which tend to lose strength with age. The layer near the surface is subject to wet-dry and freeze–thaw cycles; the cohesive strength gradually approaches zero. During the wet season, the ground becomes saturated.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #26: Water Purification Facility And Park

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The site is located on a sensitive tributary of Long Island Sound. The site, which lies within the upper reaches of an estuary, is underlain by the Connecticut Valley Arkosic Sandstone. It can be viewed from a nearby overlook atop a basaltic sill. A parcel of land that includes the site, a dam, and reservoir were deeded by Eli Whitney to the people of region to serve its water supply needs (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #27: Walden Pond

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Walden Pond is a 62-acre glacial kettle-hole pond in a Massachusetts state park and is a National Historic Landmark. Walden Pond was the setting of Henry David Thoreau’s classic, “Walden,” which has been read by thousands for over a century. Thoreau, a poet, philosopher, and naturalist, is considered to have begun the American environmental movement. The pond has attracted large crowds of bathers since Victorian times (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #28: Hearthstone Quarry Brook

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The Hearthstone Quarry Brook is a headwater stream that runs through a dense residential area and receives storm water run-off from area roads, highways, and parking lots in addition to significant inputs from the Massachusetts Turnpike. Soils are extremely fragile, noncohesive glacial outwash sands which are incised by deep ravines including the stream corridor itself and various small intermittent tributaries. Base flows are relatively constant due to highly permeable subsoils that groundwater discharge into the stream (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #29: Mill Creek Center Hill Landfill

GEOMORPHIC SETTING

: The Mill Creek watershed comprises 166 square miles in the heart of Hamilton County, Ohio. Despite the fact that the watershed as a whole is very flashy, the Creek itself is relatively stable and exhibits slow rates of change, largely due to the presence of dense, tightly varved glacial lakebed clays which confine the channel bed and lower banks. The watershed consists predominantly of developed urban areas with pockets of forested land. Small areas of land under park and agricultural use still exist in the northern portion of the watershed. The lower 8 miles of the Mill Creek have been permanently modified by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) through the construction of a concrete lined flood control channel (Fig.

1

).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #30: Charles River Watertown Arsenal

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The Charles River is located in a watershed with a total area of 308 square miles. The watershed is urbanized, and the river has multiple dams. Beginning in Watertown the river corridor features nearly continuous public parks and greenways, most of which were designed by Frederick Law Olmstead over a century ago. The Charles River is fed by more than 80 streams and tributaries as well as multiple large aquifers. Its mouth at Boston Harbor is controlled by a dam which is used to manage water levels for recreation and periodic flood control, as well as preventing undesirable tidal influence. This slow-moving river exhibits few natural geomorphic processes; it remains nearly fixed in its plan form geometry as the river meanders 80 miles from Hopkington to Boston, connecting 23 communities and recharging many ponds and wetlands before finally discharging its tea colored waters into the sea (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #31: Connecticut River

GEOMORPHIC SETTING

: At the project location, the Connecticut River has an annual average discharge of 14,128 cfs, a drainage area of 7,181 square miles. The river banks are steep and unstable; they are composed of non-cohesive soils derived mainly of glacial outwash, deltas, and ancient postglacial dune formations. The project reach is influenced by the presence of hydropower dams upstream and downstream. A pumped storage facility used for managing peak power generation creates additional patterns of water level change. Two significant factors causing bank erosion are weekly fluctuation in water level of 3–5 ft caused by complex hydropower operations and boat wakes of 0.5–1.3 ft from recreational traffic (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #32: Cumberland River Shelby Bottoms Park

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The Cumberland River stretches for almost 700 miles through Kentucky and Tennessee including lands with some of the greatest biodiversity in the USA. The river exhibits a highly sinuous pattern, with steep banks and little effective floodplain due to inundation from a nearly continuous series of large dams built primarily for navigation purposes. The river itself has been subjected to many modifications, as well as urban development and ensuing suburban sprawl throughout much of the watershed. Heavy barge traffic is common on the highly managed river that features locks and dams. Soils mainly consist of heavily weathered clays.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #33: Manhan River

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The Manhan River is a 28-mile-long river in western Massachusetts and a tributary of the Connecticut River. Most of its watershed contains forest cover, with farmland and low density suburban development in some areas. These features make it a healthy and resilient river with high biodiversity. Most of the channel exhibits stable meandering alluvial geomorphic patterns (Fig. 1).

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #34: Walgreens Slope

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

The site is part of the landform creating Cape Cod. Area soils consist of glacial outwash and moraine deposits, many of which form steep noncohesive slopes. Area soils permit infiltration of even the highest rainfall volumes when they are covered with forest vegetation and leaf litter. However, if the forest cover is disturbed, many local soil types become highly susceptible to both surficial erosion and to deeper seated slope failures (Fig. 1)

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Project #35: Creek Road

GEOMORPHIC SETTING:

Creek Road parallels Cattaraugus Creek, which meanders through its valley as it flows from east to west. Creek Road is situated on left valley side and is within 30 ft of Cattaraugus Creek in the vicinity of the project. The watershed upstream of the project is approximately 187 square miles. Cattaraugus Creek at Creek Road has a bankfull flow (i.e., Q2, or 2-year recurrence interval flow) of approximately 12,400 cfs, and the Q100 is approximately 19,100 cfs. The geologic setting of the stream varies over its length, but it generally flows through alluvial flood plain deposits containing varying amounts of silt, sand, and gravel. The underlying strata are also comprised of glacial outwash deposits of sand and gravel and glacial tills that are dense deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, in addition to occasional bedrock outcrops.

Wendi Goldsmith, Donald Gray, John McCullah

Backmatter

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