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Über dieses Buch

This book explains the formation of biofilm on materials surfaces in an industrial setting. The authors describe new developments in understanding of biofilm formation, detection, and control from the viewpoint of materials science and engineering. The book details the range of issues caused by biofilm formation and the variety of affected industries.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Biofilm, Microbiology, and Genomics

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
What is biofilm and how does it form? How are materials involved in the formation process? In this chapter, the authors provide answers or clues to these basic questions. Biofilm is a result of many complicated steps. It includes the formation of a conditioning film on a material’s surface, the movement of bacteria, an attachment process, the growth on material surfaces, and the breakdown finally. All of these processes seem to be repeated a number of times. In this chapter the whole process is presented and briefly described, to provide the reader with a quick view of the process and general knowledge about biofilm.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

2. Conditioning Films

Abstract
Planktonic bacteria tend to move toward material surfaces in oligotrophic environments, since carbon compounds as nutrients exist there. The bacterial movement is called chemotaxis and is driven by the existence of nutrients on material surfaces. The nutrients on material surfaces are called “conditioning films”. At the beginning stage of research activities about the phenomenon, it was partly hypothetical due to a lack of high-accuracy direct observation methods. However, the recent development of instrumental analyses enables researchers to observe the existence and behaviors of “conditioning film” in situ. In this chapter, the historical development of measurement and theoretical aspects for conditioning film are surveyed. Then, some advanced analytical techniques and examples of their applications will be introduced.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

3. Movement of Bacteria Towards Material Surfaces

Abstract
Bacteria in planktonic states tend to move towards material surfaces. The main reason or driving force for the natural motion should be attributed to chemotaxis, where bacteria move in the direction of high-density nutrition. Carbon compounds adsorb on material surfaces and exist there generally as a very thin film. They attract planktonic bacteria in oligotrophic environments. However, various other factors would affect the bacterial movement in the vicinity of material surfaces. Flow is one of them. It could help bacteria and nutrients approach the material’s surface and also produce shear stress to make the biofilm stable, stronger, and thinner. The geographical configuration of a material’s surface is also a very important factor. In addition to them, chemical structures and properties (hydrophobicity–hydrophilicity, surface tension, and energy), the components of interfaces, etc. would affect the movement of bacteria in the vicinity of surfaces. In this chapter, those factors are explained and discussed.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

4. Adhesion of Bacteria

Abstract
Bacterial adhesion is the initial step in colonization and biofilm formation. Conventional physicochemical approaches based on Lifshitz–van der Waals, electrostatic, and acid–base interactions provide important models of bacterial adhesion but have a limited capacity to provide a complete understanding of the complex adhesion process of real bacterial cells. In conventional approaches, bacterial cells, whose surfaces are structurally and chemically heterogeneous, are often described from the viewpoint of their overall cellular properties. Cell appendages such as polysaccharide chains and proteinous nanofibers have an important function bridging between cells and the substratum in conventional adhesion models, but sometimes cause deviation from the models of cell adhesion. In reality, cell appendages are responsible for specific and nonspecific cell adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces.
Katsutoshi Hori

5. Microstructures of Biofilm

Abstract
Biofilms are viewed as one of the most common form in which microorganisms exist naturally in nature. In particular, bacterial biofilms play important roles in industrial-based problems, disease and infection and have been studied in great detail. However, the intrinsic structure of a biofilm is not solidly understood where postulations on mechanisms, structure, chemical and biological nature and the community are still seldom reliably described. This chapter aims to highlight some of the most important structures contained in a biofilm—in particular microstructures. It is the microstructure of a biofilm which governs its make-up, integrity and functionality, all of which will be discussed to some level of detail.
James Chapman

6. Detachment of Bacteria

Abstract
The rheological properties of biofilms have a great impact on major processes such as transport of nutrients, light, biocides, water, biochemicals and cells. The knowledge of the mechanical properties of biofilms is essential in quantifying the overall process of biofilm development and bacterial survival (and proliferation)—one of the key processes in a biofilm lifecycle is detachment. It is therefore crucial to be able to predict the biofilm detachment and break up in response to internal and external forces that drive the biofilm cycle. This chapter aims to highlight some of the important processes in the biofilm detachment cycle. It will also draw on some new and old concepts on this age old battle of biofilm survival and proliferation.
James Chapman

7. Genomics Approach

Abstract
Biofilm is an essential strategic structure for microorganisms such as bacteria to grow stably in an aquatic environment. Its universal presence in the aquatic environment is a piece of evidence. In biofilm formation, microbes adhere to a surface of solid substrates using flagella or pili, which are microbial locomotors, and start proliferating. Quorum sensing is then induced by signal molecules termed autoinducers. Then large amounts of extracellular polysubstances are produced to form a biofilm in which sessile bacteria are encased.
Hajime Ikegai

8. General Biological Biofilm Observation and Evaluation

Abstract
This chapter describes some general observation methods and techniques used by biologists to investigate biofilms. Scientists usually stain targets using pigments because some chemicals bind with important components of a bacterial cell. There are many dyeing processes devised by medical and biological researchers. Utilizing them, biofilm researchers have observed biofilm with a fluorescence microscope. This method leads to the observation not only of bacteria but also of exopolymeric substances. The dyeing technique has brought biologists merits for confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM), where biofilm has been visualized successfully. This special setup could be mentioned as the most advanced and successful visualization method to evaluate biofilm nowadays.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

Biofilm and Industrial Problems

Frontmatter

9. Corrosion and Biofilm

Abstract
This chapter provides a review of how biofilm relates to corrosion. First of all, it presents corrosion as an electrochemical process. Then, the corrosion phenomenon is described from the viewpoint of electrochemistry. Next, microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is discussed and related to biofilm. The process of biofilm formation is explained schematically and some concrete examples are provided. Finally, a mechanism is introduced for the correlation of biofilm and corrosion. In fact, biofilm is the key factor to differentiate MIC from the usual form of corrosion.
Reza Javaherdashti

10. Cooling Water

Abstract
Cooling water is important for many industries. It is used to remove unwanted heat from equipment and processes that need to be cooled. Water is often used as a coolant because it is safe, easy to handle, nontoxic, and usually available at industrial locations. On the downside, using water as a coolant can encourage the growth of bacteria and biofilms as well as corrode metals in the systems. Therefore, to ensure a plant’s productivity, cooling water systems need to be tested regularly for their chemical and biological content and frequently monitored for the presence of biofilms. Also when necessary, chemical treatment should be applied to the cooling water system for microbial control.
Dana M. Barry, Hideyuki Kanematsu

11. Ships and Marine Structures

Abstract
Various types of ships and marine structures such as an oil tanker, cargo ship, mega float, and derrick, etc., are used to transport cargo and develop offshore oil fields, etc. However, severe corrosion and degradation attributable to the attachment of microorganisms and fouling organisms to their material surfaces have occurred in ships and marine structures. Severe corrosion that originated in microorganism adhesion and biofilm formation is called microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) (Li et al., Corros Rev 31:73–84, 2013). MIC is a very severe problem for the ship industry as it reduces the structural lifetime in combination with safety risks for crews or inspection personnel and increases maintenance costs. In addition, intercontinental move of an exotic organism can also occur by attachment of microorganisms and biofilm formation at the surface of the hull and ballast tank of a ship. Such a phenomenon will cause not only deterioration of a ship including the ballast tank and marine structures (Heyer et al., Corros Conf Expo 3:1754–1765, 2012; Heyer et al., Ocean Eng 70:188–200, 2013), but also disruption of an ecosystem (Murakami, J Jpn Ins Mar Eng 46:40–45, 2011). The corruption related to microorganism adhesion and fouling organism adhesion is called microfouling and macrofouling, respectively. In this chapter, I discuss several points about adhesion of microorganisms and fouling organisms to a ship and marine structures, and also antifouling technology.
Daisuke Kuroda

12. Biofilm Formation on Medical Devices and Infection: Preventive Approaches

Abstract
Biofilm formation on medical devices is a serious problem associated with deaths resulting from nosocomial (hospital acquired) infections. This chapter reviews strategies to control microbial adhesion to, and colonization of, medical surfaces using cell repellant and nonadhesive coatings, coatings that actively release antimicrobial compounds and biofilm inhibitors, antimicrobial coatings with tethered biocides, and coatings that promote competitive adherence of benign organisms. Antifouling materials such as PEGylated and zwitterionic polymers, silicone hydrogels, fluorinated amphiphilic polymers, natural polysaccharides, glycodendron-functionalized synthetic polymers, polymers tethered with antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, antimicrobial cationic polymers and peptides, and functionalized polyhydroxyalkanoates are discussed. Controlled release coatings that deliver quorum sensing inhibitors such as 5,6-dimethyl-2-aminobenzimidazole, and antimicrobial species such as ceragenin, nitrofurantoin, nitric oxide, gallium and zinc complexes, silver ions, silver nanoparticles, and selenium nanoparticles are also reviewed.
Sitaraman Krishnan

13. Hygiene Problems and Food Industry

Abstract
In the food industry, the cleanliness of food-processing equipment is the most important in manufacturing safe and wholesome products. Cleaning is a primary operation for minimizing accumulation of soils and microorganisms in food industry settings. Cleaning and disinfection are complementary processes and are performed as a separate or a combined operation. The cleaning operation should precede a disinfecting operation because it is far easier to disinfect a clean surface than a soiled surface. Hygienic design and choice of construction materials of equipment are also important factors to prevent accumulation of soils and biofilm formation. Education and training of the staff are very important because food hygiene management is a man-mediated process. Hygiene conditions should be assessed periodically by a swab method. The results of swabbing become in turn scientific evidence for education of the staff.
Satoshi Fukuzaki

14. Environmental Problems: Soil and Underground Water Treatment and Bioremediation

Abstract
Bioremediation is environmental restoration technology using natural biological activities by organisms. When the contamination is not so severe and moderate, and when the time needed for the restoration can be taken and not rushed, then this method would be very appropriate. Usually, bioremediation is an environmentally friendly process. In addition, biofilm contains a lot of bacteria so the stability from various viewpoints is much higher than just the planktonic state. Therefore, biofilm will be used for bioremediation often in the future. Bioremediation by biofilm is divided into two types—in situ biofilm remediation and ex situ biofilm remediation. At any rate, biofilm remediation can achieve much higher efficiency as well as stability against toxicity, shear stress, ultraviolet rays, etc. Biofilm remediation is an advanced technology that should be investigated still further to be utilized for practical applications. When the structure, components, and characteristics of biofilm are clarified more, then applications for it will be established more firmly.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

15. Energy Problems—Fuel Cell

Abstract
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are one of the fuel cells which use the biological function of microorganisms. Biofilm formed on the electrodes of an MFC may affect the performance of the MFC. In this chapter there is a brief explanation of the principle of a fuel cell. Further, various kinds of MFCs are introduced.
Nobumitsu Hirai

16. Bioreactors in Industries and Biofilm

Abstract
Bioreactors are systems where chemical reactions (involving organisms or active substances derived from them) take place. Many types exist such as batch, continuous, photo, and membrane bioreactors. Industries use these reactors to make a variety of products including chemicals. A company’s success at producing specific products depends in part on its ability to control various parameters (like temperature) and to use appropriate biofilms in the reactors. Biofilms are thick layers of cells used in bioreactors. They start to form when microorganisms like bacteria attach to a surface. After a certain amount of time, this attachment becomes somewhat permanent because the microorganisms produce a sticky polymeric material that anchors them. The resulting thick layers of cells are referred to as biofilms. Examples of biofilm and bioreactor use in industry are provided.
Dana M. Barry, Hideyuki Kanematsu

17. Fish Reef, Seaweed Bed, and Other Construction Applications

Abstract
In this chapter, the biofilm is applied to an artificial fish reef. Seaweed beds and construction sites are explained too. An artificial fish reef is defined as an artificially made place where fish gather around to take nutrition. An artificial seaweed bed can be defined as the place artificially made where sea plants can grow easily. Some infrastructural materials such as concrete, used vessels, etc. would be used in both places. In those places, materials and particularly, the materials’ surfaces should have characteristics to harmonize with their environments. To achieve the purpose, the application of biofilms would be the best, even though quite a few people have not realized the correlation yet. In this chapter, we describe what the artificial fish reef and seaweed bed are and how biofilm would correlate with the environmental friendliness of a material’s surface and how it would lead to achieve the purpose.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

18. Contamination and Clean Surface of Materials

Abstract
In this chapter, contamination on material surfaces is discussed from the viewpoint of the relationship between bacterial activity and contaminants. Contamination can be divided into three main groups: water soluble, oil-based, and solid contamination. However, in any of these cases, contaminants are completely inanimate substances. The bonding of the contaminants with material surfaces is not usually strong so the contaminants can be easily removed. When bacteria are attached to material surfaces, they grow, and then biofilm tends to form on these surfaces. Exopolymeric substances (EPS) in the biofilm are very sticky and make the contaminants stick to material surfaces. Some practical problems following the adhesion are predicted, introduced, and explained in this chapter. Also included is a concrete example that one of the authors investigated in a national project for Japan.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

Solving Industrial Biofilm Problems

Frontmatter

19. Chemical Cleaning

Abstract
Most cleaning processes proceed by the synergistic effect of physical and chemical actions. The role of chemical actions is to reduce the work requirements of a whole cleaning process. The cleaning using chemical action is referred to as chemical cleaning. The power of chemical cleaning for organic soils, including biofilms, on a hard surface is due to the actions of several detergent ingredients, such as alkaline constituents, ion-sequestering agents, surface-active agents, and oxidizing agents. Alkaline constituents are very effective in removing a variety of organic soils. Sodium hypochlorite is a convenient material to achieve both cleaning and disinfection in a single process. Surface-active agents can lower the surface tension of a chlorinated alkaline solution and confer penetrating power on the solution. For optimizing a cleaning process, it is required to combine two or more chemical agents effectively.
Satoshi Fukuzaki

20. Physical Removal of Biofilm

Abstract
Biofilms form plaque on teeth and contribute to slime and scale buildup that result in clogged pipes and drains. Clogged pipes display smaller diameters and exhibit a reduced ability for heat exchange and liquid flow. A company with such a problem could experience increases in energy consumption and operational costs. Also if not corrected on time, it may need to shut down for an extended period in order to replace the defective pipes. Therefore it is essential to clean pipes, drains, and water mains frequently, in order to protect them from scale and biofilm buildup. Physical cleaning methods exist for effectively removing biofilms. Some are presented and described in this chapter. They include flushing, swabbing, air scouring, pigging, and ultrasonic scaling (used to remove plaque on teeth).
Dana M. Barry, Hideyuki Kanematsu

21. Antibacterial Effect of Materials and Biofilm

Abstract
In this chapter, antibacterial effect is explained. Some materials could show the effects. From the viewpoint of their mechanism, antibacterial groups can be divided into three classes. The first consists of metallic materials such as silver, copper, etc. From some concrete examples, the metallic ions dissociated from the metals themselves or their compounds work to show antibacterial effects. The second class is composed of photocatalytic compounds. In this case, produced radicals control the bacterial growth. The third class contains organic materials. Generally, organic materials cause impairment of cell membranes inside the peptidoglycan. The first consists of antibacterial metals could control biofilm formation, since they would inhibit bacterial growth on material surfaces. However, biofilm control is basically a broader and more complicated concept than the antibacterial effect for planktonic bacteria. Therefore, more versatile countermeasures could be proposed to control biofilm formation and growth.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

22. Immersion Tests

Abstract
As you have seen in Chap. 11, adhesion of microorganisms is one factor of corrosion or deterioration of the ship and marine structure. Biofilm formation and adhesion of microorganisms cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (Li et al., Corros Rev 31:73–84, 2013). Service life of the marine structure which is composed of steel is shortened due to MIC. Biofilm formation also causes the adhesion of fouling organisms, including barnacles and oysters (Dobretsov et al., Biofouling 29:423–441, 2013). Fuel consumption of a ship is increased by adhesion of fouling organisms (Nagato et al., J Shimonoseki Univ Fish 41:167–168, 1993; Murakami, J Jpn Inst Mar Eng 46:40–45, 2011). On the other hand, the service life of the ship is reduced by adhesion of fouling organisms. Degradation of various structures is accelerated by the attachment of microorganisms and fouling organisms (Luciana et al., Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 63:607–614, 2009). The performance and durability of machines are also markedly reduced by adhesion of various organisms. Therefore, evaluation and observation of the adhesion behavior of the microorganisms and fouling organisms on the surface of each material in a real environment is very important for solving industrial biofilm problems. In this chapter, I outlined a typical immersion testing method. In addition, I also introduced the typical results of several immersion tests.
Daisuke Kuroda

23. Artificial Biofilm Formation on the Laboratory Scale

Abstract
Biofilms are collections of microorganisms that stick to each other on a variety of moist surfaces. These microbial communities are anchored to the surface by a glue-like extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilms grow, mature, and disperse cells in order to spread and colonize new surfaces. They can grow in different environments such as on floors, counter tops, food, human tissue, and ships. These films cause corrosion in metals and pose health risks to humans. Therefore, they are of interest to researchers who want to prevent and control them. Two different methods are presented for artificially producing biofilms at an accelerated rate in a laboratory setting. One involves an intermittent flow of water over various test materials while the other continuously exposes the items to moisture.
Dana M. Barry, Hideyuki Kanematsu, Paul B. McGrath

24. New Evaluation Techniques for Biofilm in Materials Science

Abstract
Biofilm and biofouling lead to various industrial problems and/or benefits. To solve the problems or to utilize them, it is very important for us to evaluate biofilm and biofouling properly and correctly. From materials science viewpoint, some analytical techniques familiar to the discipline would be better. A few of them include optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc. Even though many other spectroscopies might be applied to the evaluation of biofilm, some aforementioned representative techniques are described in this chapter. The following discussion will benefit the engineers, researchers, and students of materials science and engineering, who plan to use these techniques to solve problems.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry

25. Future Scope

Abstract
As already described in other chapters, biofouling and biofilm formation affect our daily lives in various ways. Being able to solve the daily problems that they cause may also help solve many industrial problems. For these purposes, it is very important for us to approach the problems from the viewpoint of materials science and engineering, especially since biofilms mostly form at the interface between organisms and materials. Therefore, it is also important for us, materials scientists, engineers, students, and teachers, etc., to understand biofilm and its related processes in order to investigate the topics in the right and appropriate way. This chapter presents topics for the future that will assist in achieving the purposes mentioned above.
Hideyuki Kanematsu, Dana M. Barry
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