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2024 | Buch

Biomimetics, Biodesign and Bionics

Technological Advances Toward Sustainable Development


Über dieses Buch

Nature is a vast source of inspiration and information for the resolution of complex problems and can influence many varieties of design. Biomimetics, biodesign and bionics are three branches of interdisciplinary research merging biological and applied sciences. This volume collects cases that highlight recent breakthroughs in these disciplines. Biological features such as patterns, shapes, mechanisms, colors, structures, and more can be analyzed, organized, and modeled for application in human creations. Therefore, design, engineering, and architecture projects can benefit from solutions that were already tested and verified through evolution in the natural world. With the development of new technologies for the investigation, simulation, and testing of natural features, the path from nature to product can be accelerated. The cases presented in this work showcase how technological advancements are leading to improved design solutions and influencing our very comprehension of natureand its complex organization.


Didactic/Methodological Proposal: Use of the Natural Classification as an Element of Bionic Studies
As an initial research project, based on a universal view of the problem, a fundamental point for this discipline was highlighted – bionics – which until now has been concerned with identifying aspects of nature to apply to the world of design. We prefer to analyze these arguments from a more academic and less marketing point of view. As a main element, with regard to theoretical research, we seek to demonstrate to all those who research in the natural world, useful ideas for designing, an applied research process based mainly on the taxonomy of living beings. As a second objective, this research had the purpose of confronting natural themes with the capacity for synthesis that we industrial designers have in an experimental experience of bionic powder. Studying nature is undoubtedly a very complex thing, but it is necessary to have a deeper knowledge of these aspects and their contents. When we talk about bionics, it is not enough for a designer to refer only to nature with its formal and symbolic aspects; it is necessary to individualize a specific operational modality of research to arrive at a project. Current living organisms are the result of continuous selection and natural adaptation that act in a particular way to provide more adequate forms and suitable structures for the particular elements found in their habitats.
Amilton José Vieira Arruda
Bionics and Design: 3D Microstructural Characterization of Cork for the Development of Conceptual Products
Several natural materials are known for their properties in terms of shock absorption and compressive strength, like the case of some plant tissues and structures. When analyzed with new 3D technologies, such structures can be used as a source of inspiration for the development of new projects, aiming at improving their performance. Cork is considered an outstanding biological material in terms of mechanical performance, due to the combination of high energy absorption, compressive resistance, and elasticity. Despite having a regular honeycomb structure, cork performance is still considered a gold standard in many applications and thus has a great potential to be used as a source of inspiration for new designs. With recent advances in finite element analysis (FEA) based on high-resolution X-ray microtomography, new insights can be made regarding its 3D cellular structure, allowing the development of new applications of cork based on the study of bionics, biomimetics, and biodesign. This chapter approaches the noninvasive, high-resolution 3D investigation of cork aiming to apply its 3D morphology in the development of new conceptual bioinspired products, through the study of bionics.
Melissa Pedroso Schoffen, Mariana Kuhl Cidade, Felipe Luis Palombini
Bio-digital ‘Material Systems’: New Hybrid Ways for Material-Driven Design Innovation
New bio-digital potentials make it possible to analyse and reproduce the generative, chemical, physical and molecular processes underlying the living, leading designers to interpret them through design and envisioning skills to foster the sustainable and digital transition. In particular, the combination of advanced manufacturing with the transformative possibilities of matter leads to alternative ways of conceiving and producing artefacts inspired by the constructive strategies of nature, the materials it uses and how it manipulates them. The chapter aims to describe how this leads to an extension of computational and biological properties to matter itself, with the possibility of designing specific functional and expressive characteristics of materials for innovative and sustainable applications. Five experiments developed within Sapienza’s Saperi&Co research centre will be described which the goal was to produce bio-digital ‘material systems’ in which – just as in nature – material, product and performance are designed as a single entity through information, growth and adaptation to context.
Sabrina Lucibello, Carmen Rotondi
Echinodesign: A New Model for Facilitating the Dissemination and Effectiveness of the Biomimetic Design Culture
The chapter presents a novel approach to carry out biomimetic research and disseminate the culture of bio-inspired designs. It describes the results of an interdisciplinary project, named Echinodesign, i.e. a design-driven biological investigation aimed at understanding the characteristics, principles, and logic of echinoids as well as at facilitating the development of innovative inspired products and services. In particular, the echinoids are marine invertebrate organisms, commonly known as sea urchins, which have a long history as inspiring models for transferring bio-inspired solutions. Through a hybrid approach between biology, design, and engineering, these organisms with their unique functional features were re-interpreted and applied in different design fields, including furniture, biomedical, lighting, and sports. The resulting inspired design products were finally shown in a dedicated exhibition, proposed as a tool to disseminate and amplify the results of the biomimetic research.
Valentina Perricone, Carla Langella, Gabriele Pontillo, Roberta Angari
Biodigital Product Design: Experiences in the Field of Applied Research
Over millions of years, organisms and species in nature have developed different strategies to adapt, survive and evolve; these strategies have been studied by design and architecture professionals to solve problems and challenges of the human being. Different nature-based design approaches have been emerging, such as biomimicry, biodesign, biofabrication, biomimetics and bioinspiration, among others. Bioinformed disciplines (BID) is proposed as an umbrella term to consolidate the range of bio-related activities. In recent decades, nature-based design has been enhanced thanks to the advantages of digital technologies, especially through computational design (CD) and additive manufacturing (AM). In this context, biodigital architecture and design have emerged, a fusion between the biological and digital domains with possibilities never seen before. This text presents applied research projects in the product design field, under the biodigital approach, highlighting technical and creative advantages of parametric-generative design and additive manufacturing technologies, the research projects are situated in different scales, contexts and complexities. The projects presented are (i) bioinspired parametric textures, (ii) biodigital stool series and (iii) biodigital columns. In conclusion, the biodigital approach offers unprecedented creative and technical advantages, such as the generation of a wide variety of complex and editable geometries, high level of accuracy, very thin thicknesses, custom designs, etc. On the other hand, to obtain the expected results, the importance of multidisciplinary interactions could be seen, as well as an ongoing experimentation in a cyclical process of continuous learning; finally, the link between universities, companies and state institutions was relevant.
David A. Torreblanca-Díaz
Method and Processes for Abstraction of Natural Microstructures for New Product Development
In nature, we find a myriad of biological structures that serve various functions. For instance, fruit peels act as natural packaging, playing roles in protection, enclosure, transportation, and storage. Over millions of years, diverse cellular arrangements have evolved to achieve high structural efficiency. These structures offer direct and indirect protection against mechanical damage and other negative environmental influences, providing collision resistance, damping, and energy dissipation. Biomimicry is an interdisciplinary approach that combines the study of biology with technology and other innovative disciplines, such as design, to solve technical challenges by analyzing functions and strategies found in biological systems. The aim of this research was to study the natural cellular arrangements found in tropical fruits, with the purpose of abstracting and prototyping a bioinspired structure noninvasively. For the initial exploration, optical microscopy was used to identify the cell types present in the pericarp. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the cryo-fracture method, it was possible to observe plant morphology and anatomy. Noninvasive structural observation, material analysis, and three-dimensional reconstruction were achieved using X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and software, enabling the abstraction of the natural structure. As a result, this study culminated in the three-dimensional prototyping of a bioinspired structure using 3D printing with flexible resin, incorporating visible properties abstracted from the studied biological entity. The abstraction of natural structures, such as those found in tropical fruits, offers a promising path for the development of new materials and products that are not only functionally superior but also in line with sustainability principles.
Antônio Roberto Miranda de Oliveira, Amilton José Vieira Arruda
Biomimetics and 4D Printing: A Synergy for the Development of Innovative Materials
This chapter explores the intersection of biomimetics and 4D printing for the promising development of innovative materials. Biomimetics, or biomimicry, founded on inspiration from natural elements, provides advanced engineering solutions and strategies through the imitation of biological design and mechanisms. On the other hand, 4D printing, a revolution in the field of manufacturing, allows for the creation of dynamic and time-adaptable structures over time. In this context, the conceptual foundations and applications of both disciplines are analyzed in depth, in order to illustrate how these two complementary areas can be synergistically integrated, leading to materials capable of adapting to changing environmental conditions and improving performance in industrial and technological sectors. Through key examples of potential and cutting-edge research, the chapter demonstrates how the intersection of biomimicry and 4D printing can pave the way for a new class of functional and intelligent materials with broad application prospects, even in architecture.
Santina Di Salvo
Innovative Trends in Academic Pavilions: Exploring Processes in Architecture
The article investigates ephemeral pavilions developed by universities worldwide, analyzing the geographical distribution, the uses, and the context of development of these structures, besides exploring trends in design, materials, and application of biomimicry. The study utilized bibliographical research, data compilation, and mapping through the MyMaps platform. Among the 61 pavilions studied, the results revealed that most were developed between 2013 and 2019, as a result of workshops and annual programs that used wood and bamboo as the main construction materials. From this sample, only a portion adopted biomimetic principles as inspiration in their design and construction process, evidencing the effectiveness of biomimicry as a sustainable and innovative approach for experimental pavilion construction. The wide range of findings highlights the versatility of the pavilionar typology and its use in the academic environment as a learning construction site. Thus, this study contributes to the understanding and dissemination of this practice in architecture.
Elton Cristovão da Silva Lima, Luís Miguel Cotrim Mateus, Amilton José Vieira Arruda
Levels of Access to Biomimetics
The bio-inspired approach, whether applied to product, service, or material design, offers various levels of engagement with nature’s information transfer. Biomimetics can draw inspiration from biological systems through different lenses, starting with the most intuitive and accessible aspects, such as formal and external characteristics, and extending to more intricate realms involving behaviors like self-organization and learning. When designing biomimetic products, it is crucial not only to precisely define the organisms of reference but also to specify the biological traits and functionalities being incorporated, as well as the depth of engagement with nature’s principles. This chapter aims to introduce a structured interpretative framework and design methodology for biomimetic projects, based on different access levels to biomimetics: aesthetic-morphological, generative-constructional, structural, material, dynamic, physiological, communication, and behavior and organization levels. For each of these levels, we will provide descriptions of biomimetic products developed within the Hybrid Design Lab to illustrate and elucidate the interpretative framework.
Carla Langella
Biodesign as a Tool to Achieve Sustainable Construction Through Additive Manufacturing
Currently, cities face the challenges of achieving net-zero emissions, sustainable resource usage, and occupational safety. Sustainable manufacturing processes (SMP) in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry (AEC) could help to master such challenges if non-digitized or insufficiently networked processes did not repeatedly hinder it. The smart combination of additive manufacturing (AM) and nature-based design (NbD) could lead to an economic breakthrough in SMP. AM quickens process fulfillment and automation, offering potential to reduce expenditures in resources, costs, and associated risks while ensuring sustainability, and if early integrated into the design, it allows defining lightweight, sustainable, and material as objectives. NbD approaches in AM for AEC lead to complex structures with superior performance, minimizing material usage, and fostering regenerative, inclusive, and climate-adapted designs that shape contemporary architecture. Thus, this chapter comprehensively reviews NbD for AM projects, analyzing (i) geometry-focused design strategies, (ii) modeling approaches with performance criteria, and (iii) challenges of implementing NbD approaches in AEC.
Maria De Los Angeles Ortega Del Rosario, Carmen Castaño, Miguel Chen Austin
Biomimetics, Biodesign and Bionics
herausgegeben von
Amilton José Vieira Arruda
Felipe Luis Palombini
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