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Über dieses Buch

This book review series presents current trends in modern biotechnology. The aim is to cover all aspects of this interdisciplinary technology where knowledge, methods and expertise are required from chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, chemical engineering and computer science. Volumes are organized topically and provide a comprehensive discussion of developments in the respective field over the past 3-5 years. The series also discusses new discoveries and applications. Special volumes are dedicated to selected topics which focus on new biotechnological products and new processes for their synthesis and purification. In general, special volumes are edited by well-known guest editors. The series editor and publisher will however always be pleased to receive suggestions and supplementary information. Manuscripts are accepted in English.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Sweeteners

Abstract
Polyols as sugar substitutes, intense sweeteners and some new carbohydrates are increasingly used in foods and beverages. Some sweeteners are produced by fermentation or using enzymatic conversion. Many studies for others have been published. This chapter reviews the most important sweeteners.
Graphical Abstract
Gert-Wolfhard von Rymon Lipinski

Biopreservatives

Abstract
Food producers of today are met with inherently contradictory demands as seen from a microbiological point of view: producing foods that are less stable (due to nutritional and taste requirements) by processes that confer less control of the detrimental microflora (due to trends of convenience, minimal processing, and reducing or removing additives including preservatives). How should food producers manage to develop such products with a sufficiently long shelf-life and at a competitive price? Some of the most promising tools to this end are the so-called biopreservatives, which are various types of products derived from lactic acid bacteria and other suitable microorganisms, namely bacteriocins and other antimicrobials, fermentates, bioprotective cultures, and bacteriophages. This chapter provides an overview of the scientific background and functionality, as well as food applications and further commercial aspects of each of these categories of biopreservatives.
Graphical Abstract
Dieter Elsser-Gravesen, Anne Elsser-Gravesen

Biotechnological Production of Colorants

Abstract
The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches.
Graphical Abstract
Lex de Boer

Acidic Organic Compounds in Beverage, Food, and Feed Production

Abstract
Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as “natural,” whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.
Graphical Abstract
Hendrich Quitmann, Rong Fan, Peter Czermak

Industrial Production of l-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) and d-Isoascorbic Acid

Abstract
l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was first isolated in 1928 and subsequently identified as the long-sought antiscorbutic factor. Industrially produced l-ascorbic acid is widely used in the feed, food, and pharmaceutical sector as nutritional supplement and preservative, making use of its antioxidative properties. Until recently, the Reichstein–Grüssner process, designed in 1933, was the main industrial route. Here, d-sorbitol is converted to l-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2KGA) as key intermediate, using a bio-oxidation with Gluconobacter oxydans and several chemical steps. Today, industrial production processes use additional bio-oxidation steps with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare as biocatalyst to convert d-sorbitol to the intermediate 2KGA without chemical steps. The enzymes involved are characterized by a broad substrate range, but remarkable regiospecificity. This puzzling specificity pattern can be understood from the preferences of these enyzmes for certain of the many isomeric structures which the carbohydrate substrates adopt in aqueous solution. Recently, novel enzymes were identified that generate l-ascorbic acid directly via oxidation of l-sorbosone, an intermediate of the bio-oxidation of d-sorbitol to 2KGA. This opens the possibility for a direct route from d-sorbitol to l-ascorbic acid, obviating the need for chemical rearrangement of 2KGA. Similar concepts for industrial processes apply for the production of d-isoascorbic acid, the C5 epimer of l-ascorbic acid. d-isoascorbic acid has the same conformation at C5 as d-glucose and can be derived more directly than l-ascorbic acid from this common carbohydrate feed stock.
Graphical Abstract
Günter Pappenberger, Hans-Peter Hohmann

Amino Acids in Human and Animal Nutrition

Abstract
Amino acids are key components of human and animal nutrition, both as part of a protein-containing diet, and as supplemented individual products. In the last 10 years there has been a marked move away from the extraction of amino acids from natural products, which has been replaced by efficient fermentation processes using nonanimal carbon sources. Today several amino acids are produced in fermentation plants with capacities of more than 100,000 tonnes to serve the requirements of animal feed and human nutrition. The main fermentative amino acids for animal nutrition are l-lysine, l-threonine, and l-tryptophan. dl-Methionine continues to be manufactured for animal feed use principally by chemical synthesis, and a pharmaceutical grade is manufactured by enzymatic resolution. Amino acids play an important role in medical nutrition, particularly in parenteral nutrition, where there are high purity requirements for infusion grade products. Amino acids are also appearing more often in dietary supplements, initially for performance athletes, but increasingly for the general population. As the understanding of the effects of the individual amino acids on the human metabolism is deepened, more specialized product mixtures are being offered to improve athletic performance and for body-building.
Graphical Abstract
Andreas Karau, Ian Grayson

Food and Feed Enzymes

Abstract
Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.
Graphical Abstract
Marco Alexander Fraatz, Martin Rühl, Holger Zorn

Recent Developments in Manufacturing Oligosaccharides with Prebiotic Functions

Abstract
The market for prebiotics is steadily growing. To satisfy this increasing worldwide demand, the introduction of effective bioprocessing methods and implementation strategies is required. In this chapter, we review recent developments in the manufacture of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). These well-established oligosaccharides (OS) provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties that make their use as food ingredients especially attractive. The biosyntheses of lactose-based GOS and sucrose-based FOS show similarities in terms of reaction mechanisms and product formation. Both GOS and FOS can be synthesized using whole cells or (partially) purified enzymes in immobilized or free forms. The biocatalysis results in a final product that consists of OS, unreacted disaccharides, and monosaccharides. This incomplete conversion poses a challenge to manufacturers because an enrichment of OS in this mixture adds value to the product. For removing digestible carbohydrates from OS, a variety of bioengineering techniques have been investigated, including downstream separation technologies, additional bioconversion steps applying enzymes, and selective fermentation strategies. This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art manufacturing strategies and recent advances in bioprocessing technologies that can lead to new possibilities for manufacturing and purifying sucrose-based FOS and lactose-based GOS.
Graphical Abstract
Zoltán Kovács, Eric Benjamins, Konrad Grau, Amad Ur Rehman, Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Peter Czermak

Backmatter

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