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​Current Trends in Biomanufacturing focuses on cutting-edge research regarding the design, fabrication, assembly, and measurement of bio-elements into structures, devices, and systems.
The field of biomaterial and biomanufacturing is growing exponentially in order to meet the increasing demands of for artificial joints, organs and bone-fixation devices. Rapid advances in the biological sciences and engineering are leading to newer and viable resources, methods and techniques that may providing better quality of life and more affordable health care services.
The book covers the broad aspects of biomanufacturing, including:synthesis of biomaterials;implant coating techniques;spark plasma sintering;microwave processing; andcladding, powder metallurgy and electrospinning.
The contributors illustrate the recent trends of biomanufacturing, highlighting the important aspects of biomaterial synthesis, and their use as feedstock of fabrication technologies and their characterization, along with their clinical practices. Current Trends in Biomanufacturing updates researchers and scientists the novelties and techniques of the field, as it summarises numerous aspects of biomanufacturing, including synthesis of biomaterials, fabrication of biomedical structures, their in-vivo/ in-vitro, mechanical analysis and associated ISO standards.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Current Trends in Biomaterials and Bio-manufacturing

Abstract
The current research work presents the critical review of current trends on the synthesis/development of biomaterials and surface modification/processing/treatment of biomaterials for biomedical application. In the first phase, the significance of biomaterial is presented. The technique for the development of porous and solid biomedical implants was discussed in detail for their successful applications. Powder metallurgical, additive manufacturing, and 3-D printing technologies were reported good potential techniques for the development of porous mechanically tuned of metallic and ceramic-based implants for medical applications. In the second phase, an innovative engineering technique for surface modification, processing, and treatment of implants was discussed to enhance the bioactivity, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear resistance properties. Electric discharge machining, electrochemical deposition, and plasma spar deposition were reported the best and potential innovative engineering technique to improve the mechanical properties and bioactivity. The chapter also presents the future scope for the development and surface modification of biomedical implants.
Harjit Singh, Sunpreet Singh, Chander Prakash

Recent Advances in Additive Manufacturing of Bio-inspired Materials

Abstract
The changing scenario in the rapidly developing economies and industries requires bulk-scale fabrication of materials. The production of materials on such a large scale by industries requires high quality, low-cost production, and high efficiency, in order to sustain the innovative market competition. Complexities like high initial tooling, part design restrictions, bounded degree of designing freedom, and machinery cost in traditional manufacturing have led to the need of new approaches and techniques of manufacturing. To overcome these complexities, additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D Printing) has been proven to be a paramount method, which has the potential to perform all the operations in one place such as cutting, forming, bending or transforming materials and components for further assembling in one part and in short time, due to which it is also useful in biomedical applications from medicine to anthropology. Recently, the polymers have become prime choice of the materials for additive manufacturing, and various thermoplastic materials like acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) together with thermosetting polymeric materials can be easily processed by 3D printing. This chapter discusses 3D printing of various biologically inspired structures like molluscan shell and honeycomb structure with above-mentioned matrix materials and their reinforcements with synthetic and natural fibres. The developed materials were characterized via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wear test analysis and impact strength analysis (ASTM standard). Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on future scope of 4D printing for additive manufacturing.
Swaroop Gharde, Aarsha Surendren, Jay M. Korde, Shubham Saini, Nikit Deoray, Rajendra Goud, Sunil Nimje, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

Poly-lactic-Acid: Potential Material for Bio-printing Applications

Abstract
Exclusive research efforts, made across the world, in the area of material science have resulted into development of a wide range of materials which could be successfully used for numerous biomedical applications. Poly-lactic-acid (PLA) is one of these developments which could be brought in direct contact of the tissues/organs, as a medical device and support structure. For the benefit of the research scholars, this chapter is structured to review the prospective biomedical implications of PLA material, explored in the last 20 years. Further, the efficacy of PLA with different types of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, especially for fused deposition modeling, is also highlighted in response of the mechanical, biological, and topological characteristics of resulting parts. Further, the printing of waste natural fiber embedded PLA structures has experimented, as a case study, via fused deposition modeling.
Sunpreet Singh, Chander Prakash, Manjeet Singh, Guravtar Singh Mann, Munish Kumar Gupta, Rupinder Singh, Seeram Ramakrishna

Computer-Aided Design of Subject-Specific Dental Instruments for Preoperative Virtual Planning in Orthognathic Surgery

Abstract
Maxillofacial deformities and undesirable position of the mandible cause facial asymmetry and malocclusions. The techniques and equipment used for the maxillofacial surgeries have changed over the years. In this chapter, traditional preoperative preparations and surgical planning process in the orthognathic surgery have been summarized. In addition, we reviewed various software and workflows used for the preoperative planning and design of the miniplates. We also presented a systematic protocol for the subject-specific miniplate design as a case study. In this case, design steps, which are required to be taken for obtaining the virtual model of the patient head composed of the skull, mandible, and teeth were elucidated. Simulation of the Le Fort I osteotomy, which is considered as a safe and functional procedure to correct maxillary deformities, benefiting from a computer-aided design software to plan the actual surgery process was also carried out. It is expected that the presented virtual planning process would improve the accuracy of orthognathic surgery and patient satisfaction, and reduce the operation time and cost.
Faruk Ortes, Erol Cansiz, Yunus Ziya Arslan

Additive Manufacturing: Current Concepts, Methods, and Applications in Oral Health Care

Abstract
Additive manufacturing is an emerging technique that has almost revolutionized the material science and mechanical engineering in recent years. The technique started to help engineers to actualize the concepts of their minds by fabricating diverse three-dimensional objects in a layer-by-layer fashion. Multitude of processes such as stereolithography (SL), polyjet, fused deposition modeling (FDM), laminated object manufacturing (LOM), 3D printing (3DP), prometal, selective laser sintering (SLS), laser engineered net shaping (LENS), and electron beam melting (EBM) is considered as a part of additive manufacturing. Recently, additive manufacturing has received a lot of attention in the healthcare sector for fabricating devices for the purpose to restore, support, and repair defected human body parts. Particularly, the field of dentistry rather extensively deals with such restorative work in order to improve the functional and aesthetic demands of today’s oral healthcare sector. This chapter shall present a focussed update on the current concepts, methods and diverse applications in the field of oral health care, based on contemporary published literature relevant to the subject. Further, it shall provide the future scope of research to address the challenges, for the widespread clinical utilization of additive manufacturing technologies in routine clinical dental care.
Jagat Bhushan, Vishakha Grover

Material Processing of PLA-HAp-CS-Based Thermoplastic Composite Through Fused Deposition Modeling for Biomedical Applications

Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a commonly used biomaterial (due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility, and osteoconductive properties) having potential applications in clinical dentistry, tissue engineering, orthopedic, and maxillofacial surgery. It is structurally and chemically similar to the enamel, dentin, and bone, which is one of the main reasons to use it in bone/tissue regeneration. The usage of virgin HAp is limited due to less strength and brittleness. In the last two decades, lot of development has taken place in bioactive polymers–ceramics composites (bio-analogue), especially in the field of biomedical application for bone analogue design, mechanical and biological performances as per clinical and biological needs. In this chapter, procedure for reinforcement of HAp and chitosan (CS) in biocompatible and biodegradable polymer polylactic acid (PLA) has been outlined for fabrication of biocompatible feedstock filament by using twin-screw extruder (TSE). Since PLA is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic for fused deposition modeling (FDM) of scaffolds, the PLA-HAp-CS composite can be gainfully employed in various biomedical applications. Finally, the functional prototypes have been printed on commercial FDM printer and mechanical properties have been optimized (by using biocompatible feedstock filament prepared with TSE). Also, the results have been supported by SEM and optical photomicrographs for better understanding.
Nishant Ranjan, Rupinder Singh, IPS Ahuja

Neurosurgical Bone Grinding

Abstract
Brain cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide which occurs due to the tumors present in the brain. If these tumors not diagnosed at right time, then it will lead to loss of life. Neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the treatments which are used to remove tumors from the brain. Neurosurgery is often used as a treatment to diagnose this life-threatening disease. In surgical treatment especially in neurosurgery and orthopedics, bone grinding is commonly used. Bone grinding is an operation in which some part of the bone is removed to gain clearer operative access to the bones. Heat generated during bone grinding results in a rise in temperature which may cause harmful effects like osteonecrosis, blood coagulation, and optic nerve damage. This is the major concern for experts working in this area. Microstructure and thermophysical properties of the bone significantly affect the response of bone toward machining. The outcomes of research work done by experts are explained with their experimental setups. Different mathematical models are being explained by their key equations. Computational models and the role of automation in surgical operations are highlighted to reduce human involvement in such operations.
Atul Babbar, Vivek Jain, Dheeraj Gupta

Micro-machining Performance Assessment of Ti-Based Biomedical Alloy: A Finite Element Case Study

Abstract
Titanium alloy is one of the most abundantly used materials in the field of biomedical application due to its good physical and mechanical characteristics. But the machining of titanium alloy, to achieve the precise shape and dimension as per the tolerance, is extremely difficult, particularly due to the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity properties. Since these materials product and components are to be used inside the human body, hence the machining of titanium alloy is of utmost importance. Therefore, in the present investigation, FEA modeling has been carried out at dry conditions in order to investigate the performance of microgroove-textured cutting tools in three-dimensional machining of titanium alloy grade 5 (Ti-6Al-4 V) using SNMG120408 carbide insert. Various types of microgroove were designed in the rake face of cutting tool using SolidWorks 2012 and Stereolithography file format. The lower cutting forces, temperature, effective stress, and strain are obtained during the FEM simulation of microgroove-textured cutting tool compared to a non-textured cutting tool. Furthermore, variation in the geometry of microgroove on the machinability criteria has been analyzed.
Swastik Pradhan, Kalipada Maity, Sunpreet Singh, Chander Prakash

Laser-Assisted Jet Electrochemical Machining of Titanium-Based Biomedical Alloy

Abstract
Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is best among various metallic materials for making medical implants due to their longer life and surface topology to promote osseointegration. Ti-6Al-4V has excellent mechanical properties as well as superior biological properties along with higher corrosion resistance. For an implant material, its machining plays an important role to make it fit for the medical applications. This chapter mainly focuses on machining and surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V when machined with laser-assisted jet electrochemical machining process. The Taguchi methodology-based design of experiments L25 (55) employed to study the effect of various parameters of the developed LAJECM setup on various response characteristics is investigated and explained with the help of S/N ratio, analysis of variance, and scanning electron micrograph.
Anup Malik, Alakesh Manna, Chander Prakash, Sunpreet Singh

Effective Heat Treatment for Improvement in Diamond-like Carbon Coatings for Biomedical Applications

Abstract
The chapter briefly introduces the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, their manufacturing techniques, revenue and applications. The DLC coatings are actively involved in the biomedical industry. Therefore, a dedicated section describes the biocompatibility of these coatings concisely. Different ways for improvement in DLC coatings performance are being researched nowadays, and heat treatment is attractive among them. The chapter introduces a fresh approach of two-step heat treatment method to improve DLC properties. A conventional heat treatment usually reduces the coating properties like sp3 fraction, hardness and increased the friction coefficient, whereas the two-step heat treatment has represented about 20% improvement in hardness and about 10% improvement in toughness simultaneously when deposited on the selected bias voltage.
Abdul Wasy Zia

Innovative Surface Engineering Technique for Surface Modification of Mg Alloy for Orthopedic Application

Abstract
Biodegradable materials are required for the development of bone fixation accessories. Mg was recently identified to be biodegradable material and a better alternative for temporary implants application. However, the Mg alloy corrosion rate must be suitable for the application as biodegradable orthopedic implants. Controlling the Mg alloy corrosion rate is not easy. It is hypothesized that the Mg alloy-machined surface corrosion rate is possible to be controlled by manipulating the powder mixed electro-discharge machining (PMEDM) setting parameters. Therefore, this chapter aims at generating a method on how to determine the correct combination of PMEDM setting parameters to obtain a specific corrosion rate of Mg alloy. An opened-loop PMEDM dielectric circulation system is employed in the experiments. The setting parameters involved in the experiments include Zn particles concentration (Pcon), peak current (Pc), pulse-on time (Ton) and pulse-off time (Toff). The experiment results reveal that the Zn particles suspended in the dielectric fluid providing a bridge for uniform discharge energy on the Mg alloy. It results in a lower surface roughness which then leads to a lower corrosion rate due to smaller exposed surface area to the solution. Since the response output is influenced by the interaction among the setting parameters, an equation to determine the corrosion rate of Mg alloy-machined surface is generated by manipulating the value combination of those four setting parameters. With all the evidence presented in this chapter, it is proven that the Mg alloy-machined surface corrosion rate can be controlled by manipulating the PMEDM setting parameters.
Muhammad Al’Hapis Abdul Razak, Ahmad Majdi Abdul-Rani, Abdul’ Azeez Abdu Aliyu

Cortical Bone Adaptation to Mechanical Environment: Strain Energy Density Versus Fluid Motion

Abstract
This chapter presents an in silico study to compare the osteogenic potentials of normal strain-derived strain energy density (SED) and fluid shear. In vivo studies reported that mechanical loading promotes osteogenesis (i.e., new bone formation) at the sites elevated normal strain magnitude. Accordingly, in silico models assumed normal strain-derived SED as an osteogenic stimulus to predict the site-specific new bone formation. Nevertheless, there are in vivo studies where new bone formation is noticed at the sites of minimal normal strain magnitude especially near the neutral axis of bending. It is anticipated that SED as stimulus will have limited success in explaining such new bone distribution. Thus, there is no unifying principle that can relate the new bone formation to mechanical environment. A secondary component of mechanical environment, i.e., canalicular fluid flow derived shear, is reported as a potential stimulus of osteogenesis in the literature; however, their exact role is not well established. Therefore, this chapter presents an in silico model which studies site-specific new bone formation as a function of SED and fluid shear, individually and in their combination. The model simulates experimental new bone formation reported in different in vivo animal loading studies. The chapter also concludes that fluid shear closely fits the new bone formation near the minimal strain sites, and both SED and fluid shear contribute collectively to new bone formation. The findings presented in the chapter may be useful in the design of biomechanical strategies to cure bone loss and also in the improvement of the design of orthopedic implants.
Abhishek Kumar Tiwari, Jitendra Prasad
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