The approach of using integrated programs of biological and chemical tests for characterization of industrial effluents has been applied for hazard assessment by the regulatory agences in Sweden for some years now. Most cases are connected to the claim on municipal and industrial facilities to obtain discharge permits. In other cases testing programs have been used for directing process modifications or external treatment techniques towards a minimization of the environmental effects from the discharge.The biological testing has found the widest and most efficient application for industrial plants with processes emitting complex effluents with largely unknown chemical composition and environmental impact.The test programs are applied in a flexible manner depending on the type of industry with its process modifications, raw materials and chemicals added. The character of the receiving water body is taken into consideration when choosing the test organisms.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Biological-Chemical Characterization of Effluents for the Evaluation of the Potential Impact on the Aquatic Environment
- Springer Netherlands
Fallstudie Überschwemmungskarten/© Thaut Images | Fotolia