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Über dieses Buch

This book is intended to serve as a compendium on the state-of-the-art research in the field of biofuels. The book includes chapters on different aspects of biofuels from renowned international experts in the field. The book looks at current research on all aspects of biofuels from raw materials to production techniques. It also includes chapters on analysis of performance of biofuels, particularly biodiesel, in engines. The book incorporates case studies that provide insights into the performance of biofuels in applications such as automotive engines and diesel generators. The contents of the book will be useful to graduate students and researchers working on all aspects of biofuels. The book will also be of use to professionals and policymakers interested in biofuels.





Introduction to Biofuels

Sustainable energy source and cleaner environment is the most important requirement for developing countries. In India, total primary energy consumption was ~0.5 BTOE in 2008, which is expected to rise up to ~1.2 BTOE by 2035. In such a scenario, biofuel utilization program seems to be a promising solution because biofuels are relatively cleaner and can be produced from indigenous resources available locally. However availability and continuous supply are the most challenging tasks for the countrywide implementation of biofuels program. In such a scenario, advanced techniques of biofuel production including bio-technology route seem to have significant potential for the energy security in future. This monograph covers practical aspects of biofuel production, utilisation, challenges and limitations and outlines the strengths and constraints of different biofuel production techniques.

Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Rashmi Avinash Agarwal, Tarun Gupta, Bhola Ram Gurjar

Sustainable Production of Chemicals and Energy Fuel Precursors from Lignocellulosic Fractions

From time immemorial, bioprocessing of lignocelluloses via chemical catalysis has been an impressive methodology of numerous value added commodities and energy fuel precursors (drop-in-fuel) synthesis. The most common technique for biomass fragmentation is catalytic hydrolysis using various acid catalysts covering inorganic or organic liquid acids as well as solid acids (heterogeneous). Most research in the past decade has been focused on cost-effective production of such biomass derived commodities with the aim of their commercialization. Till date, in order to improve final product yields and minimize production costs, various improvised production schemes have been developed like pretreatment methods for improved saccharification and displacement and/or reconstruction of recalcitrant biomass constituents, such as lignin to improve accessibility, employing multi-functional catalysts to promote single stage transformations, continuous extraction of desired product by use of specific solvents to improve product stability as well as to inhibit by-product formation, integration of physical processes for example microwave and ultrasonic irradiation resulting in decreased residence time, etc. With these technological advancements, researchers have overcome substantial limitations associated with lignocellulose transformation including mass-transfer hindrances and expensive downstream processing; as a result a wide array of commercially important chemicals and fuel precursors have been synthesised. The chapter provides an account of value addition to biomass via chemical catalysis of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions towards product chemicals synthesis.

Bhumica Agarwal, Vivek Ahluwalia, Ashok Pandey, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Sasikumar Elumalai

Microbial Electrochemical Platform: Biofactory with Diverse Applications

Microbial electrochemical technologies (MET) have significant potential to negate the impending energy, and renewable feedstock crisis. METs have evolved into a sustainable and eco-friendly solutions owing to their diverse applications like microbial fuel cell (MFC), for power generation, bioelectrochemical treatment (BET) for wastewater remeduiation, microbial desalination cell (MDC) for salt removal and resource recovery, microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for the production of Hydrogen by applying external potential and bioelectrochemical syntheis (BES) for value-added products production and other applications such as plant microbial fuel cells (P-MFC) and artificially constructed wetlands fuel cells (CW-MFC) utilize the root exudates for power generation, biosensor applications, etc. This chapter draws light upon the multifaceted application of MET and their specific operational mechanism along with their futuristic integrations and developmental models.

S. Venkata Mohan, G. Velvizhi, P. Chiranjeevi

Biomass-Derived HMF Oxidation with Various Oxidants

This chapter describes the conversion of cellulosic biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to various oxidation products, such as 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (HMFCA), and 5-formyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (FFCA), with solid catalysts containing with and without metal(s) in the presence of various solvents including water. This chapter further describes the influence of various oxidant, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), air, and molecular oxygen, on the yield of oxidation products under wide range of reaction conditions. This chapter also focuses the influence of metal nanoparticles on the yield of FDCA with and without addition of organic bases.

S. Saravanamurugan, Ashok Pandey, Rajender Singh Sangwan

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Biomass Components: Effect of Alkaline Catalyst

The fundamental studies to understand the role of individual biomass components (cellulose and lignin) on the production of valuable hydrocarbons during hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is presented. Thermal and catalytic HTL of cellulose and lignin was performed at 280 °C under biomass:H2O ratio of 1:6 at 15 min residence time. The use of alkaline catalysts significantly increased both bio-oil yield and conversion for cellulose as well as lignin. Maximum bio-oil yield (28%) and conversion (90%) in case of cellulose was observed with KOH. Similarly in case of lignin maximum bio-oil yield (17 wt%) as well as conversion (72%) was observed with KOH. From the analysis of bio-oil and bio-residue, it was observed both cellulose and lignin have undergone hydrolytic cleavage during HTL to form low molecular weight liquid products. The FTIR and NMR (1H and 13C) of the bio-oil obtained from lignin indicated the presence of phenols and aromatic ethers.

Rawel Singh, Bhavya B. Krishna, Thallada Bhaskar

Pretreatment Strategies of Lignocellulosic Biomass Towards Ethanol Yield: Case Study of Pine Needles

Today one of the most challenging and noticeable problem is how to supply the vast quantities of energy, fuels and chemicals when oil, gas and coal are depleting exponentially with increase in population. In current scenario lignocellulosic bioethanol seems promising alternative sources of energy and chemicals which is considered a cleaner/or green source also. Lignocellulose, is composed of mainly by three components namely cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. However cellulose and hemicellulose are protected by lignin layer, due to which they are not accessible to hydrolytic enzymes and efficiency of the bioethanol production also influenced by crystallinity of cellulose, lignin content, water content and surface area etc. Pretreatment technologies in practice show shortfalls and inefficiency in making cellulose and hemicelluloses free for hydrolysis and also to crack the crystallinity of cellulose. Basically selection of efficient pretreatment process depends on the biomass composition, process economics and environmental impact, therefore in search of an efficient and eco-friendly pretreatment technologies, in current chapter, pretreatment of Pine needles (PN) was carried out by using various methods in combination, such as surfactant assisted acid pretreatment (SAAP), surfactant assisted alkali pretreatment (SABP) and sequential dilute alkali and acid pretreatment (SDAPP) and during pretreatment sugar released (sugar loss) was found to be 0.211, 0.146 and 0.198 g/g, respectively. After pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification of SAAP, SABP and SDAPP liquor, reducing sugar yield was found to be enhanced up to 0.588, 0.477 and 0.582 g/g, respectively under optimized conditions. The PN without pretreatment had released 0.144 g/g of reducing sugar which implied that SDAAP had enhanced the saccharification up to 4 fold. On comparisons of all these pretreatment strategies, sequential acid and alkali pretreatment was found more advantageous in terms of lesser sugar loss and high ethanol yield. However inhibitors generated during pretreatment have to be removed with some potential resins such as Amberlite XAD-4.

Sangeeta Negi

Ultrasound-Assisted Biodiesel Synthesis: A Mechanistic Insight

Use of ultrasound in intensification of biodiesel synthesis process is well-known. However, most of the published literature in this area has focused on results than rationale—in that the exact physical mechanism of the ultrasound-induced enhancement of the biodiesel synthesis has remained unexplored. The research in our group has tried to fulfil this crucial knowledge gap. In this chapter, we have provided an overview and analysis of our studies in establishment of the physical mechanism of ultrasound-assisted biodiesel synthesis. This essentially means identification of the links between physical and chemical effects of ultrasound and cavitation, and the basic chemistry of biodiesel synthesis. The physical effect of cavitation and ultrasound is generation of intense microturbulence in the medium, while the chemical effect is generation of highly reactive radicals through thermal dissociation of the gas and vapor molecules entrapped in the bubble. The basic approach in our research has been concurrent analysis of the experimental results and simulations of cavitation bubble dynamics. We have treated diverse biodiesel synthesis processes that employ edible, non-edible and mixed non-edible feedstocks of oil, both base and acid catalysts in homogeneous form and heterogeneous base catalysts. Our analysis has essentially established that physical effects of ultrasound and cavitation have greater contribution to enhancement and intensification of the transesterification process for biodiesel synthesis. This is essentially manifested through generation of strong emulsion and elimination of mass transfer barriers in the process. However, for heterogeneous catalyzed systems, the mass transfer still remains the rate controlling step, despite intense microconvection generated by sonication.

Ritesh S. Malani, Arun Goyal, Vijayanand S. Moholkar

Thermo-Chemical Ethanol Production from Agricultural Waste Through Polygeneration: Performance Assessment Through a Case Study

Substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels over a planned period is an imperative need to meet the energy demand in future with minimum possible environmental impact. Biofuels from food stuff may lead to conflict between energy and food security. However, producing biofuel (say, ethanol) from agricultural waste (say, rice straw) in thermo-chemical process may be a sustainable option through recycling of waste. But energy requirement for this process is significantly higher and independent production of ethanol may not be economically feasible. However, suitable integration of this ethanol production through an efficiently integrated multi-utility system called polygeneration may be economically feasible with low impact on the environment. This has been explored through a case study with thermodynamic, economic and environmental performance assessment. Results show sustainability of such a process with acceptable performance from multidimensional viewpoints.

Kuntal Jana, Sudipta De

Microalgae Based Biofuel: Challenges and Opportunities

Richa Katiyar, Amit Kumar, B. R. Gurjar

Surrogates for Biodiesel: Review and Challenges

Biodiesel is being considered as a renewable fuel candidate to completely or partially replace fossil diesel. Understanding its combustion is key to assess its applicability in practical compression ignition engines. Significant progress has been made in understanding biodiesel combustion through experimental studies, development of reaction kinetics to describe its oxidation, and simulations in typical engine environments. The use of surrogates in place of the real biodiesels plays a crucial role in this endeavour. This chapter reviews the existing studies revolving around surrogate fuels for biodiesels. Thereafter, the challenges ahead in this context to further enhance our knowledge of biodiesel combustion are presented, and possible options to address these are discussed where appropriate.

Aditya Dilip Lele, Krishnasamy Anand, Krithika Narayanaswamy

Response Surface Methodology Based Multi-objective Optimization of the Performance-Emission Profile of a CI Engine Running on Ethanol in Blends with Diesel

The present study is aimed at optimizing the effect of ethanol-diesel blends on the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder (indirect injection) four-stroke diesel engine at different loads. Hexane was used as a co-solvent for higher ethanol concentration while Diethyl ether (DEE) was added as an ignition improver. D-optimal was chosen as the Design of experiment methodology. Quadratic polynomial models were constructed for the desired emission-performance parameters based on experimental data through the Response Surface Methodology NOx, CO and HC were chosen as the emission output parameters while BSFC. Load and ethanol-hexane-DEE concentration in the diesel blend were chosen as the input parameters. Multi-objective optimization involving the objective of minimizing both the emission and BSFC simultaneously yielded an optimal input condition of 5% hexane and 15% DEE in blend with 40% ethanol and diesel at 95% full load operation with 15.3% absolute error in NOx, 17.1% in HC, 1.69% in CO and 3.4% in BSFC estimation with respect to actual experimental values at the calibrated test condition predicted through RSM model optimization.

Probir Kumar Bose, Vijay Narayan Bodkhe, Bishop Deb Barma, Rahul Banerjee

Effect of Alcohol Blending on Performance of Kerosene Fuelled Four-Stroke Spark Ignition Genset

Environmental pollution from engine exhaust emission has attracted worldwide attention. Besides vehicular pollution, the significance of engine exhaust emission from stationary utility engines, particularly gensets for electrical energy applications, has also been realized. Gensets based on kerosene are widely in use in developing countries like India. To reduce the exhaust emission, from these small carbureted engines is challenging due to cost factor. In present work, an attempt has been made to reduce the exhaust emission of a portable genset by blending alcohols in kerosene. It was observed that blending alcohols in kerosene helps reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbon (HC) emission and fuel consumption of the engine while Nitric Oxide (NO) emission increases. Further, the effect of varying carbureted jetsize on the performance and exhaust emission is also examined. A comparison of kerosene with base jetsize was done with the various combinations of fuels and jetsizes to achieve optimized emission and fuel economy. It was observed that by blending 10% n-butanol in kerosene and operating engine on a slightly richer side, emission from a kerosene operated genset can be reduced along with improvement in fuel economy without any engine hardware modification.

Mritunjay Shukla, Eshan Singh, Sunil Pathak
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