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Über dieses Buch

This book summarizes recent developments in epoxy blends. It emphasizes new challenges for the synthesis, characterization, and properties of biofibers and biopolymers. It provides updates on all the important areas of biofibers and biopolymers in a comprehensive fashion, including synthesis, processing, characterisation and application. It provides a a one-stop reference for researchers and those working in industry and government.

The book correlates macro, micro and nanostructure properties. Moreover, it provides cutting edge research from experts around the globe. The current status, trends, future directions and opportunities are discussed in detail, making the book also accessible for beginners to the subject and young researchers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Surface Modification Techniques for the Preparation of Different Novel Biofibers for Composites

Abstract
This chapter reports on the various physical and chemical methods used in modifying the natural fibers properties for application in reinforcing composites. Low cost, low density and biodegradable nature of bio fibers have attracted composite industries to develop various useful products out of them. Nevertheless, associated disadvantages with these fibers are that they have poor compatibility with matrix, relative high water absorption capacity and sticking in bundles. For eradication of such unwanted characteristics, several physical and chemical treatments have been examined by the researchers. These treatments tend to alter the surface morphology and chemical structure for enhancing the adhesive strength between fiber and matrix. Mechanisms that are involved in this enhancement are the increase in fiber surface roughness and alteration in chemical polarity of natural fibers.
Akarsh Verma, Avinash Parashar, Naman Jain, V. K. Singh, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin

Structure and Surface Morphology Techniques for Biopolymers

Abstract
Different techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy are used for the examination of biopolymer-based materials. This chapter discusses the characterisation of structure and surface morphology of the biopolymers, their blends, and composites by these techniques. A careful examination of biopolymers, their blends and composites are essential for the fruitful application of these materials.
Sabarish Radoor, Jasila Karayil, Aswathy Jayakumar, E. K. Radhakrishnan, Lakshmanan Muthulakshmi, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin, Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai

Properties of Cellulose Based Bio-fibres Reinforced Polymer Composites

Abstract
In recent years, both industrial and academia are focusing their attention towards the development of sustainable composites, reinforced with cellulose fibres. To make use of these fibres, the properties of these fibres must be evaluated. In this chapter, the various mechanical, thermal and morphological properties and other characteristics of cellulose fibre reinforced composites (CFRCs) carried out by various researchers have been discussed. Different factors have been addressed to improve the adhesion of the fibre matrix resulting in the improvement of the properties of the bio-composites. The chapter concludes that the CFRCs are one of the new fields of material science for use in various applications ranging from the automotive to the construction industries.
M. Ramesh, C. Deepa

Biocomposites from Biofibers and Biopolymers

Abstract
Biobased composites are developed using either the reinforcement and/or matrix from renewable and biodegradable polymers. Although there are plenty of biobased resources available as reinforcements, there are limited numbers of bioresins. Also, the properties of composites developed using biobased resins are not suitable for commercial applications and biobased resins are expensive compared to common synthetic polymer based resins. Considerable efforts are being made to develop biobased resins or modify existing resins to reduce cost and improve performance. In this chapter, we report the latest developments in developing biobased composites classified based on the matrix used. In addition, the performance of the biobased composites under various environmental conditions has also been discussed. Due to the extensive literature available, we have considered studies that are distinct and have been reported in the recent years.
K. Gopalakrishna, Narendra Reddy, Yi Zhao

Influence of Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Biocomposites: An Overview

Abstract
The mounting interests on the development of materials with superior performance has induced the expansion of filler reinforced composites market around the globe. The use of fillers in the polymeric materials helps the enhancement of the functional properties of the resulting composites. The primary concerns of the polymeric industry are poor material properties, degradability, and cost factors. Hence, embedding the polymer matrix with the fillers becomes inevitable. The polymeric materials with an appropriate filler, better filler/matrix interaction, along with advanced techniques, leads to the formation of superior performing composites for potential applications in various industries. Dedicated efforts have been made to understand the relationship between the filler particles in the polymers and their properties. Reports in the past conclude that the fillers play a vital role in the enhancement in the properties of the composites. This review article presents the influence of fillers on the thermal and mechanical properties of biocomposites.
Thiagamani Senthil Muthu Kumar, Krishnasamy Senthilkumar, Muthukumar Chandrasekar, Saravanasankar Subramaniam, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin, Nagarajan Rajini

Bionanocomposites from Biofibers and Biopolymers

Abstract
This particular chapter focuses on bionanocomposites, an emergent group of bio-hybrid materials at nanostructured level, as a concept of environmental, bioinspired, and functional hybrid materials. Bionanocomposites represents at least their one dimension on a nanometer scale and can be engineered using naturally occurring biofibers and/or biopolymers either in pristine form or the combination of both along with other inorganic elements. Nanoscale cues/constructs have now become a high requisite for new applications. Likewise, synthetic polymer-based nanocomposites, bionanocomposites (based on biofibers or biopolymers) also exhibit inherited or improved structural and multifunctional characteristics, such as renewability, recyclability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, (re)-generatability, high and efficient functionality against various substrates, induced turn-over, and overall cost-effectiveness are of high interest for numerous applications. Individually or collectively, all those properties of bionanocomposites open new and interesting perspectives with notable incidences in the environmental, biomedical, and biotechnological sector of the contemporary world. In this context, research is underway, around the globe, on the positioning of bionanocomposites as a new interdisciplinary area that could cover significant topics such as bioinspired biomaterials, green composites, bio-nanofabrication strategies and/or engineering processes, and biomimetic systems. Briefly, this chapter discusses various perspectives related to the biofibers and biopolymers, such as cellulose, chitosan, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, as building blocks of bionanocomposites, their sources, and classification along with the development of bionanocomposites using those fibers and polymers. Further to this end, the applied standpoints in relation to environmental and biomedical applications of bionanocomposites are also given with suitable examples.
Muhammad Bilal, Tahir Rasheed, Faran Nabeel, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal

Bamboo Strips with Nodes: Composites Viewpoint

Abstract
A Chinese poet once wrote, “Man can live without meat, but he will die without bamboo” because of its multifunctional and ecofriendly in nature. It has recently entered the textile and composite sector with some attractive labels such as ‘green’. The current commercial manufacturing methods of bamboo fibres and its reinforced composites are mainly based on removal of nodes portion of bamboo culm. This method generates a high amount of solid waste materials and hence the term ‘green’ becomes questionable. This chapter investigates the effects of culm nodes on strip properties from composite perspectives in order to seek their suitability for prospective fiber reinforced composites applications. In this work, strips of bamboo were collected and their mechanical properties; for instance, tensile strength, compression, flexural, impact and thermal properties were analyzed and compared. It was found that tensile, compression, flexural and impact properties as well as thermal properties of bamboo strips were comparable to that of wood material and far better than many other bio fibers due to their rigidity and durability.
Mohammad Irfan Iqbal, Rashed Al Mizan, Ayub Nabi Khan

Water Hyacinth for Biocomposites—An Overview

Abstract
In recent years, there is a mounting interest in the utilization of natural fibers in composite materials due to their abundancy, low density and weight, low cost, recyclability and biodegradable properties. It is well known that these plant fibers are rich in cellulose and have the greater potential as reinforcements in polymeric materials to form polymer composites. Natural fibers were already proved as a better alternative for high cost synthetic fibers such as glass, carbon, kevlar and basalt etc. This article presents an overview on the environmental impact of aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornea crassipe). Furthermore, emphasis is given on the extraction of fibers from water hyacinth, fabrication of composites and the effective utilization of the extracted natural fiber in composite materials for various applications.
A. Ajithram, J. T. Winowlin Jappes, Thiagamani Senthil Muthu Kumar, Nagarajan Rajini, Anumakonda Varada Rajulu, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin

Ionic Liquids Based Processing of Renewable and Sustainable Biopolymers

Abstract
In view of immense potential of sustainable and renewable biopolymers for future biorefineries, development of green and carbon economic methods for their processing are highly demanding. Despite of numerous protocols established so far, innovations leading to sustainable methods for integration of multi-step volarization of low value biopolymeric feedstock are still highly concerned. One of such innovations is the ionic liquids based biorefinery concept for various advanced biofuels, valuable chemicals and other bio-products. Superiority of ionic liquids is due to their green, non-degradative, non-toxic, nono-volatile and chemically and thermally stable profile for upgrading renewable biopolymers based biorefinery. Some processing applications of ionic liquids for biofuels and fine chemicals production are covered in this chapter.
Sadia Naz, Maliha Uroos

Development of Porous Bio-Nano-Composites Using Microwave Processing

Abstract
The current scenario of every polymer processing industry is focussed towards use of high strength material at a low cost. After discarding of polymer component, it creates problem for environment due to its non-biodegradability. It takes several years to degradation and reduces fertility of soil. So researchers focussed toward maximum utilization of biodegradable polymer for sustainable development. The biodegradable polymers have capability to replace non-biodegradable polymers. This chapter includes various fabrication techniques to process biodegradable polymers.
Nishant Verma, Manoj Kumar Singh, Sunny Zafar

Cellulose Based Biomaterials: Benefits and Challenges

Abstract
Cellulose is amongst the most inexhaustible natural source of polymers available on the globe. It is present in trees, plants, fruits, barks and leaves in the form of key structural element of the cell wall of plant tissues. It contains lignin and hemicellulose as additional products when isolated, which need to be removed to obtain nanofibrous cellulose. It has numerous applications in paper, leather, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food and packaging. Bacterial cellulose on the other hand is a micro fibrous membrane made by bacteria in low pH conditions at air liquid interphase. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is endowed with distinctive properties, for instance, ability to retain water, ability to mould, high rate of crystallinity, high tensile strength. These striking physical characteristics arise from its distinctive nanostructure, which consists of a three-dimensional network made of linear b-1, 4-glucan chains bonded together by hydrogen interactions. This structure is organized as twining ribbons made of microfibrillar bundles. These properties make BC an exceptional biomaterial which can be use in various ways in biomedical field. Although highly beneficial for biomedical applications cellulose does present some drawbacks. Basically, nanofibers of plant-based cellulose is isolated by acid hydrolysis and mechanical defibrillation, both processes have their own challenges similarly bacterial cellulose is naturally synthesized by bacteria which is a slow process and may make it difficult to commercially viable for biomedical application.
Faiza Sharif, Nawshad Muhammad, Tahera Zafar

Cellulose Based Bio Polymers: Synthesis, Functionalization and Applications in Heavy Metal Adsorption

Abstract
Water pollution due to tremendous increase in industrialization, urbanization and population become serious concerns since the last some decade and will be the major global nightmare. Various contaminations viz; dyes, heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceutical effluents from industries are getting discharged into water bodies. Among these contaminants, Heavy metals are the main wastewater pollutants due to their ability to cause the nuisance to living beings and to persist in the environment. Hence lot of efforts are being taken for treating waste water contained with heavy metals. Materials scientist are trying to utilise various methods and materials for solving these problems. Cellulose the natural biopolymer is one of the materials gaining attention because of its extra ordinary physio-chemical, as well as mechanical properties compared to other natural biopolymer materials. The present book chapter deals with the preparations, modifications and its heavy metal adsorption studies.
Vijaykiran N. Narwade, Yasir Beeran Pottathara, Sumayya Begum, Rajendra S. Khairnar, Kashinath A. Bogle

Arundo Donax Fibers as Green Materials for Oil Spill Recovery

Abstract
Oil spillage is considered one of the most devastating forms of pollution, for its effect on the environment, particularly on aquatic life. This kind of disaster can impact in two ways, directly caused by the polluting spilled oil or due to the cleanup process. In fact, oil floating on water does not allow sunlight to pass through and its toxicity puts the life of aquatic animals at risk. Furthermore, other factors can also contribute to this damage. In fact, a wrong oil recovery system can add a further pollution level. Polymer sorbents used for the oil spill recovery, if not properly treated, increase the level of marine and ground pollution. For this reason, in the last years, green materials are increasingly studied and used for this purpose. Green adsorbents (such as lignocellulosic, fruits fibers) are recently employed with excellent results. Aim of this book chapter is the evaluation of the oil sorption properties of natural fibers extracted from the stem of the giant reed Arundo Donax L., a perennial rhizomatous grass belonging to the Poaceae family that grows naturally all around the world thanks to its ability to tolerate different climatic conditions.
Luigi Calabrese, Elpida Piperopoulos, Vincenzo Fiore

Effect of Surface Modification on Characteristics of Naturally Woven Coconut Leaf Sheath Fabric as Potential Reinforcement of Composites

Abstract
Increase in biological and ecological concern has made to find new natural fibers which are biodegradable, from renewable sources and flexibility to chemical modification. Naturally woven Coconut leaf sheath (CLS) fabric were investigated. Removal of impurities on alkali treatment was carried to check the performance of these CLS fabric. On alkali treatment tensile and thermal properties were enhanced due to increase in crystallinity. The eco-friendly coconut leaf sheath fabric was found to be a suitable reinforcement material in composite structure for biocomposite applications.
K. N. Bharath, S. Basavarajappa, S. Indran, J. S. Binoj

Effect of Glass and Banana Fiber Mat Orientation and Number of Layers on Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Composites

Abstract
In this work, the effects of fiber mat orientation and number of layers on the tensile, flexural and impact properties of glass fiber random (SGFR) and banana fiber woven (BFW) mat reinforced epoxy laminated hybrid composites are investigated experimentally based on ASTM standards. The hybrid composites are prepared by compression molding process and results are compared with pure glass and banana fiber mat epoxy laminated composites. Results shows that introducing of SGFR mat in-between the BFW mats in the epoxy laminated composites reduces the overall weight of the composites and the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites are varied with BFW mat orientation. Moreover, the mechanical properties are varied by varying the number of layers in hybrid composites. The hybrid composites with four layers of glass and three layers of banana (i.e. G4B3) are showing higher tensile, flexural and impact properties compared to G3B2 composites. Also, by varying orientation of banana fiber woven mat, the maximum mechanical properties obtained for composites containing G4B3 layering pattern at 0° and 30° orientations.
T. P. Sathishkumar, S. Ramakrishnan, P. Navaneethakrishnan
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