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Über dieses Buch

This book shows the various sandwich assays that are constructed from recognition molecules, such as antibodies, oligonucleotide sequences and aptamers, developed as a result of nano- and biotechnology advances. It consists of ten chapters presenting interesting examples of these assays, organized according to the type of analytic methods (colorimetric, fluorescence, electrochemical, etc.) and detected objects (protein, nucleic acid, small-molecule, ion, etc.). It also includes a chapter discussing the introduction of sandwich assays as biosensors for the detection of a range of targets. It is an interesting and useful resource for a wide readership in various fields of chemical science and nanotechnology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

The sandwich assays are one of the mainstays in the fields of clinical diagnostics, molecular detection, and environmental monitoring due to their high specificity and good sensitivity for the detection of analytes. Owing to the development of chemistry and material science, the sandwich assays have been developed vigorously with thousands of published papers to date. To further improve the sensitivity, supersandwich assays emerge as the times require. In this chapter, we will introduce the sandwich assays and briefly discuss the applications of the sandwich assays in the detection of proteins, nucleic acids, small molecules, ions, and cells as well as supersandwich assays. The discussion in detail can be found in subsequent chapters.
Xiaojin Zhang, Fan Xia

Chapter 2. Colorimetric Sandwich Assays for Protein Detection

For decades, the sandwich assays have been widely used in quality control, clinical diagnostics, biological detection, and environmental monitoring field. Apart from the requirement of labeling the molecular target, the sandwich assay generally requires the recognition and signaling probe to be combined, which gives them accurate specific. Also, the optical sensing method is of great interest due to the intrinsic high sensitivity and simplicity. The colorimetric assays are much simpler for the detection of analytes, and their response can be directly detected with bare eyes or by photometry compared with other analytical techniques. Colorimetric sandwich assays are usually based on the observable color variation in the presence of enzyme-labeled antibody. In this chapter, we focus on the detection of protein by colorimetric sandwich assays based on traditional enzymes and biomimetic nanomaterials. The detection technologies employed in colorimetric sandwich assays based on traditional enzymes were alkaline phosphatase (ALP), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), open sandwich immunoassay (OS-IA), and gold–multienzyme–nanocarrier. For the biomimetic nanomaterials, highlighted examples were focused on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) biomimetic enzymes, and Au@Pt nanostructure biomimetic enzymes.
Xiaoqing Yi, Rui Liu, Xiaoding Lou, Fan Xia

Chapter 3. Fluorescence Sandwich Assays for Protein Detection

The detection of protein with high sensitivity and selectivity is of great important for protein fundamental functions study and clinic diagnostics. Sandwich assays have been developed for multivalent proteins detection and have been prevailing for decades in the field of clinical diagnostics and bio-detection. The sandwich assays usually give a high sensitivity and selectivity because of the usage of a couple of match recognition probe and signal probe. This chapter summarizes recent advances in the sandwich assays for protein detections with fluorescence as signal outputs. Different recognition or signal elements such as antibodies and aptamers and fluorescence signal reporters (organic dyes, nanomaterials, and conjugated polymers) are discussed in details in this chapter.
Fujian Huang, Fan Xia

Chapter 4. Electrochemical Sandwich Assays for Protein Detection

Rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of proteins biomarker plays a very important role in early diagnostics of diseases and global health. Toward this goal, numerous researchers have devoted great efforts to develop a variety of approaches for protein detections, among which electrochemical sandwich assay appears as a very promising one because their signaling mechanism between redox-active tags and electrode renders this approach to be highly sensitive and selective, rapid, miniaturizable, and cost-effective. As such, this electron communicating signal can be readily amplified by employing enzymatic catalyst reaction, metal nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, and many other strategies, in support to further improve the sensitivity of this sensing platform.
Hui Li, Shaoguang Li, Fan Xia

Chapter 5. Sandwich Assays Based on SPR, SERS, GMR, QCM, Microcantilever, SAW, and RRS Techniques for Protein Detection

Among the methods developed for protein sandwich assays, the strategies based on fluorescence, electrochemistry, and color change occupy the predominant portion. However, besides these three major types, there are some other techniques, such as use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), giant magnetoresistive (GMR), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), microcantilever, surface acoustic wave (SAW), and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), which also play a very important role in the development of the sandwich assay for protein detection. Through integrating different recognition molecules, such as antibodies and aptamers, with conventional or new immerging sensing platforms, these assays exhibit excellent comparable sensitivities and specificities and attract extensive attention. Thus, in this chapter, some recent advances in these fields are summarized and concluding remarks on parts of which should be improved as well as outlook are outlined.
Shenshan Zhan, Xiaoding Lou, Pei Zhou, Fan Xia

Chapter 6. Colorimetric Sandwich Assays for Nucleic Acid Detection

Colorimetric sandwich assay has attracted wide interests in detection of nucleic acid due to the advantages of convenience and visibility. In this chapter, we summarized the development of colorimetric sandwich assay employed nanoparticles-, traditional enzyme-, and DNAzyme-based sensor, aiming at providing a general guide for designing colorimetric sandwich assay for the detection of nucleic acid. Furthermore, we discussed the challenges in the development of colorimetric sandwich assay regarding sensitivity and stability, thus offering further opportunities to develop more of robust colorimetric sandwich assay for the detection of nucleic acid.
Xiaoxia Hu, Quan Yuan

Chapter 7. Fluorescence Sandwich Assays for Nucleic Acid Detection

Fluorescence sandwich assays have wide application in the detection of nucleic acids due to its well-developed synthesis process, simple detection procedures, and high sensitivity. Specifically, two oligonucleotide probes, named capture probe and signal probe respectively, are introduced and hybridize with different regions of a single-stranded target gene, forming a “capture probe-target-signal probe” sandwiched format. Distinctive fluorescent emission is therefore generated with the formation of sandwich-format and can be directly detected by conventional instruments without further procedures. In this chapter, we conclude the principle and recent developments of this assay based on the classification of fluorophore materials, including fluorescent organic dyes and fluorescent nanomaterials. For each section, the principle of design strategy is firstly introduced, which contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and DNA hybridization-induced fluorescence enhancement. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations and challenges in the development of fluorescent sandwich assays regarding sensitivity and multiple detection capacity, thus providing an overview of the developing situation and offering insight to further developments of nucleic acid assay.
Xinwen Liu, Quan Yuan

Chapter 8. Electrochemical Sandwich Assays for Nucleic Acid Detection

Quantitative determination of nucleic acids related to human health and safety has attracted a great interest. Electrochemical sandwich-type biosensor with simple operation and low price shows high sensitivity and specificity with dual recognition mechanism and has been widely used for nucleic acid detection. In this chapter, we highlight the advancements of electrochemical sandwich assay for nucleic acids in recent decade. We first introduced the importance of nucleic acid detection and the principles of design an electrochemical nucleic acid sandwich assay and then summarized the advancements of this strategy based on the types of reporter tags, including redox molecules, enzymes, and nanoparticles. Finally, we discussed the challenges in the development of electrochemical nucleic acid sandwich assay to apply for clinical diagnostics, in cells and in vivo.
Meihua Lin, Xiaolei Zuo

Chapter 9. Sandwich Assays Based on QCM, SPR, Microcantilever, and SERS Techniques for Nucleic Acid Detection

Signal transducers which can read the signal toward targets are widely used for nucleic acid assay. Typically, the signal transducers based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, microcantilever, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) play a significant role in the development of techniques for the detection of nucleic acid. The combination of these techniques with sandwich assay has received extensive attention due to the advantages of sensitivity and specificity. In this chapter, we summarized the recent development of the nucleic acid sandwich assay based on QCM, SPR sensor, microcantilever, and SERS. Additionally, the advantages and disadvantages of these sandwich assays along with the challenges and prospects are also presented, devoting to guide researches to design more of robust sandwich assays for nucleic acid assay.
Xiaoxia Hu, Quan Yuan

Chapter 10. Sandwich Assays for Small Molecule and Ion Detection

Small molecules and ions play a critical role in biological and environmental systems. The detection of small molecules and ions is a significantly important issue and still a challenge in analytical chemistry. In the past decade, large attention has been paid to the detection of small molecules and ions based on sandwich assays due to their high sensitivity and selectivity. In this chapter, we summarize some sandwich assays for the detection of small molecules and ions that were proposed in recent years. The detection techniques afforded in the sandwich assays for the detection of small molecules and ions include electrochemical method, electrochemiluminescence method, fluorescence method, colorimetric method, and some other methods such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).
Yu Dai, Xiaojin Zhang, Fan Xia

Chapter 11. Sandwich Assay for Pathogen and Cells Detection

Sandwich assay biosensors make it possible to detect bacterial pathogens and cancer cells at extremely low level. In this chapter, we have summarized the recent developments of sandwich assay for pathogen and whole-cell detection using a variety of techniques. In particular, we highlighted some of the most common techniques in sandwich assay biosensors such as optics-based detection, electrochemistry-based detection, and mechanics-based detection.
Shaoguang Li, Hui Li, Fan Xia

Chapter 12. Biosensors Based on Supersandwich Assays

Only one signal probe is usually bound to the target in traditional sandwich assays, which limits the detection sensitivity. To overcome this limitation, supersandwich assays amplifying the signal through integration of multiple signal probes together have been developed in recent years. In this chapter, we highlight biosensors based on supersandwich assays for the detection of proteins, nucleic acids, small molecules, ions, and cells by a series of efforts reported in the past decade. The detection technologies employed in design of biosensors based on supersandwich assays contain electrochemical assay, electrochemiluminescence assay, fluorescence assay, and surface plasmon resonance assay.
Xiaojin Zhang, Fan Xia

Erratum to: Biosensors Based on Sandwich Assays

Fan Xia, Xiaojin Zhang, Xiaoding Lou, Quan Yuan
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