Skip to main content

2023 | Buch

Biogenic—Abiogenic Interactions in Natural and Anthropogenic Systems 2022

herausgegeben von: Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, Dmitry Yu. Vlasov, Elena G. Panova, Tatiana V. Alekseeva

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Springer Proceedings in Earth and Environmental Sciences


Über dieses Buch

The book represents a collection of papers presented at VII International Symposium "Biogenic-abiogenic interactions in natural and anthropogenic systems" that was held on 26-29 September 2022 in Saint Petersburg (Russia). Papers in this book cover a wide range of topics connecting with interactions between biogenic and abiogenic components in lithosphere, biosphere and technosphere. The main regarding topics are following: biomineralization in living organisms and nature-like materials; biomineralization in geosystems; geochemistry of biogenic-abiogenic systems; biomineral interactions in soil; interaction of microorganisms with natural and artificial materials; medical geology; philosophical aspects of interdisciplinary researchs



Biomineralization in Living Organisms and Nature-Like Materials

Ectopic Mineralization Following Liver Transplantation—Mechanisms, Risks, and Management: A Review

A progressive calcification/mineralization that occurs ectopically (other than teeth, cartilage, and bone) following orthotopic liver transplantationLiver transplantation is an undervalued condition but can turn out to be a fatal one, especially if it is a metastatic pulmonary calcification. Recent advancements in the epidemiology of the disease revealed new targets for inhibition and consequently recovery of the transplanted patients from massive calcification. Additionally, it is more conceivable that developments in surgical techniques and peri-transplant procedures might considerably reduce the occurrence of this disease condition. This review on ectopic mineralizationEctopic mineralization following liver transplantationLiver transplantation describes the pathomechanisms underlying the disease, the effects of ectopic calcification, and treatments available to overcome the ailing. Moreover, we address the importance of these complications (pulmonary restriction) and herein some aspects of precautionary aspects (monitoring plasma ionized levels of calcium and citrate metabolism) to prevent the disease.

Subathra Radhakrishnan, Catherine Ann Martin, Geethanjali Dhayanithy, Koustav Jana, Dinesh Jothimani, Alina R. Izatulina, Narayana Subbaraya Kalkura, Mohamed Rela
Crosslinking Mechanisms in the Designing of Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications: A Review

BiomaterialsBiomaterials are designed to have direct interaction with the living system and are aiming to reinstate the paradigmatic tissue grafting techniques by augmenting natural functions. Metals, ceramicsCeramics, and polymers are often used in combination to develop smart and innovative biomaterialsBiomaterials. However, their low mechanical stiffness and degradation are of significant concern. In this regard, crosslinkers are being used to overcome these limitations. Although crosslinkers increase mechanical stiffness, they also result in some adverse reactions and cause toxicity. A variety of crosslinkers and methods have been used in the last two decades to synthesize scaffoldsScaffold for tissue engineeringTissue engineering. The classical crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, which can exist at least in 13 forms, has been used in numerous scaffoldsScaffold, despite its subtle toxicity. Researchers and scientists have tried to replace discordant chemicals with green chemicals, plant-derived chemicals, enzymatic, non-enzymatic chemicals, and physical methods. The classificationClassification of crosslinkers based on their applications has been discussed. This chapter summarizes the types of crosslinkers, and the mechanism of crosslinking with a comparison of their advantages, efficiency, efficacy, and limitations. The pursuit of a perfect biomaterialBiomaterials that flawlessly matches the surrounding microenvironment is a never-ending challenge within biomedical research. This chapter, however, covers the recent advances in crosslinking methodologies, providing scope for further innovations in the field of tissue engineeringTissue engineering.

Catherine Ann Martin, Subathra Radhakrishnan, Josette Caroline Martin, Nivethaa EAK, Shanthini GM, Geethanjali Dhayanithy, Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, Narayana Subbaraya Kalkura, Mohamed Rela
Odontomas of Contemporary Humans and Animals: The Morphology and Composition

OdontomaOdontoma is one of the most common benign tumors of the maxillofacial region of contemporary humans and animals. The etiology and pathogenesis of odontomaOdontoma have not been studied well enough. The morphologyMorphology of humanHuman and animal odontomasOdontoma (dogs and hedgehogs) was studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography. It was found that the morphological structure of the odontomasOdontoma is characterized by heterogeneity. The methods of morphological investigation we used allowed to differential diagnosis of odontomaOdontoma and to clarify its classificationClassification type, as well as to study in detail the unique morphological features of each sample. The chemical composition of the studied hard tissues of the odontomasOdontoma in most cases corresponds to the composition of hard tissues of the teeth of contemporary humans and animals.

Oksana L. Pikhur, Yulia V. Plotkina, Alexander M. Kulkov, Denis S. Tishkov, Alexander L. Gromov
Synthesis and Properties of Hydroxyapatite—Chitosan Biopolymer Composite Materials

The results of a study of the physicochemical properties of compositesComposite and first synthesized scaffoldsScaffold based on hydroxyapatiteHydroxyapatite (HA) and chitosanChitosan are presented. It was found that the size of compositeComposite crystallites increases with an increase of the chitosanChitosan content in the initial solution. For the first time, a technique for obtaining scaffoldsScaffold based on HA and chitosanChitosan gel was proposed. It has been established that the pore sizes of the scaffolds increase with an increase in the polymer content. It was found that the stability of the scaffolds increases with increasing temperature, while the compositesComposite remain in the form of powders, regardless the temperature treatment. When studying the dissolutionDissolution of the synthesized compositesComposite and scaffoldsScaffold in an isotonic solution, it was found that for the HA–chitosanChitosan system, an increase in the dissolutionDissolution rate is observed with an increase in the concentration of chitosanChitosan in the sample. MagnesiumMagnesium-substituted hydroxyapatiteHydroxyapatite (Mg-HA) has been synthesized from an aqueous solution of magnesiumMagnesium, calcium, diammonium phosphate, and ammonia salts in the presence of a polymer matrix of chitosanChitosan. The results of the study of the physicochemical properties of the synthesized compositesComposite are presented. The results of determining the composition, morphological, thermal, and bioactive characteristics of the obtained compositesComposite are presented. It has been found that all the samples have a similar phase composition and morphologyMorphology, which is characteristic of magnesiumMagnesium-substituted hydroxyapatiteHydroxyapatite. It has been shown that the crystallite size of compositesComposite with chitosanChitosan decreases with an increase in the polymer content. It has been found that upon dissolutionDissolution of samples in an isotonic solution, the rates of formation of calcium ions in the liquid phase increase with the content of chitosanChitosan in the synthesized compositesComposite.

Olga A. Golovanova
Co-Bearing Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Thermal Stability, Crystal Chemistry, Magnetic Properties

The numerous ionic substitutions at various sites of apatite crystalCrystals structure are giving new properties to apatite-based materials. WeCo-substituted apatite studied Co-substituted hydroxyapatitesHydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) precipitated from water solutions with methods of X-ray powder diffraction, IR-spectroscopy, EDX analysis and vibrating-sample magnetometry and showed that cobalt concentration into calcium sites of apatite crystalCrystals structure can reach 21 at. % (10.65 wt. %). Cobalt substitution, accompanied by the significant decrease of crystallite sizes, contributes to hydroxyapatiteHydroxyapatite desymmetrization at Co/(Ca+Co) ≥ 0.05 and lowers its thermal stability: the beginning of Co-HAp structure decomposition was detected upon annealing at 450 °C, and the complete destruction—at 700 °C, pronounced in the release of cobalt from apatite and formation of Co3O4 and β-Ca3(PO4)2. The replacement of 5% of calcium with cobalt makes hydroxyapatiteCobalt hydroxyapatite paramagnetic, and further incorporation (up to at least 21 at. %) results in linear increase of magnetic susceptibility. Obtained compositions can find an application in various areas of medicine (hyperthermia cancer therapy, medical visualization, drug delivery and others).

Anatolii V. Korneev, Maria A. Kuzmina, Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya
Effect of Amino Acids on Hydroxyapatite Synthesized from Solutions Modeling Human Joint Synovia Fluid: Case of Glycine and Proline

CarbonateCarbonates-containing hydroxyapatiteHydroxyapatite has been synthesized from prototype humanHuman synovial fluid in the presence of prolineProline and glycineGlycine. The resultant powders have revealed to contain 61–71 wt % prolineProline and 75–80 wt % glycineGlycine. The presence of amino acids in the model solution has been shown to change the crystallinity and specific surface areaSpecific surface area of the samples, without influencing the composition or crystallite size of the solid phase. High amino acids concentrations lead to the formation of poorly crystallized compositesComposite consisting of smaller nanocrystals. The amino acid-containing samples have lower porosity and are more thermally stable. The dissolutionDissolution of the samples in a 0.9% NaCl solution and acetate buffer has been occurs to be a two-step process. The highest solubility in weakly acidic solutions has been demonstrated by the precipitates containing the amino acids.

Svetlana A. Gerk, Olga A. Golovanova
Calcium and Magnesium Glutamates: Structure Calculations and IR Spectra by HF and DFT Methods

Structural dynamic models of magnesium glutamateMagnesium glutamate and calcium glutamateCalcium glutamate complexes were simulated by the methods of Hartree–Fock (HF) and density-functional theoryDensity-functional theory (DFT, v B3LYP) in the 6-31G and 3-21G basis sets. The molecular geometric parameters and frequencies of normal vibrations within the harmonic approximation in the IR spectraIR spectrum of the developed models were calculated. Calcium (II) and magnesiumMagnesium (II) complexes with glutamic acid were synthesized from aqueous solutions of the corresponding salts of calcium chloride and magnesiumMagnesium chloride, and the amino acid. The IR spectraIR spectrum of the synthesized compounds were recorded in the range of 500–4000 cm−1. The calculated and experimental IR spectraIR spectrum of the synthesized calcium (II) and magnesiumMagnesium (II) complexes with glutamic acid were compared in order to validate their structures. Data on the coordination of calcium and magnesiumMagnesium ion complexes with amino acids contributes to understanding the structure of these poorly studied complexes and improving methods for obtaining these complex compounds with a predetermined composition and structure.

Dmitry V. Bespalov, Olga A. Golovanova, Dmitry N. Kugaevskikh

Biomineralization in Geosystems

Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis in Ancient Populations: X-Ray Computed Microtomography Data

A case of chronic maxillary sinusitis (CMS) found in a burial site of a Late Bronze AgeBronze Age settlement in Bai-Kiyat IBai-Kiyat I was studied by X-ray computed microtomography. The aim was to diagnose CMS, analyze the factors in the development of the disease, study its etiopathogenesis, and determine the potential contribution of odontogenic pathology to the overall incidence of CMS in ancient populations. Pathological changes in the left maxillary sinus characteristic of chronic maxillary sinusitis were recorded on a 3D model created using X-ray computed microtomography. The presence of chronic periodontal diseasePeriodontal diseases and apical periodontitis of the maxillary molars on the left, which had triggered the development of CMS, was established. The obtained and previously published data confirm the significant contribution of odontogenic pathology to CMS development. The dietary and hygienic behavioral patterns are clearly underestimated in the analysis of the incidence and prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region among ancient populations. X-ray computed tomography removes most of the limitations in bioarchaeological studies, allowing reliable diagnosis of odontogenic CMS forms.

Alisa V. Zubova, Alexander M. Kulkov, Marianna A. Kulkova, Vyacheslav G. Moiseyev, Maya T. Kashuba, Nikolay N. Potrakhov, Victor B. Bessonov, Yulia V. Kozhukhovskaya
Magnetic Properties and Composition of Inclusions in Foraminifera Shells at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Iron-containing magnetic concretions of planktonic foraminiferaForaminifera of sandy and aleurite fractions of sediments obtained from hydrothermal fields of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge were studied. The phase and elemental composition, morphologyMorphology, and magnetic properties of carbonateCarbonates foraminiferaForaminifera shells were analyzed. The hysteresis characteristics and microscopy data support the assumption that the magnetic phase is represented by iron oxide similar in composition to non-stoichiometric magnetiteMagnetite with admixtures of manganeseManganese and magnesiumMagnesium. The samples were magnetic granulometrically analyzed according to the model of interacting ferrimagnetic particles. The determinations of superparamagnetic particlesSuperparamagnetic particles on the basis of theoretical modelingModeling are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained using frequency-dependent susceptibilityFrequency-dependent susceptibility and granulometry methods.

Elena Sergienko, Svetlana Janson, Petr Kharitonskii, Kamil Gareev, Stepan Ilyin, Yaroslav Anoshin, Andrey Ralin
Calcite Microspherulites as a Reflection of the Relationship Between Abiotic Processes and Biological Mechanisms

Identified clusters of calcite microspherulitesCalcite microspherulites in carbonateCarbonates fine-clastic breccia comprising inter-bioherm carbonatesCarbonates of the Upper Miocene serve as an important indicator of paleoenvironments. The formation of such structures is part of a long-studied sedimentological problem concerning the interaction between abiotic processes and biological mechanisms in the formation and early diagenesis of non-skeletal carbonatesCarbonates. Calcite microspherulitesCalcite microspherulites were studied along with the host rocks from a section of the carbonateCarbonates bioherm sequence on the territory of the Kazantip Nature ReserveNature reserve. Lithological, geochemical and physicochemical research methods were used. Syngenetic authigenic mineralsAuthigenic minerals barite, halite, celestine, high-Mg calcite and dolomite intergrown with calcite and framboidal pyriteFramboidal pyrites were identified along with fossilized biofilmsBiofilms having a complex elemental composition. It is suggested that the formation of the microspherulites could have occurred upon contact of carbonateCarbonates silt with microbial matter in a very small lagoon under conditions of falling sea level with the presence of elevated concentrations of Na, Ba, Cl− and $$ {\text{SO}}_{4}^{ - } $$ SO 4 - ions relative to normal sea water, which are explained by local gas-fluid seepsGas-fluid seep due to the activation of an ancient mud volcanoMud volcano.

Anna I. Antoshkina
Morphological Features of Framboidal Pyrites in Various Geological Settings: The Contribution of Microorganisms to Their Formation

The objects of our research are framboidal pyritesFramboidal pyrites. They are named for their resemblance to raspberries («la framboise» in French) (Rust 1935). The term «framboid» characterizes only micromorphology, and the mineral composition can be represented by pyrite, marcasite, troilite, gel-pyrite, greigite, magnetiteMagnetite, makinavite. But more often—pyrite. At present there are no exact criteria to establish the biogenic or abiotic origin of framboids. The aim of our work is to study and compare the morphologyMorphology of framboids from the sediment of a modern mud volcanoMud volcano and rocks of different ages and genesis; identification of direct and indirect signs indicating their microbial origin. The following methods have been applied: X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis. Thermal methods have been used to study bituminized lenses with framboids in some rocks of the Urals. We have studied the samples from the sediment of an active mud volcanoMud volcano (Kuchugury, Krasnodar Territory) and from the rocks of some deposits of the Urals (Safyanovskoe, Mikheevskoe, Moscow placer). All framboidal pyritesFramboidal pyrites characterizes by a great morphological diversityDiversity: in one cluster there can be nearby well-shaped, and those without faceting; calibrated and very different microcrystals in size. This is difficult to explain only by a chemogenic origin. However, a number of features point to their bacterial genesis: framboids are confined to macrobiota remains or bitumen lenses in the rock. On the surface of some aggregates, sheaths are observed, often replaced by silicon dioxide. BiofilmsBiofilms substituted S, Pb Cu, Zn, Sb, As have also been found.

Lyubov V. Leonova, Oxana B. Azovskova, Elena I. Soroka, Yulia S. Simakova
Biogenic Processes and Their Role in the Formation of Vendian Oncolites

Among biogenic structures, oncolitesOncolites are notoriously difficult objects to study. External similarities and differences of these structures hamper an unambiguous conclusion regarding their origin. This complicates the establishment of a reasonable systematization of oncolitesOncolites and, therefore, the possibility of utilizing them in the stratigraphic breakdown of Precambrian rocks. The nature of oncoliteOncolites formations and their specific features can be established solely through the detection of organic residues contained therein, which practice has appeared relatively recently. This paper presents the results of a study of oncolitesOncolites found in two suites of Vendian deposits of the Baikal-Patom Highlands. These are black oncolitesOncolites of the Kalancha formation and microoncolites of the Tinnaya formation. The conducted comparison of the obtained results with those for the host rocks revealed another, more complex organic world of these formations. The participation of microorganismsMicroorganisms and fungiFungi and their role in the occurrence and development of oncolitesOncolites are discussed. Questions related to the interaction of biogenic and abiogenic factors in their formation are considered. Although both studied types are of organogenic sedimentary origin, the composition of microorganismsMicroorganisms and their participation in the formation of oncolitesOncolites differs significantly.

Tatiana V. Litvinova, Petr N. Kolosov

Geochemistry of Biogenic–Abiogenic Systems

The Carbon Isotopic Composition of the Pai-Khoi Amber-Like Fossil Resin (NW Asia)

Amber-like fossil resin localities are known in the Cretaceous—Quaternary deposits of the Eurasian Arctic. The fossil resins at these localities have been less studied than those from the European, SE Asian, American, and African localities. In this article, the properties and carbonCarbon isotopic compositions of the amber-like fossil resins from the Yugor Peninsula (Pai-Khoi Ridge, NW Asia) were considered and compared with those of Baltic amber (Sambian Peninsula, eastern Europe) and North Siberian amber-like fossil resins (Maimecha River, Khatanga Depression, North Asia). The carbon isotopeC-isotopes compositions of the Arctic ambers represented by gedaniteGedanite were investigated for the first time. The North Siberian Late CretaceousLate Cretaceous (Santonian) gedaniteGedanite has a δ13Corg value of −21.7‰. The Pai-Khoi gedaniteGedanite, which probably was produced by the Late CretaceousLate Cretaceous Pinnacea plants, possesses δ13C values ranging from −27.6 to −22.1‰ (mean −25.2‰). The δ13C values of the Pai-Khoi gedaniteGedanite are similar to those of the late Campanian amber-like fossil resins. The wide range of variations and bimodal distribution of the δ13C values of gedaniteGedanite of the Peschanaya River locality suggest diverse sources of the gedaniteGedanite in this placer. Probably the placer had been formed by the material reworked from different parts of the sequence of the Sayakha Formation corresponding to diverse Late CretaceousLate Cretaceous landscapes.

Andrey V. Zhuravlev, Irina S. Astakhova
Bioavailable Sr Isotope Ratio in the Caspian Catchment Basin: Insight from Mollusk Shells and Model Calculation

The Sr isotope composition in natural biomineral system such as molluskMollusk shells represents the composition of terrestrial water which flow down the catchmentCatchment area. The bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratio depends on solubility and Sr isotope composition of different bedrock types. The article represents a map of the litho-formational complexes of the Caspian catchmentCatchment basin. Based on geochemical data, the average 87Sr/86Sr ratios have been calculated for major river basins of Caspian catchmentCatchment area. The direct measurement of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in shells of modern freshwater molluskMollusk from the Lower Volga, Ural and Belaya rivers are 0.7081–0.7082, 0.7086 and 0.7079–0.7125 respectively. The obtained values correspond to the calculated 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The low 87Sr/86Sr ratios in plain stream of the Volga, Ural and Belaya rivers due to predominance of carbonateCarbonates and salt-sulfate complexes in catchmentCatchment areas. The importance of the bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratio is to provide the paleogeographic, archaeologic and ecologic reconstructions in region.

Anton B. Kuznetsov, Anastasia A. Gavrilova
Chemical and Biological Weathering of Black Shales

Black shalesBlack shales containing 10–25% organic matterOrganic matter are representatives of rocks that formed as the result of bioinert interactions. Alum has been extracted from black shalesBlack shales since the fifteenth century for bleaching paper, fabrics and leather dressing, along with kerogen, radium, uranium and rhenium. A number of black shaleBlack shales elements have a high Clarke concentration: Mo—12.5; U—8.3; V—3.2. Mobile forms of elements washed out of shale during chemical weatheringChemical weathering form secondary mineralsSecondary minerals (gypsumGypsum, copiapite, pickeringite and tamarugite), which inherit the geochemical characterization of parent rocks. As a result of biological weatheringBiological weathering, 29 species of micromycetes were found on the surface of black shalesBlack shales. In the primitive soil formed on shales, the following accumulate (number of times): Ni—3.4; Co—3.4; Zn—3.1. Grass growing on such substrates is characterized by accumulations relative to black shalesBlack shales: Zn—43.6; Ni—15.3; Mo—1.2.

Elena G. Panova, Dmitriy O. Voronin, Arshavir E. Hovhannisyan
Effects of Bryophyte Vegetation on the Chemical Composition of Sandstone

The study of plant-substrate interaction in biocrusts has focused less on bryophytes than on other phototrophs for a long time. Many authors, however, consider it as part of early stage of primary successionSuccession. The role of various bryophyte species in redeposition of chemical elements and organic deposition is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of bryophytes on sandstone weatheringWeathering. The data were collected on outcrops of DevonianDevonian sandstones in three locations in Northwest Russia. DevonianDevonian sandstones are inhabited by plenty of bryophyte species, and the composition of their mossMosses-liverwortLiverworts communities depends on the mineral composition of the sandstone. Red sandstones rich in metals (aluminium, iron, potassium) are occupied mainly by mossesMosses. 0.2% calcium oxide in the substrate composition is already sufficient for the appearance of calciphilous species in mossMosses communities. LiverwortsLiverworts prefer white, generally element-poor sandstones, but some calcicolous liverwortLiverworts species may inhabit red ferruginous sandstones containing more than 0.2% calcium. The analyses reveal different changes in the contain of some elements under various bryophyte-dominated crusts. The four categories of communities according to the ability to deposit calcium and other metals are given. The composition of the organic matterOrganic matter under different bryophyte communities was analyzed to evaluate the degree of soil formationSoil formation. The content of total organic matterOrganic matter does not exceed 1% and does not differ between categories. However, the average content of humic acids differs significantly. The results show the lowest rates of pedogenesisPedogenesis under communities of calcicoles.

Evgeniia V. Smirnova, Helena V. Kushnevskaya, Elena G. Panova, Elena E. Orlova
Changes of Trace Element Composition of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) in Urban Landscapes: A Case Study of Serpukhov

The content of 16 priority pollutant elements was determined in the leaves of dandelionDandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Serpukhov (Moscow Oblast) in summer 2016. The greatest changes in the urban plant composition were associated with the accumulation of Bi, Pb, W, V, Cr and As, which are released from mechanical engineering, metalworking, chemical and textile enterprises and motor transport. The maximum excess of Bi in the dandelionDandelion leaves was found in the industrial zone (19.6 times that of the background level), the excess of Pb, V, Cr and As was identified in the traffic zone. Such elements as Fe, Ni, Co, Mo, Sr and Sc accumulated in the dandelionDandelion leaves in all land use zones, while the essential elements Mn, Cu were depleted. The leading factor that determines the levels of Bi, Cr and Cu in the plant leavesPlant leaves is the type of land use. Plant uptake of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, W, V, Bi largely depends on the physicochemical properties of the urban soilsUrban soils. Two associations, Sc–Fe–V–Cr–Ni–Co and Cu–Zn, were formed in the dandelionDandelion leaves. The Fe/Mn, Pb/Mn, and Cu/Zn ratios in the dandelionDandelion leaves revealed early disturbances in the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and enzyme synthesisSynthesis in most of the plants studied. The greatest imbalance of the elements exceeding the physiological optimum by more than 7 times was observed in the industrial and traffic zones, the smallest imbalance was detected in the recreational zone. Almost half (47%) of the examined plants were characterized by high and very high levels of biogeochemical transformation (Zv = 30–60). An abnormally high content of Bi, Pb, V, As, Cr, W (Zv > 80) was found in the industrial and traffic zones.

Natalia E. Kosheleva, Natalia Y. Kuzminskaya, Olga V. Novikova
Seasonal and Diurnal Changes of Organic Molecules in Plants

Circadian rhythms are able to affect numerous physiological processes in plants. Now there is an understanding of circadian biologyBiology of model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. The studies of the circadian clock function in other plants, especially perennial weeds, are still limited. In the research, Raman spectroscopyRaman spectroscopy was used to estimate the differences between organic composition of different plant species and influence of climatic conditions on the plant development during vegetation season as well as over a day time. For the field experiment, two widespread plant species, couch grassCouch grass and dandelionDandelion, were selected. It was found that concentrations of carotenoidsCarotenoids, phenylpropanoidsPhenylpropanoids, aliphatic compoundsAliphatic compounds, celluloseCellulose, and carbohydratesCarbohydrates in the plant leavesPlant leaves varied both during day and during growing season. Although the plants grew under the same conditions in a small site and were collected at the same time, the variations were often different on different sampling dates, and there were also differences between dandelionDandelion and couch grassCouch grass. No correlation was found between temperature and humidity at the site and temporal changes in the concentration of organic compounds in couch grassCouch grass leaves collected at different times and in leaves of dandelionDandelion, with the exception of the dandelionDandelion collected in early summer and mid-autumn. It can be suggested that the main difference in the distribution of the biomolecules in couch grassCouch grass and dandelionDandelion leaves might be because these plant species belong to two different groups that differ in many biochemical and physiological functions.

Vladimir P. Chelibanov, Alexander V. Golovin, Irina V. Shtangeeva
Short-Term Variability of Element Concentrations in the Rhizosphere of Couch Grass and Nettle in St. Petersburg, Russia

The rhizosphereRhizosphere of plants is a very dynamic system that can vary over time depending on the plant physiological state, its developmental stage and environmental conditions. The concentrations of many elements in the rhizosphereRhizosphere soil are also not constant. Until now, more attention has been paid to long-term (seasonal and annual) changes in the root zone. However, short-term (within hours) fluctuations in the concentrations of elements in the rhizosphereRhizosphere soil of different plant species have not been studied enough. In this work, diurnal variations in the concentrations of macro- and trace elementsTrace elements in the rhizosphereRhizosphere of two widespread plant species, couch grassCouch grass and nettle, growing in the same place under the same conditions, were studied. The short-term variations in the rhizosphereRhizosphere soil of couch grassCouch grass and nettle were significant and regular. Depending on the time of sampling, the temporal changes of one or another element in the soil taken from roots of the plants were often different. This may be caused by differences between couch grassCouch grass (monocot) and nettle (dicot), which release various organic compounds into the rhizosphereRhizosphere, and may also be due to natural factors, including climatic conditions.

Irina V. Shtangeeva, Matti Niemelä, Alexander G. Ryumin, Paavo Perämäki

Biomineral Interactions in Soil

Metagenomic Studies of Chernozem Under Different Type of Land Use

This study is a comparative analysis of microbiome of chernozems of different types of land use in the Kamennaya SteppeKamennaya Steppe nature reserveNature reserve (the Voronezh Region, Russia). The soil transect was crossed over: the mown fallow plot, forest plantation, and wheat crops. The soil samples were collected at the same time from the soils horizons up to a depth of 100 cm (in fallow up to 200 cm). The key plots of soil pit location are characterized by similar parent substrate, climate parameters, and humusHumus-accumulative type of pedogenesisPedogenesis. The history of land use of this territory is known. The age of the fallow land and field-protecting plantations is about 100 years; the arable land use is about 200 years old. That allows us to use these profiles as the possible objects to investigate the specificity of the microbiome structure affected by the type of land use. The microbiome was studied of different taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, family, genus). The microbiome structure analysis was performed in different aspects: (a) changes in the microbial community along the depth of soil profilesSoil profile, (b) evaluation of the similarity and differences in the microbial community of the surface and middle soil horizons of different lands, and (c) comparison of the microbocenoses in parent substrate from soils affected by the different land use systems.

Boris F. Aparin, Yaroslavna V. Valchenko, Elena Yu. Sukhacheva, Maria K. Zakharova, Evgeny E. Andronov
Clay Mineralogy as a Marker of Volcanic Biogeosystem Evolution in Laetoli, Tanzania

The Laetoli hominid footprints dating back some 3.6 million years discovered by Leakey in 1978 is an archaeological site of great importance in understanding the humanHuman evolutionEvolution. The footprints of hominids, animals, and birds cast in the volcanic ash consolidated into tuff deposits are also an insight into the evolutionEvolution of the whole biogeosystem of this area dominated by volcanic activity. The volcanic ash deposits consolidated into tuffs are a marker which sets the base line for tracking the further sediment transport in the catchmentCatchment of this historic site. The surface of the tuff exposure along the Garusi river carrying the footprints shows no signs of weatheringWeathering and the soils of the area form in subsequent sediments that filled the valley after the deposition of the tuff material. Following the deposition and consolidation of the airfall tuffs, the biogeosystem of the Laetoli gorge and its surroundings experienced a complex evolutionEvolution which led to formation of the present-day soil cover. The study of clay mineralogyMineralogy of these soils has provided interesting insights into the evolutionEvolution of this system.

Andrei B. Rozanov, Sofia N. Lessovaia, Anatoly N. Zaitsev, Gennady P. Kopitsa, Yulia E. Gorshkova, Natalia V. Platonova, Dmitry Yu. Vlasov, Irina Y. Tikhomirova, Joshua Mwankunda
Acid Sulfate Pedogenesis of the Geological Past

The given paper presents the multidisciplinary study of two DevonianDevonian paleosolsPaleosols recently discovered on the territory of Voronezh Anteclise (South Russia) in the actively excavated quarries at the border of Proterozoic rocks with DevonianDevonian sedimentary cover. First of it was developed from weathered ferruginous quartzite, second—from rhyolitic tuff. Both rocks contain inclusions of pyrite: of metamorphic origin in quartzite and pyrite substituted allochthonous coalified remnants of NematophytesNematophytes in rhyoliteRhyolite. Originated from mineralogically and nutrients poor, potentially toxic hard rocks, under rootless vegetation the developed paleosolsPaleosols, however, demonstrate the surprisingly deep development. Along with typical for these rocks a quartz dominance, paleosolsPaleosols contain in situ developed kaolinite, Fe-oxidesFe-oxides, gypsumGypsum, jarositeJarosite. Considering all results obtained the discovered paleosolsPaleosols were attributed to acid sulfate soils. The development of paleosolsPaleosols was initiated by pyrite oxidation which played the role of trigger. In such aggressive system the chemical weatheringChemical weathering prevailed under physical weatheringWeathering and biological effect. Being gypseous, paleosolsPaleosols bear characteristics which are typical for paleosolPaleosols of humid type.

Tatiana V. Alekseeva, Andrey O. Alekseev
Can Earthworm Invasions from Rudny Altai (Kazakhstan) in the South of Western Siberia Change the Amount of Humus in Meadow Chernozem (Calcic Chernozem) Soils?

Since the second half of the twentieth century, significant losses of humusHumus have been noted in the soils of the south of Western Siberia. This period also became favorable for the spread of invasive earthworm species in both agrocenoses and natural ecosystems as a result of soil plowing and climate change. In this study, we aim to determine whether earthworm invasionsInvasions in the south of Western Siberia could alter the amount of humusHumus and further aggravate soil fertility. To this end, we analyzed soil samples from field experiments in mesocosmsMesocosms. Earthworm invasionsInvasions in Western Siberia were simulated in experiments on meadow-chernozem soils. We studied the influence of the native species Eisenia nordenskioldi and invasive species E. ventripappilata, E. nana and their cohabitation for 92 days on soil parameters. A significant effect of invasive species and all combinations of earthworms on the amount of soil humusHumus was identified. E. ventripappilata was found to have the greatest impact on soil humusHumus. This species contributed to a decrease in the amount of humusHumus. Thus, earthworm invasionsInvasions in the south of Western Siberia may lead to even greater soil degradation and soil fertility loss.

Elena V. Golovanova, Daria P. Unru, Kirill A. Babiy, Stanislav Yu. Kniazev, Olga A. Golovanova
Geochemical Features of the Waste Processing Plant Landfill Soil

Recycling, neutralization and storage of solid household waste is an urgent problem due to the constant growth of their accumulation. When they are stored outdoors, as the result of mechanical, chemical and biological weatheringBiological weathering, chemical elements become mobile and migrate to surrounding areas, creating soil, hydrochemical and biological anomalies. Some of the elements form secondary mineralsSecondary minerals (salts, oxides-hydroxides, chlorides, phosphates) or are part of the organic component of landfill soilLandfill soil. In the young soils (2 years old), accumulate high values of total carbonCarbon, humusHumus, N, and H. The number of microbial cells in them is less than in the old ones (20 years old), but their diversityDiversity is greater. In young landfillYoung landfills soilsLandfill soil, high concentrations of most chemical elements (Zc = 74) recorded in comparison with the settled soils (Zc = 32). The degree of weatheringWeathering of 20-year-old soils is 10–100 times greater compared to young landfillYoung landfills soilsLandfill soil. Most of elements accumulate in the soil filtrate of young sediments (from 2 to 15 times) compared to the settled soils.

Elena G. Panova, Tatiana V. Lemanova, Irina Yu. Tikhomirova
Field Trials of Soil Improvement Technology with a Bacterial Mixture

Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICPMicrobially induced calcite precipitation (MICP)) is a process of biological cementation that takes place during the metabolic processes of microorganismsMicroorganisms under conditions of elevated concentrations of calcium and carbonateCarbonates ions in the microenvironment. As a result, the geotechnical properties of the soil are improved due to the binding of soil particles by the resulting calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate minerals. Despite a large number of laboratory studies, data on field trials are scarce. In this work, we present our first attempts of a field technology for soil compaction using microorganismsMicroorganisms. Screening of the bacterial strains resulted in a bacterial mixture M2 that showed the highest values for the amount of calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate formed and for the uniaxial compressive strength when treating soil samples in laboratory studies. After selection of the bacterial preparation storage and transportation methods, field experiments were carried out to improve the geotechnical properties of the soil by bioaugmentation and biostimulation. The experimental soil site treated with the M2 bacterial mix and a cementing mortar in 2 stages yielded 4 cm of compaction depth; filtration coefficient of 53.61 m/day; the concentration of formed calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate was 2.43%.

Darya A. Golovkina, Elena V. Zhurishkina, Jing Xu, Anna A. Kulminskaya
Biogenic-Abiogenic Interactions in Soils Affected by Wildfires in Russian North-West (Novgorod Region)

Studies of postpyrogenic soils in the southern taiga zone in 2022 using the example of the Borovichi forestry territory (quarter 44 of the Pereluchsky district forestry) in the Novgorod region were conducted. The superficial layer of the mossMosses litter was affected by fires in 2021. Three soil pits along the catena (a top of the kama terrace, a slope, and an accumulative position) were taken in the postpyrogenic area and one pit—for control, in the non-burnt area. A similar area of the forest ecosystem with the same type of soil, but not subjected to forest fireForest fire was used as a control. The soil at pyrogenic area is represented by illuvial-ferruginous postpyrogenic podzolPodzol on kama sandy loams (PodzolPodzol—WRB) with the profile structure Qpyr-E-BF-BC-C. It should be noted that postpyrogenic soils poorly fit into the framework of existing soil classificationsClassification. Upper part of soils of postpyrogenic successionSuccession are represented by surface organogenic horizons that retain traces of pyrogenic impact—burnt mossMosses tirr. The presence of charcoal particles is visually diagnosed at the boundary of organic and podzolic horizons. The lower part of the soil profileSoil profile has the structure which is typical of PodzolsPodzol. The paper discussed the dynamics of biogenic elementsBiogenic elements content in postfire soils and results of the vertical electrical resistivity soundingElectrical resistivity sounding as well.

Ekaterina Y. Chebykina, Timur I. Nizamutdinov, Evgeny V. Abakumov
Soil Transformations in the Littorina Terrace Under the Impact of Urbanization (St. Petersburg, Russia)

The central part of the city of Saint Petersburg is located within the Littorina terrace composed of alluvial-marine deposits. Representative soil profilesSoil profile of the terrace were studied in the context of increasing anthropogenic impact. The levels of pHH2O, organic carbonCarbon, CaCO3, mobile phosphorus compounds, heavy metalsHeavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn) were examined, along with the evaluation of soil texture and characteristics of anthropogenic inclusions (artefacts). It was established that natural soils in the central part of St. Petersburg are buried under anthropogenic (cultural) layers with a total thickness of up to 150–190 cm. The maximum degree of soil transformation was observed in technogenic urbostratozemsUrbostratozem. These soils were characterized by a large number of artefacts and high alkalinity. The content of heavy metalsHeavy metals in soils was found to depend on their land-use history.

Kseniia A. Bakhmatova, Anastasia A. Sheshukova, Elena G. Panova, Sofia A. Egorova

Interactions of Microorganisms with Natural and Artificial Materials

Bacterial Contribution in Biomineralization at the Tomskaya Pisanitsa Rock Art Site

MicroorganismsMicroorganisms found in various climatic conditions are able to effect the surface of rock artRock art monuments. In this work we consider the influence of bacteria on biomineralizationBiomineralization on the unique rock artRock art monument “Tomskaya Pisanitsa” (Western Siberia, Russia). The biomineralizationBiomineralization products obtained in vitro and in vivo were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, binocular and scanning electron microscopy as well as energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Cultures of cyanobacteriaCyanobacteria and organotrophic bacteria were identified on the basic of the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. The manifestation of bacterial carbonateCarbonates biomineralizationBiomineralization on rock artRock art monument “Tomskaya Pisanitsa” was found. Using experimental modelingExperimental modeling it was shown that the formation of biogenic calcite (in some cases together with calcium oxalatesOxalates) can occur by action cyanobacteriaCyanobacteria and organotrophic bacteria living on the bedrock. The results of the study can be used for conservation of rock monuments.

Dmitry Yu. Vlasov, Marina S. Zelenskaya, Alina R. Izatulina, Oksana A. Rodina, Alexey D. Vlasov, Katerina V. Sazanova, Anna A. Vilnet, Irina V. Abolonkova, Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya
Surface Properties of Carbonate Speleothems in Karst Caves Changing Under Biofilms

Some surface properties of carbonateCarbonates speleothems from Kirillov’s, Pionerskaya and Yaschik Pandory caves in the Republic of Khakasia, as well as Yuryevskaya Cave in the Republic of Tatarstan were investigated. The types of the speleothem samples such as crusts, drips, corallites, and moon milk were studied. All the samples were collected in cave aphotic zones at a wall temperature not higher than + 10 ºC. Differently polished marble onyx, gypsumGypsum and glassGlass plates were taken as reference surfaces. The surfaces were processed by polishing, heating, etching chemicals, and adding R2A modified growth media. These modes simulated experimentally common natural processes in the system of “calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate−chemolithotrophic biofilmBiofilms”. The speleothem samples under the cave microbial community, which can exist successfully in the upper soil layer, were considered against the background of the reference mineral surfaces. The captive bubble method, SEM, XRD, EDX, as well as DTG analyses were carried out to determine wettabilityWettability, roughness, total organic matterOrganic matter content, and elemental and mineral compositions of the samples. The metagenome of the microbial community was estimated using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The influence of fresh and long-lived biofilmsBiofilms on the carbonateCarbonates surface properties is assessed. The assumption that biofilm dynamicsBiofilm dynamics affects the carbonateCarbonates surface properties and its toughness is substantiated. Our work hypothesized that the part of organic matterOrganic matter can enter the gaps in growing carbonateCarbonates crystalsCrystals, then, is sealed with a new mineral phase, and later, is assimilated by heterotrophic and organotrophic organisms.

Oxana A. Sofinskaya, Oleg Y. Andrushkevich, Bulat M. Galiullin, Nataliya E. Gogoleva, Nurislam M. Shaikhutdinov, Eduard A. Korolev, Fedor A. Mouraviev, Rustem M. Usmanov
Examples of Natural and Technogenic Mineral Formation on the Surface of Architectural Objects

The influence of structure, mineral and chemical composition of weatheringWeathering forms on the cultural heritage monuments have been studied by optical microscopy, petrographic analysis and electron microscopy. The objects of the study were architectural, memorial, museum monuments, built and decorated with natural (limestoneLimestones, dolomite, mica, etc.), or artificial (glassGlass, ceramicsCeramics and cement) materials. GypsumGypsum, oxides and hydroxides of iron, less often manganeseManganese oxides as well as sodium sulfates and halite are the main minerals of the surface formations on the architectural objects. Among the sulfates, we also found minerals of the jarositeJarosite group. They form either disseminated phenocrysts in dolomitic limestonesLimestones and sandstones in association with gypsumGypsum and goethite or interlayers in the clays enriched by organic matterOrganic matter. In urban conditions, formations such as streaks, spots and crusts on the architectural objects containing mortars and cement materials differ in the micro-layered structure, zoning of mineral composition and morphologyMorphology. The resistance of materials to biogenic weatheringWeathering was evaluated. The surfaces of the glazed tiles are the most stable to biogenic erosion.

Raisa V. Lobzova, Oxana V. Karimova, Anastasia S. Makarova, Alina A. Krotova, Larisa O. Magazina, Vera N. Smolyaninova
Microorganisms and Stages of Stromatolite Formation

Since the sixties of the last century, stromatoliteStromatolites buildings have been successfully used for the purpose of stratigraphic dismemberment of the dumb strata of the Precambrian. The age of the stromatolitesStromatolites was determined on the basis of the morphology of buildingsMorphology of buildings associated with a specific period of geological time. Such a formal classificationClassification made it possible to distinguish large stratigraphic divisions of erathems and suberathems in Precambrian strata, and much more fractional within stromatoliteStromatolites provinces. It was not possible to identify the remains of microorganismsMicroorganisms in stromatolitesStromatolites for a long time. Now, with the help of an electron microscope and a special technique, it has become possible to establish numerous fossilized microfossilsMicrofossils in these rocks. However, the reasons for the appearance of various morphological structures (stratiform stromatolitesStromatolites, differently branching and non-branching column-type stromatolitesStromatolites, etc.) and the attachment of each of them to a certain time remain unclear. Currently, it has become possible to study the role of microorganismsMicroorganisms in this process. But the scale of stromatoliteStromatolites formation in the Precambrian makes it difficult to compare cyanobacteriaCyanobacteria in different stromatoliteStromatolites structures. Unlike the powerful Precambrian reefsReefs stretching for kilometers, Phanerozoic stromatolitesStromatolites have a fairly limited distribution and are characterized by small capacities. The remains of cyanobacteriaCyanobacteria in them are preserved better, and the intensity of secondary processes affects these rocks to a lesser extent. Small incisions in the Phanerozoic make it possible to compare the role of certain cyanobacteriaCyanobacteria that took part in the construction of stromatolitesStromatolites of different shapes. To determine the age of rocks in the Phanerozoic, numerous remains of fauna were used, rather than rare stromatoliteStromatolites buildings. Therefore, they have not been practically studied before. In this work, for the first time, on the example of stromatolitesStromatolites from the Middle PermianPermian, the restructuring of the organic microcosm is traced, illustrating its evolutionEvolution. During the formation of the PermianPermian stromatoliteStromatolites structure, three successive phases are distinguished: initial, intermediate and final. The work has established with the participation of which microfossilsMicrofossils (coccoid, filamentous, etc.) one or another form of construction is now observed. The features of the vital activity of the cyanobacteriaCyanobacteria community are considered. The study of microorganismsMicroorganisms in Phanerozoic stromatolitesStromatolites and their comparison with the Precambrian cyanobacterial community will greatly simplify the interpretation of data on ancient reefReefs structures.

Tatiana V. Litvinova
Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Microfungi at Polar Latitudes

We investigated the survival of extremophileExtremophiles microfungiMicrofungi (Exophiala xenobiotica, Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium herbarum, Rhodotorula colostri, Pseudogymnoascus pannorum) under proton and gamma radiation in a dose range of 0–200 Gy. An increase in survival probability observed for all species of microfungiFungi at doses less than 50 Gy may be explained in terms of hormesis. The increased survival rate was the highest for Cladosporium herbarum (140%) and the lowest for Rhodotorula colostri (107%). The latter may be due to the presence of carotene in Rhodotorula colostri, which blocks free radicals involved in hormesis. An increase in survival probability in Cladosporium herbarum observed across a wider range of doses up to 75 Gy may be a result of the presence of melanin in the cell wall. At doses of 100–200 Gy, the mycelial fungiFungi Pseudogymnoascus pannorum had the lowest survival probability of 25%, while the corresponding probability of Cladosporium herbarum was 48%. At the same time, the probability of survival with gamma-irradiation was about 15% higher than with proton irradiation. Conversely, in the case of yeast fungiFungi, the opposite effect was observed: the probability of survival under gamma irradiation was lower than under proton irradiation.

Irina Yu. Kirtsideli, Galina N. Zvereva, Andrej A. Vasilev, Natalya A. Kuzora, Lilit G. Vaganyan, Fedor A. Pak, Vadim A. Iliushin, Eduard M. Matchs, Aleksandr I. Khalikov

Medical Geology

Medical Geology: Status and Prospects of the Science in Russia and in NIS

Medical geologyMedical geology is a relevant interdisciplinary branch of natural science that studies the influence of geological materials, objects, processes and phenomena on the health of the population, animals and biota in general. Medical geologyMedical geology is a dynamically developing scientific field that unites the geological, geochemical, biological and medical communities in solving of wide range of environmental problems. Medical geologyMedical geology, in fact, is a response to one of the most acute challenges of the time—the existence of man as a biological species. Among the priority tasks of medical geologyMedical geology is the integration of various branches of biomedical and geological sciences into a complex system of knowledge about the health of living organisms.

Iosif F. Volfson, Marina V. Prozorova, Olga I. Yakushina, Igor G. Pechenkin, Elena V. Kremkova, Iskhak M. Farkhutdinov
Drinking Water Influence on the Chemical Composition of Gastric Juice: Monitoring and Modeling

The paper presents the results of "model" pH values of gastric juiceGastric juice and data on the sampling and study of the chemical composition of the biological fluid of the stomach of patients from different population groups of the Apatity-Kirovsk region (Murmansk region, Russia) depending on HCl content. Deviations from the ideal model are associated with the incidence of patients of different nature and severity. Analysis of the results of the chemical composition of gastric juiceGastric juice of patient 1 before and after treatment indicates its change in the course of treatment: concentrations of sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesiumMagnesium, and phosphorus decreased several times. Using thermodynamic modelingThermodynamic modeling, it was shown that the result of using mineral watersMineral water of the Krasnodar region coincides with the results of drug treatment. The use of mineral watersMineral water should be considered as an effective medical resource for the prevention and treatment of stomach diseases. This approach opens up new prospects for research in the field of ecology, health and medicine.

Svetlana I. Mazukhina, Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya, Pavel S. Tereshchenko, Andrey I. Novikov, Anna A. Shirokaya, Yuliya A. Kalashnikova, Sergei S. Sandimirov, Andrey M. Zolnikov
Environmental Quality of the Kola Region: Impact on Human Elemental Status

The population of the Kola regionKola region lives in an industrialized area. This determines the increased man-made load on the environment and humans. A modern precision method—mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma is used to evaluate the elemental composition of dust emissionsDust emissions, soils, plants, groundwater, sediments and biosubstratesBiosubstrates. The state of the central part of the Kola regionKola region is determined by enterprises operating on its territory. They produce a large amount of dust emissionsDust emissions that transform the entire environment. Ecotoxicants migrate into soil and water. This affects the elemental composition of organisms in the area. The study shows the sources of industrial pollutionPollution, transport of elements in the environment and their influence on the elemental status of a humanHuman.

Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya, Irina P. Kremenetskaya, Svetlana I. Mazukhina, Yuliya A. Kalashnikova
Mobility and Peculiarities of Trace Elements Content in the Blood Serum of the Population of the Mining Region: Case of Bashkortostan Republic

The object of the study is teenagers and adultAdults population of the industrial center of the mining province of the Republic of Bashkortostan—Sibay. Objective: to study the incidence and the microelementMicroelement composition of blood serum in different age groups of the Sibay city population. Chemical and analytical studies of blood were carried out in a licensed laboratory of the Autonomous Non-Profit Organization “Center for Biotic Medicine” (Moscow) by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica 6.0 program, and at p < 0.05, the differences were evaluated as statistically significant. As a result of the examination of adolescentsAdolescents and adultsAdults of the Trans-Ural zone of Bashkortostan, an imbalance of trace elementsTrace elements in the blood serum was revealed. Significant deviations from the physiological norm in adolescentsAdolescents were the following: in less than 10% of individuals, a reduced content of zinc, manganeseManganese, copper and cobalt was registered, and an increased content of iron was also detected in 30% of adolescentsAdolescents; in 23%—cadmium; in 16–17%—copper, zinc and manganeseManganese. AdultsAdults (23%) were found to be deficient in cobalt, as well as an excess of cobalt (32.5%), cadmium (32.5%), arsenic (20%), and zinc (20%). The results obtained indicate that the population of this region is at risk of developing both metal toxicosis and a deficiency of vital trace elementsTrace elements. This fact requires strengthening control over the level of heavy metalsHeavy metals in atmospheric air, soil, water, and food, and taking measures to reduce the risk to public health, including correcting the microelementMicroelement status.

Irina N. Semenova
Physiological Adequacy Assessment of Potable Water in Lovozero District (Murmansk Region, Russia)

Findings of a physiological assessment of the potable waterPotable water of the Lovozero MassifLovozero Massif consumed by residents are presented according to its main macro- and microelement content. Our findings indicate that concentrations of calcium and magnesiumMagnesium are significantly lower than those recommended for different water categories, including those based on the criterion of physiological adequacy; the maximum permitted concentrationMaximum permitted concentration (MPC) standards for Sr, Na+, HCO3−, Cl−, SO42−and NO3−for physiologically adequate and bottled water need to be revised for the study area. The water also contains trace elementsTrace elements (Zr, La, Ce) for which no MPCs exist and whose effect on the humanHuman body has not yet been studied. Our findings show that the potable waterPotable water consumed by the residents of Lovozero District, both in its natural state and in tap water, lacks a balanced composition in terms of the content of the main macro- and microelementsMicroelement (magnesiumMagnesium, calcium, hydrocarbonates) and cannot be considered as physiologically adequate in terms of total mineralization. The concept of physiological adequacy of potable waterPotable water needs to be developed, taking into account regional differences. The study of the role of mineral processes in the humanHuman body is important in both environmental science and medicine.

Svetlana I. Mazukhina, Sergey S. Sandimirov, Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya

Philosophical Aspects

The Ratio of Simple and Complex in Evolution

On the usually given examples of increasing complexityComplexity, it is shown that the complexityComplexity of objects increases only in total. These examples also show something else—each subsequent level of organization is simpler than the previous one. Complication occurs as a result of the fact that elements are more complex than systems and impart their complexityComplexity and energy to them. The general mechanism of complication is the mutual-organizationMutual-organization of elements, and not the self-organization of systems from simple components.

Evgeniya L. Sumina, Dmitry L. Sumin
The Concept of Species in Biology and Mineralogy: A Comparative Study

Both descriptive mineralogyMineralogy and descriptive biologyBiology are based upon the concept of speciesThe concept of species. The definition of species in mineralogyMineralogy reflects the dialectic unity of chemical composition and crystalCrystals structure, two interdependent features of a crystalline substance. Despite some issues that still remain unresolved, the definition of a mineral species is rather strict and depends upon the mutual agreement reached by researchers on the borders that separate one mineral species from another. In biologyBiology, there are different approaches to the concept of speciesThe concept of species. Yet, the biological species is understood as a group of organisms with common morphological, physiological, biochemical and behavioral features, capable of crossbreeding. The modern definition of a biological species is based upon combination of morphological and molecular genetic features. The basic difference between mineral and living organism is the existence of a molecular carrier of genetic information in the latter (DNADNA). Though mineral kingdom develops in time (mineral evolutionMineral evolution), this development has little in common with the development of the domains of life (biological evolutionBiological evolution). Thus, the concept of a mineral species has no evolutionary aspect, in contrast to the concept of biological species, where each species is the result of evolutionEvolution governed by different biological and environmental mechanisms. The morphological and genetic diversityDiversity of living organisms is by far larger than the mineralogical diversityDiversity, by at least three degrees of magnitude. The biological classificationClassification of species, at least at some level of organismal complexityComplexity, reflects their evolutionary development, whereas classificationClassification of minerals is based purely upon their constitution, i.e., the chemical composition and crystalCrystals structure. In both mineralogyMineralogy and biologyBiology, the definition of a new species proceeds along specific protocols governed by special codes identified by respective international scientific organizations.

Sergey V. Krivovichev, Evgeny A. Borovichev
Biogenic—Abiogenic Interactions in Natural and Anthropogenic Systems 2022
herausgegeben von
Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya
Dmitry Yu. Vlasov
Elena G. Panova
Tatiana V. Alekseeva
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN