Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Ligaments and tendons play an important role in mediating normal movement and stability of joints in the musculoskeletal system, and their inability to undergo endogenous repair following injury leads to significant joint instability, injury of other tissues, and the development of degenerative joint disease. To restore their normal structure and function and address these clinical challenges, biomaterial scaffolds are being developed that incorporate cellular, morphogenetic, and mechanical cues into defined architectures that may be implanted as part of regenerative medicine therapies. This chapter explores the field of biomaterials for regeneration of tendons and ligaments with an emphasis on: (1) native tissue structure, function, mechanical properties, and interfaces with other orthopaedic tissues; (2) mechanisms of injury, healing responses, and limitations of current clinical approaches for repair; and (3) contemporary biomaterials-based approaches for tissue engineering of tendons and ligaments, including cell types used, design strategies, and results of their application in vitro and in vivo. Several challenges remain in achieving a successful biomaterial for tendon/ligament regeneration, yet significant design and engineering improvements have continued to enhance their functional sophistication and hold much promise for future tissue engineering strategies.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
D.L. Butler, M. Dessler, and H. Awad. Functional tissue engineering: Assessment of function in tendon and ligament repair. In: Guilak F, Butler DL, Goldstein SA, Mooney DJ, editors. Functional tissue engineering. New York: Springer; 2003. p. 213–26
S. Woo, K. Hildebrand, N. Watanabe, J. Fenwick, C. Papageorgiou, and J. Wang. Tissue engineering of ligament and tendon healing. Clin Orthop. 1999; 367(Suppl):S312–23.
M. Khatod, W.H. Akeson, and D. Amiel. Ligament injury and repair. In: Pedowitz RA, O’Connor JJ, Akeson WH, editors. Daniel’s knee injuries. 2 ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003. p. 185–201.
S.L. Woo, S.D. Abramowitch, R. Kilger, and R. Liang. Biomechanics of knee ligaments: Injury, healing, and repair. J Biomech. 2006; 39(1):1–20.
C.T. Laurencin, and J.W. Freeman. Ligament tissue engineering: An evolutionary materials science approach. Biomaterials. 2005; 26(36):7530–6.
R. Langer, and J. Vacanti. Tissue engineering. Science. 1993; 260(5110):920–6.
B. MacArthur, and R. Oreffo. Bridging the gap. Nature. 2005; 433(7021):19.
M. Khatod, and D. Amiel. Ligament biochemistry and physiology. In: Pedowitz R, O’Connor JJ, Akeson WH, editors. Daniel’s knee injuries. 2 ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003. p. 31–42.
P.V. Komi. Relevance of in vivo force measurements to human biomechanics. J Biomech. 1990; 23(Suppl 1):23–34.
P.V. Komi, S. Fukashiro, and M. Jarvinen. Biomechanical loading of achilles tendon during normal locomotion. Clin Sports Med. 1992; 11(3):521–31.
D.M. Doroski, K.S. Brink, and J.S. Temenoff. Techniques for biological characterization of tissue-engineered tendon and ligament. Biomaterials. 2007; 28(2):187–202.
E.H. Chen, and J. Black. Materials design analysis of the prosthetic anterior cruciate ligament. J Biomed Mater Res. 1980; 14(5):567–86.
F.R. Noyes, and E.S. Grood. The strength of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans and rhesus monkeys. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976; 58(8):1074–82.
R.B. Martin, D.B. Burr, and N.A. Sharkey. Mechanical properties of ligament and tendon. In: Martin RB, Burr DB, Sharkey NA, editors. Skeletal tissue mechanics. New York: Springer; 1998. p. 309–46.
J.H. Wang. Mechanobiology of tendon. J Biomech. 2006; 39(9):1563–82.
N.G. Shrive, G.M. Thornton, D.A. Hart, and C.B. Frank. Ligament mechanics. In: Pedowitz RA, O’Connor JJ,Akeson WH, editors. Daniel’s knee injuries. 2 ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003. p. 97–112.
A.P. Rumian, A.L. Wallace, and H.L. Birch. Tendons and ligaments are anatomically distinct but overlap in molecular and morphological features – A comparative study in an ovine model. J Orthop Res. 2007; 25(4):458–64.
S.L. Woo, K. An, C. Frank, G. Livesay, A. Ma, J. Zeminski, et al. Anatomy, biology, and biomechanics of tendon and ligament. In: Buckwalter J, Einhorn T, Simon S, editors. Orthopaedic basic science: Biology and biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system. 2nd ed. Rosemont: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2000. p. 582–616.
F. Silver, J. Freeman, and G. Seehra. Collagen self-assembly and the development of tendon mechanical properties. J Biomech. 2003; 36(10):1529–53.
M. Benjamin, and J. Ralphs. The cell and developmental biology of tendons and ligaments. Int Rev Cytol. 2000; 196:85–130.
C.T. Laurencin, A.M. Ambrosio, M.D. Borden, and J.A. Cooper, Jr. Tissue engineering: Orthopedic applications. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 1999; 1:19–46.
C. McNeilly, A. Banes, M. Benjamin, and J. Ralphs. Tendon cells in vivo form a three dimensional network of cell processes linked by gap junctions. J Anat. 1996; 189:593–600.
J. Ralphs, M. Benjamin, A. Waggett, D. Russell, K. Messner, and J. Gao. Regional differences in cell shape and gap junction expression in rat achilles tendon: Relation to fibrocartilage differentiation. J Anat. 1998; 193(2):215–22.
J. Ralphs, A. Waggett, and M. Benjamin. Actin stress fibers and cell–cell adhesion molecules in tendons: Organisation in vivo and response to mechanical loading of tendon cells in vitro. Matrix Biol. 2002; 21(1):67–74.
Z. Ge, J.C. Goh, and E.H. Lee. Selection of cell source for ligament tissue engineering. Cell Transplant. 2005; 14(8):573–83.
T.W. Lin, L. Cardenas, and L.J. Soslowsky. Biomechanics of tendon injury and repair. J Biomech. 2004; 37(6):865–77.
S.L. Woo, R.E. Debski, J. Zeminski, S.D. Abramowitch, S.S. Saw, and J.A. Fenwick. Injury and repair of ligaments and tendons. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2000; 2:83–118.
V. Duthon, C. Barea, S. Abrassart, J. Fasel, D. Fritschy, and J. Menetrey. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006; 14(3):204–13.
S. Fukuta, M. Oyama, K. Kavalkovich, F. Fu, and C. Niyibizi. Identification of types II, IX and X collagens at the insertion site of the bovine achilles tendon. Matrix Biol. 1998; 17(1):65–73.
D. Suzuki, M. Takahashi, M. Abe, and A. Nagano. Biochemical study of collagen and its crosslinks in the anterior cruciate ligament and the tissues used as a graft for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Connect Tissue Res. 2008; 49(1):42–7.
B. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Jiang, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, et al. Engineering of extensor tendon complex by an ex vivo approach. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(20):2954–61.
D. Butler, E. Grood, F. Noyes, and R. Zernicke. Biomechanics of ligaments and tendons. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1978; 6:125–81.
L. Jozsa, M. Lehto, P. Kannus, M. Kvist, A. Reffy, T. Vieno, et al. Fibronectin and laminin in achilles tendon. Acta Orthop Scand. 1989; 60(4):469–71.
I.F. Williams, K.G. McCullagh, and I.A. Silver. The distribution of types I and III collagen and fibronectin in the healing equine tendon. Connect Tissue Res. 1984; 12(3–4):211–27.
F. Grinnell. Fibronectin and wound healing. J Cell Biochem. 1984; 26(2):107–16.
K. Kadler, A. Hill, and E. Canty-Laird. Collagen fibrillogenesis: Fibronectin, integrins, and minor collagens as organizers and nucleators. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2008; 20:495–501.
S. Takahashi, M. Leiss, M. Moser, T. Ohashi, T. Kitao, D. Heckmann, et al. The RGD motif in fibronectin is essential for development but dispensable for fibril assembly. J Cell Biol. 2007; 178(1):167–78.
F. Elefteriou, J.Y. Exposito, R. Garrone, and C. Lethias. Binding of tenascin-X to decorin. FEBS Lett. 2001; 495(1–2):44–7.
M. Chiquet, A. Renedo, F. Huber, and M. Fluck. How do fibroblasts translate mechanical signals into changes in extracellular matrix production?. Matrix Biol. 2003; 22(1):73–80.
R. Chiquet-Ehrismann, and R. Tucker. Connective tissues: Signalling by tenascins. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004; 36(6):1085–9.
R. Probstmeier, and P. Pesheva. Tenascin-C inhibits beta1 integrin-dependent cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth on fibronectin by a disialoganglioside-mediated signaling mechanism. Glycobiology. 1999; 9(2):101–14.
M.Z. Ilic, P. Carter, A. Tyndall, J. Dudhia, and C.J. Handley. Proteoglycans and catabolic products of proteoglycans present in ligament. Biochem J. 2005; 385(Pt 2):381–8.
K.G. Vogel. What happens when tendons bend and twist? Proteoglycans. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2004; 4(2):202–3.
M. Campbell, A. Winter, M. Ilic, and C. Handley. Catabolism and loss of proteoglycans from culture of bovine collateral ligament. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996; 328(1):64–72.
N. Hey, C. Handley, C. Ng, and B. Oakes. Characterization and synthesis of macromolecules by adult collateral ligament. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990; 1034(1):73–80.
G.D. Pins, D.L. Christiansen, R. Patel, and F.H. Silver. Self-assembly of collagen fibers. Influence of fibrillar alignment and decorin on mechanical properties. Biophys J. 1997; 73(4):2164–72.
J.H. Yoon, and J. Halper. Tendon proteoglycans: Biochemistry and function. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2005; 5(1):22–34.
S. Woo, D. Smith, K. Hildebrand, J. Zemininski, and L. Johnson. Engineering the healing of the rabbit medial collateral ligament. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1998; 36(3):359–64.
P. Yang, and J. Temenoff. Engineering orthopaedic tissue interfaces. Tissue Eng B Rev. 2009; 15(2):127–41.
M. Benjamin, and J. Ralphs. Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments – An adaptation to compressive load. J Anat. 1998; 193(4):481–94.
J. Tidball. Force transmission across muscle cell membranes. J Biomech. 1991; 24(Suppl 1):43–52.
J. Trotter. Structure-function considerations of muscle-tendon junctions. Comp Biochem Physiol A. 2002; 133(4):1127–33.
J. Tidball. Myotendinous junction injury in relation to junction structure and molecular composition. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1991; 19:419–45.
T. Andriacchi, P. Sabiston, K. DeHaven, L. Dahners, S. Woo, C. Frank, et al. Ligament: Injury and repair. In: Woo S, Buckwalter J, editors. Injury and repair of the musculoskeletal soft tissues. Park Ridge: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1988. p. 103–28.
J. Hyman, and S. Rodeo. Injury and repair of tendons and ligaments. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2000; 11(2):267–88.
S. Thomopolous, G. Hattersley, V. Rosen, M. Mertens, L. Galatz, G. Williams, et al. The localized expression of extracellular matrix components in healing tendon insertion sites: An in situ hybridization study. J Orthop Res. 2002; 20(3):454–63.
Y. Xu, and G. Murrell. The basic science of tendinopathy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008; 466(7):1528–38.
G. Vunjak-Novakovic, G. Altman, R. Horan, and D.L. Kaplan. Tissue engineering of ligaments. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2004; 6:131–56.
S.A. Fenwick, B.L. Hazleman, and G.P. Riley. The vasculature and its role in the damaged and healing tendon. Arthritis Res. 2002; 4(4):252–60.
R.H. Gelberman, C.R. Chu, C.S. Williams, J.G. Seiler, 3rd, and D. Amiel. Angiogenesis in healing autogenous flexor-tendon grafts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992; 74(8):1207–16.
S.H. Liu, R.S. Yang, R. al-Shaikh, and J.M. Lane. Collagen in tendon, ligament, and bone healing. A current review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1995; 318:265–78.
M.A. Gomez. The physiology and biochemistry of soft tissue healing. In: Griffin LY, editor. Rehabilitation of the injured knee. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Mosby Company; 1995. p. 34–44.
G. Baer, and C. Harner. Clinical outcomes of allograft versus autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Clin Sports Med. 2007; 26(4):661–81.
J. Carey, W. Dunn, D. Dahm, S. Zeger, and K. Spindler. A systematic review of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autograft compared with allograft. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009; 91(9):2242–50.
A. Krych, J. Jackson, T. Hoskin, and D. Dahm. A meta-analysis of pattelar tendon autograft versus patellar tendon allograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 2008; 24(3):292–8.
R. Miller, and F. Azar. Knee injuries. In: Canale S,Beaty J, editors. Campbell’s Operative Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier; 2008. p. 2346–575.
K. Spindler, J. Kuhn, K. Freedman, C. Matthews, R. Dittus, and F.J. Harrell. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction autograft choice: Bone-tendon-bone versus hamstring: Does it really matter? A systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2004; 32(8):1986–95.
F.A. Petrigliano, D.R. McAllister, and B.M. Wu. Tissue engineering for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A review of current strategies. Arthroscopy. 2006; 22(4):441–51.
F. Barber. Should allografts be used for routine anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions? Arthroscopy. 2003; 19(4):421.
D. Jackson, J. Corsetti, and T. Simon. Biologic incorporation of allograft anterior cruciate ligament replacements. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996; 324:126–33.
G.H. Altman, R.L. Horan, H.H. Lu, J. Moreau, I. Martin, J.C. Richmond, et al. Silk matrix for tissue engineered anterior cruciate ligaments. Biomaterials. 2002; 23(20):4131–41.
T. Funakoshi, T. Majima, N. Iwasaki, S. Yamane, T. Masuko, A. Minami, et al. Novel chitosan-based hyaluronan hybrid polymer fibers as a scaffold in ligament tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2005; 74(3):338–46.
S. Guelcher, A. Srinivasan, J. Dumas, J. Didier, S. McBride, and J. Hollinger. Synthesis, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of polyurethane networks from lysine polyisocyanates. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(12):1762–75.
D.S. Torres, T.M. Freyman, I.V. Yannas, and M. Spector. Tendon cell contraction of collagen-GAG matrices in vitro: Effect of cross-linking. Biomaterials. 2000; 21(15):1607–19.
C. Hwang, Y. Park, J. Park, K. Lee, K. Sun, A. Khademhosseini, et al. Controlled cellular orientation on PLGA microfibers with defined diameters. Biomed Microdevices. 2009; 11(4):739–46.
K. Moffat, A. Kwei, J. Spalazzi, S. Doty, W. Levine, and H. Lu. Novel nanofiber-based scaffold for rotator cuff repair and augmentation. Tissue Eng A. 2009; 15(1):115–26.
G. Schulze-Tanzil, A. Mobasheri, P.D. Clegg, J. Sendzik, T. John, and M. Shakibaei. Cultivation of human tenocytes in high-density culture. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004; 122(3):219–28.
M. Chiquet, L. Gelman, R. Lutz, and S. Maier. From mechanotransduction to extracellular matrix gene expression in fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009; 1793(5):911–20.
Z. Feng, M. Ishibashi, Y. Nomura, T. Kitajima, and T. Nakamura. Constraint stress, microstructural characteristics, and enhanced mechanical properties of a special fibroblast-embedded collagen construct. Artif Organs. 2006; 30(11):870–7.
D.R. Henshaw, E. Attia, M. Bhargava, and J.A. Hannafin. Canine ACL fibroblast integrin expression and cell alignment in response to cyclic tensile strain in three-dimensional collagen gels. J Orthop Res. 2006; 24(3):481–90.
S. Joshi, and K. Webb. Variation of cyclic strain parameters regulates development of elastic modulus in fibroblast/substrate constructs. J Orthop Res. 2008; 26(8):1105–13.
C.H. Lee, H.J. Shin, I.H. Cho, Y.M. Kang, I.A. Kim, K.D. Park, et al. Nanofiber alignment and direction of mechanical strain affect the ECM production of human ACL fibroblasts. Biomaterials. 2005; 26(11):1261–70.
J. Cooper, J. Sahota, W. Gorum, J. Carter, S. Doty, and C. Laurencin. Biomimetic tissue-engineered anterior cruciate ligament replacement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104(9):3049–54.
J. Freeman, M. Woods, D. Cromer, L. Wright, and C. Laurencin. Tissue engineering of the anterior cruciate ligament: The viscoelastic behavior and cell viability of a novel braid-twist scaffold. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2009; 20(12):1709–28.
P. Vavken, and M.M. Murray. Translational studies in ACL repair. Tissue Eng B. 2010; 16(1):5–11.
L.D. Bellincampi, R.F. Closkey, R. Prasad, J.P. Zawadsky, and M.G. Dunn. Viability of fibroblast-seeded ligament analogs after autogenous implantation. J Orthop Res. 1998; 16(4):414–20.
K.G. Cornwell, B.R. Downing, and G.D. Pins. Characterizing fibroblast migration on discrete collagen threads for applications in tissue regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2004; 71(1):55–62.
K.G. Cornwell, P. Lei, S.T. Andreadis, and G.D. Pins. Crosslinking of discrete self-assembled collagen threads: Effects on mechanical strength and cell–matrix interactions. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007; 80(2):362–71.
D. Deng, W. Liu, F. Xu, Y. Yang, G. Zhou, W. Zhang, et al. Engineering human neo-tendon tissue in vitro with human dermal fibroblasts under static mechanical strain. Biomaterials. 2009; 30(35):6724–30.
E. Gentleman, A.N. Lay, D.A. Dickerson, E.A. Nauman, G.A. Livesay, and K.C. Dee. Mechanical characterization of collagen fibers and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2003; 24(21):3805–13.
E. Gentleman, G.A. Livesay, K.C. Dee, and E.A. Nauman. Development of ligament-like structural organization and properties in cell-seeded collagen scaffolds in vitro. Ann Biomed Eng. 2006; 34(5):726–36.
T. Tischer, S. Vogt, S. Aryee, E. Steinhauser, C. Adamczyk, S. Milz, et al. Tissue engineering of the anterior cruciate ligament: A new method using acellularized tendon allografts and autologous fibroblasts. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007; 127(9):735–41.
A. Caplan. Mesenchymal stem cells. J Orthop Res. 1991; 9(5):641–50.
M. Pittenger, A. Mackay, S. Beck, R. Jaiswal, R. Douglas, J. Mosca, et al. Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science. 1999; 284(5411):143–7.
H.A. Awad, G.P. Boivin, M.R. Dressler, F.N. Smith, R.G. Young, and D.L. Butler. Repair of patellar tendon injuries using a cell–collagen composite. J Orthop Res. 2003; 21(3):420–31.
D.L. Butler, and H.A. Awad. Perspectives on cell and collagen composites for tendon repair. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999; 367(Suppl):S324–32.
G.H. Altman, R.L. Horan, I. Martin, J. Farhadi, P.R. Stark, V. Volloch, et al. Cell differentiation by mechanical stress. FASEB J. 2002; 16(2):270–2.
J. Chen, G.H. Altman, V. Karageorgiou, R. Horan, A. Collette, V. Volloch, et al. Human bone marrow stromal cell and ligament fibroblast responses on RGD-modified silk fibers. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003; 67(2):559–70.
S. Cristino, F. Grassi, S. Toneguzzi, A. Piacentini, B. Grigolo, S. Santi, et al. Analysis of mesenchymal stem cells grown on a three-dimensional HYAFF 11-based prototype ligament scaffold. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2005; 73(3):275–83.
H.W. Ouyang, S.L. Toh, J. Goh, T.E. Tay, and K. Moe. Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (l-lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2005; 75(2):264–71.
J. Moreau, D. Bramano, R. Horan K, D.L. Kaplan, and G. Altman. Sequential biochemical and mechanical stimulation in the development of tissue engineered ligaments. Tissue Eng A. 2008; 14(7):1161–72.
J. Moreau, J. Chen, D. Kaplan, and G. Altman. Sequential growth factor stimulation of bone marrow stromal cells in extended culture. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12(10):2905–12.
J.E. Moreau, J. Chen, D.S. Bramono, V. Volloch, H. Chernoff, G. Vunjak-Novakovic, et al. Growth factor induced fibroblast differentiation from human bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. J Orthop Res. 2005; 23(1):164–74.
J.E. Moreau, J. Chen, R.L. Horan, D.L. Kaplan, and G.H. Altman. Sequential growth factor application in bone marrow stromal cell ligament engineering. Tissue Eng. 2005; 11(11–12):1887–97.
G.H. Altman, H.H. Lu, R.L. Horan, T. Calabro, D. Ryder, D.L. Kaplan, et al. Advanced bioreactor with controlled application of multi-dimensional strain for tissue engineering. J Biomech Eng. 2002; 124(6):742–9.
J. Chen, R.L. Horan, D. Bramono, J.E. Moreau, Y. Wang, L.R. Geuss, et al. Monitoring mesenchymal stromal cell developmental stage to apply on-time mechanical stimulation for ligament tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12(11):3085–95.
A. Engler, S. Sen, H. Sweeney, and D. Discher. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell. 2006; 126(4):677–89.
M. Chicurel, C. Chen, and D. Ingber. Cellular control lies in the balance of forces. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1998; 10(2):232–9.
D. Ingber. Tensegrity-based mechanosensing from macro to micro. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2008; 97(2–3):163–79.
P. Janmey, J. Winer, M. Murray, and Q. Wen. The hard life of soft cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009; 66(8):597–605.
X. Chen, X. Song, Z. Yin, X. Zou, L. Wang, H. Hu, et al. Stepwise differentiation of human embryonic stem cells promotes tendon regeneration by secreting fetal tendon matrix and differentiation factors. Stem Cells. 2009; 27(6):1276–87.
Y. Bi, D. Ehirchiou, T. Kilts, C. Inkson, M. Embree, W. Sonoyama, et al. Identification of tendon stem/progenitor cells and the role of the extracellular matrix in their niche. Nat Med. 2007; 13(10):1219–27.
M. Cheng, H. Yang, T. Chen, and O. Lee. Isolation and characterization of multipotent stem cells from human cruciate ligaments. Cell Prolif. 2009; 42(4):448–60.
Z. Yin, X. Chen, J. Chen, W. Shen, T. Hieu Nguyen, L. Gao, et al. The regulation of tendon stem cell differentiation by the alignment of nanofibers. Biomaterials. 2009; 31(8):2163–75.
J. Zhang, and J. Wang. Mechanobiological response of tendon stem cells: Implications of tendon homeostasis and pathogenesis of tendinopathy. J Orthop Res. 2009; 28(5):639–43.
S.J. Hollister. Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering. Nat Mater. 2005; 4(7):518–24.
L.E. Freed, F. Guilak, X.E. Guo, M.L. Gray, R. Tranquillo, J.W. Holmes, et al. Advanced tools for tissue engineering: Scaffolds, bioreactors, and signaling. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12(12):3285–305.
G.H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R.L. Horan, J. Chen, et al. Silk-based biomaterials. Biomaterials. 2003; 24(3):401–16.
T.J. Koob. Biomimetic approaches to tendon repair. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2002; 133(4):1171–92.
S. Woo. Tissue engineering: Use of scaffolds for ligament and tendon healing and regeneration. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009; 17(6):559–60.
A. Vieira, R. Guedes, and A. Marques. Development of ligament tissue biodegradable devices: A review. J Biomech. 2009; 42(15):2421–30.
Y. Liu, H. Ramanath, and D.-A. Wang. Tendon tissue engineering using scaffold enhancing strategies. Trends Biotechnol. 2008; 26(4):201–9.
S. Kumbar, R. James, S. Nukavarapu, and C. Laurencin. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: Engineering soft tissues. Biomed Mater. 2008; 3(3):1–15.
Z. Ge, F. Yang, J. Goh, S. Ramakrishna, and E. Lee. Biomaterials and scaffolds for ligament tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006; 77(3):639–52.
D. Hutmacher. Scaffold design and fabrication technologies for engineering tissues – State of the art and future perspectives. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2001; 12(1):107–24.
S. Yang, K. Leong, Z. Du, and C. Chua. The design of scaffolds for use in tissue engineering. Part I: Traditional factors. Tissue Eng. 2001; 7(6):679–89.
G. Ryan, A. Pandit, and D. Apatsidis. Fabrication methods of porous metals for use in orthopaedic applications. Biomaterials. 2006; 27(13):2651–70.
P. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, N. Zghoul, N. Maffulli, R. Wang, and A. El Haj. Chitosan microchannel scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering characterized using optical coherence tomography. Tissue Eng. 2007; 13(2):323–31.
C. Agrawal, and B. Ray. Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001; 55(2):141–50.
S. Yang, K. Leong, Z. Du, and C. Chua. The design of scaffolds for use in tissue engineering. Part II: Rapid prototyping techniques. Tissue Eng. 2001; 8(1):1–11.
L. Moroni, J. de Wijn, and C. van Blitterswijk. Integrating novel technologies to fabricate smart scaffolds. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2008; 19(5):543–72.
B. Lanfer, F. Seib, U. Freudenberg, D. Stamov, T. Bley, M. Bornhauser, et al. The growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells cultured on aligned collagen matrices. Biomaterials. 2009; 30(30):5950–8.
D. Zeugolis, G. Paul, and G. Attenburrow. Cross-linking of extruded collagen fibers – A biomimetic three-dimensional scaffold for tissue engineering applications. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009; 89(4):895–908.
D. Zeugolis, R. Paul, and G. Attenburrow. Extruded collagen-polyethylene glycol fibers for tissue engineering applications. J Biomed Mater Res B. 2007; 85(2):343–52.
J. Guan, K. Fujimoto, M. Sacks, and W. Wagner. Preparation and characterization of highly porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds for soft tissue applications. Biomaterials. 2005; 26(18):3961–71.
H.A. Awad, D.L. Butler, M.T. Harris, R.E. Ibrahim, Y. Wu, R.G. Young, et al. In vitro characterization of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen scaffolds for tendon repair: Effects of initial seeding density on contraction kinetics. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000; 51(2):233–40.
E. Place, N. Evans, and M. Stevens. Complexity in biomaterials for tissue engineering. Nat Mater. 2009; 8(6):457–70.
D. Williams. On the nature of biomaterials. Biomaterials. 2009; 30(30):5897–909.
E. Place, J. George, C. Williams, and M. Stevens. Synthetic polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering. Chem Soc Rev. 2009; 38(4):1139–51.
P. Ma. Biomimetic materials for tissue engineering. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008; 60(2):184–98.
W. Grayson, T. Martens, G. Eng, M. Radisic, and G. Vunjak-Novakovic. Biomimetic approach to tissue engineering. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009; 20(6):665–73.
S. Badylak, D. Freytes, and T. Gilbert. Extracellular matrix as a biological scaffold material: Structure and function. Acta Biomater. 2009; 5(1):1–13.
S. Guelcher. Biodegradable polyurethanes: Synthesis and applications in regenerative medicine. Tissue Eng B. 2008; 14(1):3–17.
K. Webb, R.W. Hitchcock, R.M. Smeal, W. Li, S.D. Gray, and P.A. Tresco. Cyclic strain increases fibroblast proliferation, matrix accumulation, and elastic modulus of fibroblast-seeded polyurethane constructs. J Biomech. 2006; 39(6):1136–44.
B. Cole, A. Gomoll, A. Yanke, T. Pylawka, P. Lewis, J. MacGillivray, et al. Biocompatibility of a polymer patch for rotator cuff repair. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007; 15(5):632–7.
C. Bashur, R. Shaffer, L. Dahlgren, S. Guelcher, and A. Goldstein. Effect of fiber diameter and alignment of electrospun polyurethane meshes on mesenchymal progenitor cells. Tissue Eng A. 2009; 15(9):2435–45.
P. Gunatillake, R. Mayadunne, and R. Adhikare. Recent developments in biodegradable synthetic polymers. Biotechnol Annu Rev. 2006; 12:301–47.
L. Heckman, J. Fiedler, T. Mattes, M. Dauner, and R. Brenner. Interactive effects of growth factors and three-dimensional scaffolds on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2008; 49(3):185–94.
H.H. Lu, J.A. Cooper, Jr., S. Manuel, J.W. Freeman, M.A. Attawia, F.K. Ko, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using braided biodegradable scaffolds: In vitro optimization studies. Biomaterials. 2005; 26(23):4805–16.
L. Heckman, H. Schlenker, J. Fiedler, R. Brenner, M. Dauner, G. Bergenthal, et al. Human mesenchymal progenitor cell responses to a novel textured poly( l-lactide) scaffold for ligament tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res B. 2006; 81(1):82–90.
J.A. Cooper, Jr., L.O. Bailey, J.N. Carter, C.E. Castiglioni, M.D. Kofron, F.K. Ko, et al. Evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, achilles tendon and patellar tendon as cell sources for tissue-engineered ligament. Biomaterials. 2006; 27(13):2747–54.
J.A. Cooper, H.H. Lu, F.K. Ko, J.W. Freeman, and C.T. Laurencin. Fiber-based tissue-engineered scaffold for ligament replacement: Design considerations and in vitro evaluation. Biomaterials. 2005; 26(13):1523–32.
J. Freeman, M. Woods, and C. Laurencin. Tissue engineering of the anterior cruciate ligament using a braid-twist scaffold design. J Biomech. 2007; 40(9):2029–36.
F. van Eijk, D. Saris, L. Creemers, J. Riesle, W. Willems, C. van Blitterswijk, et al. The effect of timing of mechanical stimulation on proliferation and differentiation of goat bone marrow stem cells cultured on braided PLGA scaffolds. Tissue Eng A. 2008; 14(8):1425–33.
F. van Eijk, D. Saris, N. Fedorovich, M. Kruyt, W. Willems, A. Verbout, et al. In vivo matrix production by bone marrow stromal cells seeded on PLGA scaffolds for ligament tissue engineering. Tissue Eng A. 2009; 15(10):3109–17.
J. Jenner, F. van Eijk, D. Saris, W. Willems, W. Dhert, and L. Creemers. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta and growth differentiation factor-5 on proliferation and matrix production by human bone marrow stromal cells cultured on braided poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds for ligament tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 2007; 13(7):1573–82.
Z. Feng, Y. Tateishi, Y. Nomura, T. Kitajima, and T. Nakamura. Construction of fibroblast-collagen gels with orientated fibrils induced by static or dynamic stress: Toward the fabrication of small tendon grafts. J Artif Organs. 2006; 9(4):220–5.
N. Juncosa-Melvin, G. Boivin, M. Galloway, C. Gooch, J. West, and D. Butler. Effects of cell-to-collagen ratio in stem cell-seeded constructs for achilles tendon repair. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12(4):681–9.
N. Juncosa-Melvin, K. Matlin, R. Holdcraft, V. Nirmalanandhan, and D. Butler. Mechanical stimulation increases collagen type I and collagen type III gene expression of stem cell–collagen sponge constructs for patellar tendon repair. Tissue Eng. 2007; 13(6):1219–26.
N. Juncosa-Melvin, J. Shearn, G. Boivin, C. Gooch, M. Galloway, J. West, et al. Effects of mechanical stimulation on the biomechanics and histology of stem cell–collagen sponge constructs for rabbit pattelar tendon repair. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12(8):2291–300.
C. Kuo, and R. Tuan. Mechanoactive tenogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng A. 2008; 14(10):1615–27.
L. McMahon, V. Campbell, and P. Prendergast. Involvement of stretch-activated ion channels in strain regulated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in mesenchymal stem cell-seeded 3D scaffolds. J Biomech. 2008; 41(9):2055–9.
V. Nirmalanandhan, M. Dressler, J. Shearn, N. Juncosa-Melvin, M. Rao, C. Gooch, et al. Mechanical stimulation of tissue engineered tendon constructs: Effect of scaffold materials. J Biomech Eng. 2007; 129(6):919–23.
V. Nirmalanandhan, M. Rao, M. Sacks, B. Haridas, and D. Butler. Effect of length of the engineered tendon construct on its structure–function relationships in culture. J Biomech. 2007; 40(11):2523–9.
V. Nirmalanandhan, J. Shearn, N. Juncosa-Melvin, M. Rao, C. Gooch, A. Jain, et al. Improving linear stiffness of the cell-seeded collagen sponge constructs by varying the components of the mechanical stimulus. Tissue Eng A. 2008; 14(11):1883–91.
J. Shearn, N. Juncosa-Melvin, G. Boivin, M. Galloway, W. Goodwin, C. Gooch, et al. Mechanical stimulation of tendon tissue engineered constructs: Effects on construct stiffness, repair biomechanics, and their correlation. J Biomech Eng. 2007; 129(6):848–54.
X. Cheng, U. Gurkan, C. Dehen, M. Tate, H. Hillhouse, G. Simpson, et al. An electrochemical fabrication process for the assembly of anisotropically oriented collagen bundles. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(22):3278–88.
S. Liao, C. Chan, and S. Ramakrishna. Stem cells and biomimetic materials strategies for tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng C. 2008; 28(8):1189–202.
S. Hankemeier, C. Hurschler, J. Zeichen, M. van Griensven, B. Miller, R. Meller, et al. Bone marrow stromal cells in a liquid fibrin matrix improve the healing process of patellar tendon window defects. Tissue Eng A. 2009; 15(5):1019–30.
S. Hankemeier, M. van Griensven, M. Ezechieli, T. Barkhausen, M. Austin, M. Jagodzinski, et al. Tissue engineering of tendons and ligaments by human bone marrow stromal cells in a liquid fibrin matrix in immunodeficient rats: Results of a histologic study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007; 127(9):815–21.
M.M. Murray, B. Forsythe, F. Chen, S.J. Lee, J.J. Yoo, A. Atala, et al. The effect of thrombin on ACL fibroblast interactions with collagen hydrogels. J Orthop Res. 2006; 24(3):508–15.
M.M. Murray, S.D. Martin, and M. Spector. Migration of cells from human anterior cruciate ligament explants into collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds. J Orthop Res. 2000; 18(4):557–64.
M.M. Murray, and M. Spector. The migration of cells from the ruptured human anterior cruciate ligament into collagen-glycosaminoglycan regeneration templates in vitro. Biomaterials. 2001; 22(17):2393–402.
H. Fan, H. Liu, S. Toh, and J. Goh. Anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold in large animal model. Biomaterials. 2009; 30(28):4967–77.
H. Fan, H. Liu, E. Wong, S. Toh, and J. Goh. In vivo study of anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(33):3324–37.
R. Horan, I. Toponarski, H. Boepple, P. Weitzel, J. Richmond, and G. Altman. Design and characterization of a scaffold for anterior cruciate ligament engineering. J Knee Surg. 2009; 22(1):82–92.
H. Liu, H. Fan, S. Toh, and J. Goh. A comparison of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells and anterior cruciate ligament fibroblasts responses on combined silk scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(10):1443–53.
H. Liu, H. Fan, Y. Wang, S. Toh, and J. Goh. The interaction between a combined knitted silk scaffold and microporous silk sponge with human mesenchymal stem cells for ligament tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(6):662–74.
H. Liu, Z. Ge, Y. Wang, S. Toh, V. Sutthikhum, and J. Goh. Modification of sericin-free silk fibers for ligament tissue engineering application. J Biomed Mater Res B. 2007; 82(1):129–38.
C. Craig, and C. Riekel. Comparative architecture of silks, fibrous proteins and their encoding genes in insects and spiders. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2002; 133(4):493–507.
J. Perez-Rigueiro, C. Viney, J. Llorca, and M. Elices. Mechanical properties of silkworm silk in liquid media. Polymer. 2000; 41(23):8433–9.
P. Basile, T. Dadali, J. Jacobson, S. Hasslund, M. Ulrich-Vinther, K. Soballe, et al. Freeze-dried tendon allografts as tissue engineering scaffolds for Gdf-5 gene delivery. Mol Ther. 2008; 16(3):466–73.
A. Chong, J. Riboh, R. Smith, D. Lindsey, H. Pham, and J. Chang. Flexor tendon tissue engineering: Acellularized and reseeded tendon constructs. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009; 123(6):1759–66.
J. Ingram, S. Korossis, G. Howling, J. Fisher, and E. Ingham. The use of ultrasonication to aid recellularization of acellular natural tissue scaffolds for use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Tissue Eng. 2007; 13(7):1561–72.
F. Li, H. Jia, and C. Yu. ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model using irradiated achilles allograft seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or PDGF-BB gene transfected mesenchymal stem cells. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007; 15(10):1219–27.
M. Mahirogullari, C. Ferguson, P. Whitlock, K. Stabile, and G. Poehling. Freeze-dried allografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Clin Sports Med. 2007; 26(4):625–37.
H. Omae, C. Zhao, Y. Sun, K. An, and P. Amadio. Multilayer tendon slices seeded with bone marrow stromal cells: A novel composite for tendon engineering. J Orthop Res. 2009; 27(7):937–42.
P. Vavken, S. Joshi, and M. Murrary. TRITON-X is the most effective among three decellularization agents for ACL tissue engineering. J Orthop Res. 2009; 27(12):1612–8.
P. Whitlock, T. Smith, G. Poehling, J. Shilt, and M. van Dyke. A naturally derived, cytocompatible, and architecturally optimized scaffold for tendon and ligament regeneration. Biomaterials. 2007; 28(29):4321–9.
J. Chen, C. Willers, J. Xu, A. Wang, and M. Zheng. Autologous tenocyte therapy using porcine-derived bioscaffolds for massive rotator cuff defect in rabbits. Tissue Eng. 2007; 13(7):1479–91.
T. Gilbert, A. Stewart-Akers, A. Simmons-Byrd, and S. Badylak. Degradation and remodeling of small intestinal submucosa in canine achilles tendon repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007; 89(3):621–30.
R. Liang, S. Woo, T. Nguyen, P. Liu, and A. Almarza. Effects of a bioscaffold on collagen fibrillogenesis in healing medial collateral ligament in rabbits. J Orthop Res. 2008; 26(8):1098–104.
T. Zantop, T. Gilbert, M. Yoder, and S. Badylak. Extracellular matrix scaffolds are repopulated by bone marrow-derived cells in a mouse model of achilles tendon repair. J Orthop Res. 2006; 24(6):1299–309.
C. Androjna, R. Spragg, and K. Derwin. Mechanical conditioning of cell-seeded small intestinal submucosa: A potential tissue-engineering strategy for tendon repair. Tissue Eng. 2007; 13(2):233–43.
S. Woo, Y. Takakura, R. Liang, F. Jia, and D. Moon. Treatment with bioscaffold enhances the fibril morphology and the collagen composition of healing medial collateral ligament in rabbits. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12(1):159–66.
K. Murphy, I. Mushkudiani, D. Kao, A. Levesque, H. Hawkins, and L. Gould. Successful incorporation of tissue-engineered porcine small-intestinal submucosa as substitute flexor tendon graft is mediated by elevated TGF-beta1 expression in the rabbit. J Hand Surg Am. 2008; 33(7):1168–78.
R. Abousleiman, Y. Reyes, P. McFetridge, and V. Sikavitsas. Tendon tissue engineering using cell-seeded umbilical veins cultured in a mechanical stimulator. Tissue Eng A. 2009; 15(4):787–95.
S. Badhe, T. Lawrence, F. Smith, and P. Lunn. An assessment of porcine dermal xenograft as an augmentation graft in the treatment of extensive rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008; 17(1 Suppl):35S–9S.
D. Coons, and F. Barber. Tendon graft substitutes – Rotator cuff patches. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2006; 14(3):185–90.
K. Derwin, A. Baker, R. Spragg, D. Leigh, and J. Iannotti. Commercial extracellular matrix scaffolds for rotator cuff tendon repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006; 88(12):2665–72.
M. Fini, P. Torricelli, G. Giavaresi, R. Rotini, A. Castagna, and R. Giardino. In vitro study comparing two collagenous membranes in view of their clinical application for rotator cuff tendon regeneration. J Orthop Res. 2007; 25(1):98–107.
H. Fan, H. Liu, S. Toh, and J. Goh. Enhanced differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells co-cultured with ligament fibroblasts on gelatin/silk fibroin scaffold. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(8):1017–27.
J. Hayami, D. Surrao, S. Waldman, and B. Amsden. Design and characterization of a biodegradable composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009; 92(4):1407–20.
Y. Kimura, A. Hokugo, T. Takamoto, Y. Tabata, and H. Kurosawa. Regeneration of anterior cruciate ligament by biodegradable scaffold combined with local controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor and collagen wrapping. Tissue Eng C. 2008; 14(1):47–57.
J. Spalazzi, E. Dagher, S. Doty, X. Guo, S. Rodeo, and H. Lu. In vivo evaluation of a multiphased scaffold designed for orthopaedic interface tissue engineering and soft tissue-to-bone integration. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008; 86(1):1–12.
J. Spalazzi, S. Doty, K. Moffat, W. Levine, and H. Lu. Development of controlled matrix heterogeneity on a triphasic scaffold for orthopedic interface tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12(12):3497–508.
X. Li, J. Xie, J. Lipner, X. Yuan, S. Thomopolous, and Y. Xia. Nanofiber scaffolds with gradations in mineral content for mimicking the tendon-to-bone insertion site. Nano Lett. 2009; 9(7):2763–8.
J. Paxton, K. Donnelly, R. Keatch, and K. Baar. Engineering bone-ligament interface using polyethylene glycol diacrylate incorporated with hydroxyapatite. Tissue Eng A. 2009; 15(6):1201–9.
J. Phillips, K. Burns, J. Le Doux, R. Guldberg, and A. Garcia. Engineering graded tissue interfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105(34):12170–5.
- Biomaterials for Regeneration of Tendons and Ligaments
Taymour M. Hammoudi
Johnna S. Temenoff
- Springer Vienna
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA