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2017 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

14. Biological indicators

verfasst von : Michael L. Zettler, Alexander Darr, Matthias Labrenz, Sigrid Sagert, Uwe Selig, Ursula Siebert, Nardine Stybel

Erschienen in: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea

Verlag: Springer Netherlands

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Abstract

1.
Changes in living conditions caused by natural variability or anthropogenic activities elicit distinct responses of species, populations and communities. Bioindication is the recording of such responses and the entity measured is called a “bioindicator”.
 
2.
A bioindicator can be any relevant component or measure that can be used to estimate the environmental status based on the performance of all types of organisms (prokaryotes, protists, macroalgae, vascular plants, invertebrates, fish, mammals), including bulk measurements such as the chlorophyll a concentration in the seawater or the lower depth limit of macrophytes.
 
3.
To be able to conclude if environmental change has taken place based on bioindication, it is essential to have knowledge of the specific ecological requirements of the organisms with respect to their habitats.
 
4.
Bioindication using individuals or species includes e.g. behavioural adaptations, modifications of organ and cell structures and changes in population dynamics.
 
5.
Bioindication by recording dramatic increases or decreases in the proportion and/or density of species in a community provides a conspicuous sign of environmental change, especially when this includes the extinction of species.
 
6.
Strong decreases and extinctions of species in a community coupled to immigration of non-indigenous species may signify a shift in community composition that has a bearing on the functioning of the entire ecosystem.
 
7.
Bioindication is a major tool used in the implementations of the EU environmental legislation: the Habitats Directive (HD), the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).
 

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Metadaten
Titel
Biological indicators
verfasst von
Michael L. Zettler
Alexander Darr
Matthias Labrenz
Sigrid Sagert
Uwe Selig
Ursula Siebert
Nardine Stybel
Copyright-Jahr
2017
Verlag
Springer Netherlands
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0668-2_14