The toxicity of sewage sludge in the laboratory and following discharge at a disposal site off Plymouth is assessed using two water quality bioassays, interpreted in conjunction with inorganic chemistry. The results indicate changes in toxicity of stored seawater dilutions of sewage sludge. Consequently the shorter oyster embryo bioassay, requiring 24 h compared with 11 days for the hydroid bioassay, is more suitable. Results using non-feeding embryos also have the advantage that their response is not affected by the interference of feeding that occurs with hydroids due to the high particulate loads. Following discharge at sea under calm conditions, dispersal was predominately horizontal, but resulted in sufficient dispersion after 1 h for bioassay and chemical results to demonstrate a return to pre-disposal conditions. The results show close agreement between the biological and chemical data as the sludge disperses.
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- Biological and Chemical Indices of Sewage Sludge Discharged at Sea
A. R. D. Stebbing
J. J. Cleary
J. E. Thain
M. D. Brinsley
- Springer Netherlands