Biosensors are analytical devices that transduce biological reactions into electrical signals. The unique feature of a biosensor is that the probe incorporates a biological sensing element close to the signal transducer, resulting in a device that is specific either for a particular chemical or for a group of related chemicals (Figure 7.1). Although the major thrust in biosensor development since the early 1970s has been for health care applications, a survey of the market potential (Hall, 1990) has identified the increasing importance of biosensors in environmental monitoring.
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