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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

6. Bioethanol from Wastes for Mobility: Europe on the Road to Sustainability

verfasst von: Mariana S. T. Amândio, Jorge M. S. Rocha, Luísa S. Serafim, Ana M. R. B. Xavier

Erschienen in: Clean Fuels for Mobility

Verlag: Springer Singapore

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Abstract

Currently, the world is facing an energy transition, with governments pushing for a switch from fossil to bio-based fuels. The transport sector is responsible for about 30% of the European energy consumption, which is still mainly obtained from burning fossil fuels, accounting for 25% of the greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, the European Union established a Renewable Energy Directive II, setting a target of 3.6% blending for advanced biofuels in 2030. The biomass-derived fuels can play an important role, particularly for medium and long distances, being considered one of the main drivers to achieve decarbonisation targets in the transport and mobility sector, recognised as a roadmap for carbon neutrality. Bioethanol is the most produced biofuel at an industrial scale level. However, it is mainly obtained from corn and sugarcane, competing directly with the food chain. Therefore, research focused mainly on ethanol production from lignocellulosic sources, the most abundant and cheapest form of biomass. This approach contributes to a more efficient waste management system according to the circular economy model. Within the European Union context, the predominant feedstock used in biorefineries comes from agricultural resources. The main disadvantage of these residues is related to seasonality. In countries such as Finland, Sweden, and Portugal, forestry-derived feedstocks dominate. Nevertheless, by-product and waste streams derived from other industrial sectors, namely dairy, brewery, pulp and paper, and food, have been evaluated. This chapter overviews the role of biofuels in the transport sector, with a particular focus on the European context. First, a brief introduction explains the main concepts and policies pushing the biofuels market. Then, the current scenario regarding bioethanol production from wastes in Europe is reviewed, listing the feedstocks and the biorefineries currently in operation. The particular case of Portugal and its potential for a successful transition to a bio-based economy is also discussed. Finally, some of the main challenges regarding the production of cellulosic ethanol were analysed. The main conclusions demonstrated that R&D and technological efforts should continue reducing production costs and making ethanol economically more competitive and attractive to investors. Investing in this area will support more technology implementation in the existing industrial plants. This is the only way to attain the EU targets regarding carbon neutrality for 2050, contributing to sustainability and circular economy.

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Literatur
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Zurück zum Zitat Kourmentza C, Koutra E, Venetsaneas N, Kornaros M (2017) Integrated biorefinery approach for the valorization of olive mill waste streams towards sustainable biofuels and bio-based products. In: Kalia VC, Kumar P (eds) Microbial applications. Springer International Publishing AG, pp 221–238. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-319-52666-9_​10 Kourmentza C, Koutra E, Venetsaneas N, Kornaros M (2017) Integrated biorefinery approach for the valorization of olive mill waste streams towards sustainable biofuels and bio-based products. In: Kalia VC, Kumar P (eds) Microbial applications. Springer International Publishing AG, pp 221–238. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-319-52666-9_​10
Zurück zum Zitat Romaní A, Michelin M, Domingues L, Teixeira JA (2018) Valorization of wastes from agrofood and pulp and paper industries within the biorefinery concept: Southwestern Europe scenario. In: Bhaskar T, Pandey A, Mohan SV et al (eds) Waste biorefinery: potential and perspectives. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 487–504. http://​hdl.​handle.​net/​1822/​58954 Romaní A, Michelin M, Domingues L, Teixeira JA (2018) Valorization of wastes from agrofood and pulp and paper industries within the biorefinery concept: Southwestern Europe scenario. In: Bhaskar T, Pandey A, Mohan SV et al (eds) Waste biorefinery: potential and perspectives. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 487–504. http://​hdl.​handle.​net/​1822/​58954
Metadaten
Titel
Bioethanol from Wastes for Mobility: Europe on the Road to Sustainability
verfasst von
Mariana S. T. Amândio
Jorge M. S. Rocha
Luísa S. Serafim
Ana M. R. B. Xavier
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-8747-1_6

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