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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Blended Learning, ICBL 2017, held in Hong Kong, China, in June 2017.

The 42 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections named: Keynotes; Experiences in Blended Learning; Strategies in Blended Learning; Assessment for Blended Learning; Computer-Support Collaborative Learning; Improved Flexibility of Learning Processes; Open Educational Resources; Pedagogical and Psychological Issues.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Keynotes

Frontmatter

Blended Learning as Means of Support Within the Elderly People Education

The article deals with the research conducted within the elderly people of Hradec Kralove region, Czech Republic, which works as a pilot research to the representative study of ways how the elderly reach and develop their IT skills, particularly how social relationships work as movers within this process. The method of questionnaire was applied to the research sample of 432 respondents attending the University of the Third Age and IT courses held by the Municipality of Hradec Kralove. The results, described and displayed in eight figures, clearly proved, the elderly people met the three predefined criteria for successful implementation of blended learning in this age group, as they both possessed modern devices and had skills to exploit them successfully for various purposes. There are no limits showing that blended learning could not be applied within this age group.

Petra Poulova, Ivana Simonova

Promoting Citizen’s Learning Experience in Smart Cities

Lots of research has been done on smart cities, however, only few studies can be found on smart cities from the educational perspective. This paper will discuss the framework of building smart city from educational perspective to identify the importance of promoting smart learning in smart cities. Then the characters of smart learning are elaborated, and the difference of traditional classroom learning, digital learning and smart learning are analyzed. After that, the paper analyzes the typical learning environments in cities: school, family, community, workplace, and museum. Based on the analysis, we develop indicators to evaluate learning environments in smart cities, which was used to evaluate the learning environments in the selected 68 cities in China.

Ronghuai Huang, Rongxia Zhuang, Junfeng Yang

International Collaborative Project-Based Learning: How Did US and Japanese Students Learn Together at a Distance When Supported by ICT?

Technological advancement, for example Web 2.0, has supported new learning paradigms such as blended, distance, collaborative, and cross-cultural learning. However, instructional methods in Japanese universities are still traditional. ICT, as a collaborative media incorporated into learning activities, is a possible direction for 21st century education. The author introduces two cases of distance collaborative learning between University of Hawaii campuses in Honolulu, USA and Kansai University, Osaka, Japan. The first case is a year-long program for undergraduate students studying environmental science. Starting with video conferencing between US and Japan, the students became acquainted with each other. Then, Japanese students visited Hawaii and worked together to investigate invasive algae along the seashore. Next, US students came to Japan to study a “Satoyama” ecosystem. This program consisted of both distance and face-to-face collaboration to prepare reports and produce video products. The second case is a semester-long graduate course. Japanese and US students collaboratively produced short video programs while working in teams at a distance. Teams from both countries encountered difficulties, but overcame them at the end of the program. Overall, most students were satisfied with their collaborative experiences.

Kenichi Kubota

Experiences in Blended Learning

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A Review of Learning Behaviors in Using E-Schoolbag: Enhancing Academic Performance in Primary Chinese

The trend of using e-schoolbag in blended learning environment in basic education in China is increasing but the impact on academic performance is yet to be verified. In this paper, we conducted a preliminary review through expert interview and a quantitative analysis on e-schoolbag usage against the Primary Chinese performance in a primary school. The finding shows that the usage pattern of e-schoolbag on Primary Chinese can be treated as a direct indicator of learning behavior which in turns shows the learning attitudes including active learning and engaged learning. These learning attitudes affect the academic performance in a positive way. It also highlighted the importance of incorporating proper learning activity design when using e-schoolbag.

Yan Keung Hui, Bo Mai, Sheng Qian, Lam For Kwok

Blended Learning in the University English Courses: Case Study

At present, thanks to the development of modern information and communication technologies, the higher education institutions run most of their courses also online. In foreign language teaching/learning the blended form is widely applied. Therefore, the aim of this article is to show through a case study how the blended learning form of instruction can be effective in practice. This is illustrated at the example of seven English courses taught in a blended form at the Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove. The authors describe the current blended English courses and analyze data collected from online evaluation reports. They demonstrate in figures how effective students’ learning in these courses is. In the final part, the crucial didactic conclusions are presented.

Blanka Klimova, Ivana Simonova, Petra Poulova

College Students’ Computer Self-efficacy, Intrinsic Motivation, Attitude, and Satisfaction in Blended Learning Environments

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between students’ computer self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, attitude, and satisfaction in blended learning environments. The participants were 239 college students enrolled at Hubei University in China. A survey including four existing instruments was used for data collection. The results of structural equation modeling analysis suggested students’ attitudes toward online and face-to-face classes were the most influential toward to satisfaction in blended learning environments. Higher levels of intrinsic motivation were seen to be influential toward satisfaction in blended learning environments. Computer self-efficacy was seen to influence intrinsic motivation and attitudes, but not found to influence satisfaction in blended learning environments.

Yanhong Li, Harrison Hao Yang, Jin Cai, Jason MacLeod

A Survey on Teachers’ Ability to Apply Electronic Schoolbag into Teaching

With the introduction of Electronic Schoolbag (E-bag) into education, teachers’ information technology teaching ability (TITTA) to use E-bag has been influenced obviously. In this study, a questionnaire was developed for figuring out the current situation of teachers’ ITTA to apply E-bag and the potential influence factors, then a survey was carried out in some sampled schools in Pearl River Delta. It turned out that teachers were confronted with some challenges, such as resources and tools development, various teaching activities based on E-bag, though operations and functions of E-bag had been grasped early. In addition, the foundation of teaching reforming in school and the duration of E-bag application were the most obvious influence factors for instructional design based on E-bag. Teachers should participate in all kinds of teaching reforming activities to use E-bag more effectively.

Qinlei Wang, Jing Bai, Rui Yao

The Findings of Multi-mode Blended Learning in K-12: A Case Study of V-China Education Program

Blended learning, which combines the advantages of face-to-face learning and online learning, brought new life to the field of education. However, blended learning faces many challenges in junior middle schools. This paper is based on the findings of study on V-China Education Program, which carried out a pioneer initiative program of temporary open online courses for K-12 in China. The team surveyed teachers and students nationwide who joined open online courses provided by the initiative program. The survey shows that there are three types of blending modes based on these open online courses: Pure Online Model, Macro blended Model, Multiparty Collaboration Blended Learning Model. Each mode features different learning and teaching activities. Furthermore, teachers and students experienced with 7 multi-mode courses were surveyed by questionnaires and interviews, and students hold positive attitudes towards blended learning. Besides, high-level experiences such as interactions and experiences of learning-supportive services were required for more successful and more popular blended learning. Based on these findings, the paper put forward a number of suggestions for the implementation of more practices on blended learning in K-12 in China.

Yushun Li, Meiqin Wu, Jinrui Dai, Shengri Chen

E-learning in Accounting Programmes in Hong Kong: Evolution and Effectiveness

This paper reviews the evolution of e-learning in accounting programmes in Hong Kong and, as a case study, reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of e-learning in one of the programmes. The fast pace of economic development in Hong Kong since the 1960s has created an increasing demand for qualified professional accountants, who have been facing rapid challenges from the global socio-economic changes. To equip the future professional accountants to cope with the required competences, the tertiary institutions in Hong Kong have been employing e-learning as an important blended learning mode of knowledge-sharing and motivating the accounting students to develop lifelong learning skills. This paper covers the historical background and adoption of e-learning in accounting education during the past decades, showing how its evolution has been in line with the overall technological developments in education delivery as well as the accounting industry. On this basis, the e-learning practice of an accounting programme was evaluated for its effectiveness. The findings showed that students were satisfied with the overall quality of the e-learning facilities provided on campus, but technical support was an area which may hinder the effective use of the facilities.

Billy Tak-Ming Wong, Kam Cheong Li, Beryl Yuen-Yee Wong, Joseph Shiu-Wing Yau

Japanese Students’ Utilization of Courseware in a Blended Learning Environment

This paper outlines research conducted into what Japanese undergraduate students think about utilization of commercial online courseware in a blended language learning course; I also demonstrate apparent benefits and problems with introducing courseware in Japanese educational settings. A brief introduction of the concepts of CALL and availability of ICT in Japan is provided, followed by a short description of English language teaching in Japanese educational settings. The present study and its results are then explained. The findings show that different students had different opinions of the effectiveness of the courseware – less than half of them appreciated the benefits of the courseware, while the rest raised computer-related problems with learning English through it. It is crucial for teachers to determine how to construct face-to-face learning environments in order to accommodate students’ different demands and requests in blended learning classrooms.

Yoko Hirata, Yoshihiro Hirata

Blended Learning as a Mover in the Tourism&Management Study Programme?

The article deals with the bachelor Tourism&Management study programme taught at the Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Reflecting various reasons and changing accreditation criteria, the level of students’ knowledge of English was decreasing within 25 academic years. So as to reach the original level as a minimum, the blended learning design was step-by-step implemented. However, no improvements appeared. Therefore, other movers within the process of teaching/learning must be discovered and applied. The article is structured in three parts describing (1) changes within the development of study programme, (2) relating statistic data and (3) providing pedagogical interventions in the form of blended learning. In the final part, a brief review of solutions selected from the world experience is introduced. Their consideration and implementation is expected to result in changes in both the learning content and methodology of the study programme.

Ivana Simonova

A Blended-Experiential Learning Model: An Action Research Case Study

This research proposed a blended-experiential learning model for the higher education. Participatory action research method was selected in order to validate the proposed model. Eight students were invited to participate in this project to develop a live case that demonstrated how students operating a restaurant ‘Café de Music’ in spring 2016. The thematic concern for students was ‘how to improve food quality, service quality, and atmosphere quality of the Café de Music’. The results of three action research cycles showed how the blended-experiential learning model successfully worked in a hospitality education case and how students learned by reflection in this case setting. Furthermore, recommendations for educators to implement the proposed model were provided based on the findings.

Ivan Ka-wai Lai, Kwan-keung Ng, Joseph Shi-piu Fong

Prior Knowledge Dwarfs Hard Work in Achieving Academic Performance

In a final-year undergraduate course, study effort has insignificant positive influence on student performance. Prior knowledge alone accurately predicts student performance. We conjecture that prior knowledge gradually increases its influence on performance as students progress through a 4-year undergraduate program. To benefit students in latter study years, universities should allocate resources for freshmen to build solid study habits and background knowledge. Finally, our study shows that individual’s choice between face-to-face lectures and recorded lectures has no bearing on student performance and cram study has limited benefits.

Oliver Au, Raymond So, Lap Kei Lee

Strategies in Blended Learning

Frontmatter

Research on Blended Learning Model Based on Electronic Schoolbag

This paper introduced the system structure and function advantage of electronic schoolbag, and carried on the literature investigation and analysis to the application situation of the Chinese electronic bag at present. It found that there were still many problems in the teaching application of the electronic schoolbag. On the basis of these problems, this paper combined the advantages of electronic schoolbag, put forward the application model of the electronic schoolbag under the blended learning environment and its corresponding teaching strategies, analyzed and combined the characteristics and implemented measures of these models. This study further discussed and summarized the characteristics and application trends of blended learning based on electronic schoolbag environment.

Min-sheng Fan, Ming Liu, Yu Wang

Learning Analytics for Monitoring Students Participation Online: Visualizing Navigational Patterns on Learning Management System

With the increasing use of blended learning approaches in classroom, various kinds of technologies are incorporated to provide digital teaching and learning resources to support students. These resources are often centralized in learning management systems (LMSs), which also store valuable learning data of students. The data could assist teachers in their pedagogical decision making but they are often not well utilized. This paper proposes the use of data mining and visualization techniques as learning analytics to provide a more comprehensive overview of students’ learning online based on log data from LMSs . The focus of this study is the discovery of frequent navigational patterns by sequential pattern mining techniques and the demonstration of how presentation of patterns through hierarchical clustering and sunburst visualization could facilitate the interpretation of patterns. The data in this paper were collected from a blended statistics course for undergraduate students.

Leonard K. M. Poon, Siu-Cheung Kong, Thomas S. H. Yau, Michael Wong, Man Ho Ling

Construction of the 3L5G Task-Driven Instructional Model: Fostering Computational Thinking of Junior High School Students in an Application Software Course

The focus of this research is to develop and verify the 3-level-5-guidance (3L5G) Task-driven Instructional Model aimed at fostering Computational Thinking (CT) of junior high school students in an application software course. As one of the most popular pedagogies in Informational Technology (IT) instruction, the task-driven learning approach is receiving increasing attention as it facilitates the development of CT among junior high school students. Instructional problems existed in task-driven learning applications as well as the status quo of the development of CT in IT courses were reviewed through document analysis. After the development of the framework of CT in application software learning, an empirical investigation was conducted to develop and refine the 3L5G Task-Driven Instructional Model from the perspective of task levels and cognitive guidance guiding. This investigation was conducted over two iterations of an action research effort with 8th-grade students of a public junior high school in Guangzhou. The model was verified through a practical study with students (N = 301) from two junior high schools in Guangzhou, China.

Yi Fan, Xiaotong Yang

The Enlightenment of Learning Sciences to Blended Learning

In recent years, the development of learning sciences causes more people’s attention. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of learning sciences to blended learning. With literature research, interviews and other forms of domestic survey, we study learning sciences from the perspective of four aspects: research fields, research hotspots, research institutions, and case study. The authors believe the core issue of learning sciences and blended learning research is how to promote learning. Both is closely linked, learning sciences can provide theoretical basis for teaching and learning methods, application of hybrid technology; blended learning research can also enrich learning sciences research and provide specific ways for a more effective learning. Learning sciences will have an important impact on blended learning, and promote blended learning progress in learning method, learning content and technical applications etc. to contribute to more effective educational reform and innovation.

Rong Miao, Qian Dong

The Design and Development of Intellectual Skills Assessment App of Pupils in U-Learning Environment

Learning environment and learning style have had great changes In the “Internet+” age. Intellectual skills are regarded as students’ the skills, and have become significant for one to carry out objective investigation, solve problems and develop critical thinking ability. In order to better evaluate the intellectual skills of pupils, this study puts forward an evaluation index system of primary school students’ intellectual skills, through the literature research. On this basis, we developed an intellectual skills assessment app (ISA). It provides convenience in use for measuring the students’ intellectual skills. The evaluation index system has theoretical significances and practical values to help develop students intellectual skills.

Qiwen Guan, Jiaxin Liu, Xiaoling Huang, Jiehua He, Wei Li, Chuangxin Sheng

Assessment for Blended Learning

Frontmatter

Online Learning Activity Index (OLAI) and Its Application for Adaptive Learning

We propose a model, Learning Activity Index (LAI) to describe learners’ learning activities comprising three components, i.e., speed, quality and quantity. We then concretize this model into online learning and propose the Online Learning Activity Index (OLAI). With the example of a web-based mathematics learning system, OLAI can be calculated by the summarization of standardized and dimensionless speed, quality and quantity. So OLAI is also a dimensionless value and can comprehensively describe the learner’s online learning behavior. We use OLAIMAA (OLAI Mean of All Activities) to measure one learner’s online learning activities during a certain period on average and OLAISAA (OLAI Sum of All Activities) to measure those from a summative perspective. Similarly, the performance of a group, such as a class or a school, can also be described by those indexes. Furthermore, we design the personalized instructional strategies adaptive to the learner’s OLAI and the OLAI of the learning group. The instructional strategies include the feedback corresponding to numerical intervals of three components of OLAI, bonus based on longitudinal comparison with the learner’s own activity profile, bonus based on locally horizontal comparison with learner’s classmates or partners in the same online group, and bonus based on globally horizontal comparison with all learners in the same system. We suggest that OLAI should be taken into consideration for the design of online learning platforms or course management system, and be referred as a basic approach to individualized instruction by both teachers and parents.

Jiyou Jia, Yueyang Yu

Analysis on the Effect of Knowledge Sharing in Network Learning Space - A Case Study of Teachers’ Workshop

During the period of 13th five-year plan, the guideline for education informatization emphasizes on construction of network learning space to promote the reform of learning and teaching methods. The construction of network learning space can provide teachers with a platform for training and learning. And all teachers’ activities can be completed on this platform. Recently, contents about knowledge sharing of teachers have drew attention of researchers. To best understand the effect of knowledge sharing on network learning space, this paper chooses a typical example teacher workshop as research object. Based on statistical analysis, content analysis and social statistical analysis, this paper performs research on quantity, content and features of social interaction of knowledge sharing. The results show that: (1) Teachers are generally very active on network learning space; (2) Teachers’ posts are closely related to topics; (3) Teachers have built strong connections with each other; (4) Communications often involve more than 2 people. Therefore, this result can be a reference to other related research works.

Qingtang Liu, Hong Wang, Si Zhang

Topic Classification on Short Reflective Writings for Monitoring Students’ Progress

Reflection has been widely considered as an important element in student learning in higher education. Among different forms of reflective writing, one-minute papers can quickly and easily get students to reflect on their learning. Unlike short quizzes, the responses to one-minute papers could cover a wide open range and could require more time to review and summarize. When one-minute papers are administrated online, their responses are available in electronic form and this facilitates a computational approach for analysis. In this paper, we propose a machine learning approach to analyzing the students’ responses to one-minute papers. We build a text classifier to identify the topics discussed in the responses. Our results of a preliminary study conducted in a blended learning course demonstrate that the classifier can effectively detect the topics and the proposed method can be used to monitor student progress based on the detected topics.

Leonard K. M. Poon, Zichao Li, Gary Cheng

Evaluation of Stress Conditions for FIM UHK Students in Order to Improve Blended Learning and Flexibility of Educational Process

The aim of this study is to clarify the current theoretical background of the issues dealing with stress factors as well as to introduce the course and statistical evaluation of our own research. It focuses on the connection between stress load and behaviour of university students. In the research the following areas are monitored: life style, living and social conditions and the influence of negative emotions on stress increase. The method of the research is subjective questioning and statistical processing of correlations in the field of frustration tolerance, handling stress and psychosomatic symptoms.The first empirical survey was going on in the years 2011–2013 among 1322 university students in total, They were from the Faculty of Informatics and Management in Hradec Králové – the study branches of Applied Informatics, Financial Management, Information Management, Management of Tourism and Sport Management – and also from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Charles University in Prague. In the area of psychosomatic symptoms significant correlations have been found for all items in relation to health damaging strategies, so called malcoping strategies.The second empirical survey monitored the sample of respondents in the years 2015–2016. 191 students participated in the research, all of them studying at the Faculty of Informatics and Management in Hradec Králové – the branches Applied Informatics, Financial Management, Information Management and Management of Tourism. Statistical evaluation was carried here with the help of correlation of handling stress area in relation to other monitored items. In the items directed to the section of psychosomatic symptoms significant correlations have been found again almost in all questions in relation to malcoping strategies. Of all types of items the best correlation was in the vulnerability section. The electronic online application which enabled subjective questioning and classification into stress factors was set up and placed on the web.

Věra Strnadová, Petr Voborník, Jiří Haviger, Kateřina Provazníková

Effects of Mobile Apps on Learning Motivation and Study Performance of Nursing Students

This paper reports a study on the effects of mobile apps on the learning motivation and study performance of nursing students. A total of 20 students participated in focus group interviews for collecting qualitative feedback on their learning motivation and use of mobile apps for learning. Two consecutive cohorts of students in a nursing programme, each with about 200 students, were recruited for the quantitative part of the study for assessing their learning motivation through a survey and study performance by two tests. The results showed that the students actively used the mobile apps for studying supplementary learning materials. The students maintained a relatively high level of motivation for performing and learned well, but they had relatively low perceived satisfaction and self-efficacy with mobile learning. They showed better study performance after practising mobile learning. Positive correlation was found between students’ motivation in terms of intrinsic value and the improvement in learning performance after practising mobile learning. This study also suggests that students’ perceived intrinsic value with mobile learning has to be enhanced for improving their study performance.

Kam Cheong Li, Linda Yin-King Lee, Suet-Lai Wong, Ivy Sui-Yu Yau, Billy Tak-Ming Wong

Computer-Support Collaborative Learning

Frontmatter

Empirical Study on Google Earth (GE)-Integrated Science Lessons: Cases from Two Chinese Elementary Schools

The goal of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of applying Google Earth (GE) in an elementary science lesson by comparing the academic results between GE-integrated instruction and traditional instruction. The teaching practice was implemented in two Chinese elementary schools located in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. The GE-integrated and traditional inquiry activities were both designed based on 5E learning cycle and qualitative and quantitative methods were used to test the effectiveness of GE-integrated instruction. Data analysis found that: (1) students shown great interests in GE-integrated science lesson; (2) teachers held positive attitude toward the application of GE in science teaching; (3) there were no significant differences in academic results between traditional instruction and GE-integrated instruction. Suggestions and proposals were put forward at the end of the study.

Xiuli Cheng, Yuqing Guo, Yan Li

A Study on Grouping Strategy of Collaborative Learning Based on Clustering Algorithm

As educational informatization develops continuously, blended learning has become the focus of increasing amount of research works. Among these studies, researchers indicate that collaborative learning, as an important teaching strategy, is of great effectiveness in promoting students’ learning performance either in E-learning or classroom teaching. However, due to the fact that different students may have different learning styles, it is crucial for teachers to take this factor into consideration. Therefore, to enhance the validity of grouping in collaborative learning, this paper proposes a grouping strategy based on the analysis results of students’ learning styles using K-Means and hierarchical clustering. Results of clustering analysis can provide a valuable reference no matter for homogeneous grouping or heterogeneous grouping.

Qingtang Liu, Shen Ba, Jingxiu Huang, Linjing Wu, Chuanyuan Lao

The Study on the Roles in the Practical Applying Oriented Asynchronous Collaborative Learning Network

Asynchronous collaborative learning network (ACLN) makes the process of collaboration learning more convenient. In ACLN there are various roles, e.g., group leader, group member including positive member and negative member etc. They play different parts in group learning, especially each person. This work explored how the personal member enact relationship in the regular collaborative learning and influence the direction of the group, and how their interaction is enabled and constrained by personal role. This study considers four aspects of ACLN: the design, cohesion, roles and power network structures. The design is evaluated by the Social Interdependence Theory of Cooperative Learning. The network structures are analyzed by Social Network Analysis of the response relations among participants during online discussions. After analyzing data for three years from one ACLN academic university courses, we found that the knowledge construction process reached the setting aim and developed cohesive cliques in ACLN.

Bo Liu, Huijie Cui, Xiao Liu, Changqin Huang

Using Blended Learning for Collaborative Learning in Herbal Medicine

The objectives of this research are to apply and evaluate the KUIHerbRx2016, a blended learning tool for collaborative learning in herbal medicine. The 167 third year pharmacy students were assigned to contribute their opinions in topics of local names in several languages, indications, precaution/toxicity, additional information, images of herbs, products, and links to herbs. Opinions provided to the KUIHerbRx2016 should be evidence-based information and avoid copyright violations. Three domains of learning were evaluated. For cognitive skills, students can collaborative work and contribute knowledge on all topics. However, the average percentage of opinions with references on three topics, i.e., indications, precaution/toxicity, and additional information was 63.89. From the results, students could provide adequate information to the system. However, the number of opinions with references and citations for opinions should be improved. For responsibility, students could do their assignment completely in terms of the number of herbs, topics of herbal information and time used. They expressed their information technology skills to search herbal information, put opinions into the tool, and share information among students.

Verayuth Lertnattee, Bunyapa Wangwattana

Interactive Whiteboard-Based Instruction Versus Lecture-Based Instruction: A Study on College Students’ Academic Self-efficacy and Academic Press

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interactive whiteboard (IWB)-based instruction on students’ academic self-efficacy and academic press. A quasi-experiment study was conducted using a sample of 103 freshmen from a university in central China. While students in one class employed the IWB-based instructional approach, students in the other class employed the traditional lecture-based instructional approach. Students in both classes studied English for three months. The pre- and post- surveys showed that the students with the IWB-based instructional approach had a higher level of academic self-efficacy and academic press than did the students’ with the lecture-based instruction approach, which indicated that the use of IWB can increase students’ self-efficacy and academic press when cooperated with an appropriate instructional approach.

Yinghui Shi, Changling Peng, Xue Zhang, Harrison Hao Yang

Improved Flexibility of Learning Processes

Frontmatter

Investigation of the ICT Situation in Chinese Primary School: The Role of School Characteristics

The development of ICT in schools was influenced by many external environment factors and internal ICT factors. To identify the school-level factors linked with schools ICT situation, and the differences of the ICT implementation stages of rural and urban schools, a survey of 4,357 was conducted. Four subscales including environment, support, application, and fund allocation were extracted from the Features of School ICT Situation (FSIS). Through stepwise regression analysis, it is revealed that the ICT literacy of teacher is the most important predictor for schools’ FSIS. In addition, there are more Essential Elements of School Characteristics (EESC) items that can make significant prediction of FSIS for rural schools than for urban schools, and their predictive power for FSIS of rural schools is stronger than that of urban schools. The result reflects that EESC items which evaluate background and basic situation of ICT development in schools have stronger positive predictive power for schools in rural areas and the number of predictive indicators is larger. EESC items have relatively weaker predictive power and fewer predictive indicators for urban schools.

Congcong Li, Wenting Zhou, Chun Lu, Di Wu

Blended Learning for Improving Flexibility of Learning Structure Query Language (SQL)

The Structural Query Language (SQL) is the popular language used for managing and retrieving data and information from relational databases. To support the decision making for healthcare professionals including pharmacists, learning SQL is one of an important topic in a database course. The objective of this research was to introduce blended learning for improving flexibility of learning SQL. The learning process was discussed and planned. Contents in this topic and examples of relational databases were designed and implemented. The SQLite was selected as a relational database management system due to its flexibility of using and managing. After a face-to-face class, students could practice their exercises with any of their computing devices, i.e., computers, tablets and smartphones. Moreover, these devices could operate with or without Internet connection. Students could practice and manage their exercises at any time and from anywhere. With evaluations from students, the results showed that the flexibility of the system enhanced their ability for learning SQL.

Verayuth Lertnattee, Perayot Pamonsinlapatham

A Hand-Waving Dance Teaching System Based on Kinect

Hand-waving dance is the essence of Tujia culture. Whereas it is facing the danger of dying out. Following a choreographer’s direct demonstration or watching videos recorded by dancers is the traditional learning method. Though there will be a certain degree of effect, the preciseness and feedbacks are often not so satisfying. In this paper, by analyzing the application of motion sensing technology in dance teaching, we designed and developed a set of interactive teaching system based on Kinect for Tujia traditional Hand-waving dance. In this system, not only can users learn dance skills, but they can also get an intuitionistic evaluation and review their learning process. Our study aims to solve the problem in Hand-waving dance teaching and provides a new method for Hand-waving Dance learning. Finally, we can see that the interactive learning based on computer is gradually becoming a new popular learning style.

Qingtang Liu, Shufan Yu, Yang Wang, Huixiao Le, Yangyang Yuan

Design of a Mobile Handwriting Test Revision System for Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction Model in Mathematics Learning

The purpose of the paper is to develop a MObile Handwriting TEst Revision (MOHTER) system which can be applied in an instructional design called a cognitive apprenticeship instruction model for mathematics learning in higher education. The MOHTER system offers a mobile-device APP for students who use the APP in uploading their image version of answer sheets to the cloud server of the system. Subsequently, teachers utilize the proposed system to revise answer sheets via teachers’ handwriting through web interface or web APP. Here, a significant feature of the system is to integrate four operations, revising answer sheets with handwriting, assigning scores for answer sheets, writing teachers’ comments on students’ answer sheets, and selecting answer sheets to be modelling on class, in a single window as well as to operate these four actions through web applications. The system can support a cognitive apprenticeship instruction model for mathematics learning.

Hung-Hsu Tsai, Jie-Yan Peng, You-Ming Yong, Chun-Shan Wang, Pao-Ta Yu

The Remote Synchronous Classroom in China

The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the remote synchronous classroom, which is a newly developed and unique blended learning method in the Chinese K-12 education system. The study consists of three main parts: the description and comparison of key synchronous learning, the review of innovative developments and the modern significance of the remote synchronous classroom in China, and key issues that must be addressed to improve implementation of the remote synchronous classroom.

Jin Cai, Harrison Hao Yang, Yanhong Li, Jason MacLeod

Open Educational Resources

Frontmatter

Distance-Learning Students’ Perception on the Usefulness of Open Educational Resources

Open educational resources or OER have been widely used for teaching and learning in higher education. This paper investigates the distance-learning students’ perception on the usefulness of OER for learning purposes. Through a survey conducted to the distance-learning undergraduate students at the Open University of Hong Kong, it is revealed that OER are often used and generally considered useful as supplementary learning materials for acquiring relevant knowledge and doing assignments and projects. Among other types of OER, open access textbooks and reference books, and openly shared lecture notes and video clips are considered in particular useful. Massive open online courses and tutorials are considered to be more useful than small-scale mobile learning modules. For online learning tools, online dictionaries and encyclopedia are considered to be very useful. It is also revealed that the reliability, quality and comprehensiveness of OER are key concerns for distance-learning students to use OER for learning purposes.

Simon K. S. Cheung

Learning Experience Questionnaire for Multimedia Case-Based Instruction: Development, Validation and Implications for Design

To explore the key constructs of multimedia case-based instruction (MCBI), this study developed and validated a questionnaire to examine learners’ learning experience with MCBI with tests for reliability and validity. Based on the literature review, the questionnaire was initially designed with 39 questions and was administered to 86 graduate students taking an instructional design course. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted sequentially with the questionnaire data, and the statistical results informed the deletion of 13 problematic questions from the overall scale. The revised questionnaire yielded a strong internal reliability, and can be further reduced into four distinct factors measuring MCBI’s contextuality, effects, design features and explorative nature respectively. The study results are expected to enhance people’s understanding of MCBI and provide implications for the design, development and delivery of multimedia cases for instruction.

Tingting Yang, Heng Luo

Research on Open University Online Courses Learning Support Service (OCLSS) from the Perspective of Ubiquitous Learning

Along with the gradual promotion of information education, the emerging information technology provides a broad and innovative platform for online learning services of Open University, and significantly advances the integration of the ideas of Ubiquitous learning (U-Learning) and blended learning. This research, based on the online courses of Open University, established a system of evaluation index for learning support services. Based upon the twenty-two online courses of the Open University of Guangdong (OUGD), an evaluation and analysis was conducted to explore the status quo and problem of the learning support services in these open universities. On this basis, combining with relevant research and empirical surveys this research found that the learning support services were moving along the trend towards personalization, ubiquitous and intelligence, which might provide a useful reference to the diverse development and innovative application of OCLSS in our country.

Xianyue Wu, Yi Qiu, Youru Xie, Huiyan Zhang, Lihong Wu

Analysis on the Development of Educational Resources in the Open Universities in China

Cloud computing, big data and other emerging technologies have been commonly applied to education nowadays. Although these subversive technologies has brought new opportunities to many open universities, new challenges have been created from the new models, forms and demands, which have a strong impact on the existing distance educational framework and mechanisms. This paper proposes an evaluation index on the educational resources developed by open universities, based on the analysis on some online courses offered by the Open University of Guangdong and the Open University of China. The evaluation index is then applied to study and evaluate the current development of educational resources for open universities in China.

Shijie Li, Xianyue Wu, Yi Qiu, Lihong Wu, Pengyu Chen

Improving Video Engagement by Gamification: A Proposed Design of MOOC Videos

MOOCs have rapidly been a predominant form of distance learning recently. Through high-speed internet, students in MOOCs can not only enjoy best learning resources around the world, but also connect closely with others. However, it is worrying that completion rate of MOOCs is only 10% on average, which reflects the low engagement of learning in MOOCs. Confronted with such problem, this paper proposed a gamification design of MOOC videos by adding implicit feedback into mechanics and updating existing delivery media from lecture-style to narrative-style.

Yun Zhu, Leisi Pei, Junjie Shang

Pedagogical and Psychological Issues

Frontmatter

A Review on Recent Development of the Involvement Load Hypothesis

The Involvement Load Hypothesis, proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn in 2001, has been widely adopted and applied to estimate effectiveness of word-focused tasks in promoting word learning. With the development and shift of learning contexts, models and technologies in the past sixteen years, the involvement load hypothesis has been researched from various aspects. This review investigates the applications and theoretical developments of the hypothesis, focusing on two main areas: examination of the three components of the hypothesis, and comparison or integration of the hypothesis with other hypothesis or theories, for example, the technique feature analysis. Future developments in related fields are also discussed.

Haoran Xie, Di Zou, Fu Lee Wang, Tak-Lam Wong

A Curriculum Design to Cultivate Creative Thinking Through Educational Games

As creativity is important for innovation and future success in the global competition, the cultivation of students’ creative thinking has been a heated research topic in the field of education. Educational games can effectively support teaching and learning in many ways, and this paper presents a curriculum design with game-based learning. On the basis of this curriculum, the topic of balance between education and entertainment in gamed-based learning curriculum design, and the six principles on curriculum design for cultivating creative thinking through educational games have been discussed.

Sijie Ma, Junjie Shang, Haiming Xiao

Deployment of Cognitive and Affective Determinants in Blended Learning - Case Study

The paper discusses psycho-didactic framework which is applied to stimulate language development and test language competence in students of bachelor study programmes within Blended learning concept. Cognitive and affective determinants are unique to each student. When this perspective is simplified to the core it is possible to state that each student has his/her learning prerequisites like knowledge and has his/her attitudes, interests and self-esteem. In this presented research we tried to demonstrate the concept of determinants with real participants on the real teaching-learning stage. The goal is to maternize theory and visualize how theory aligns with practice.

Miloslava Černá

The Influence of Different Personality Traits on Learning Achievement in Three Learning Situations

In order to explore the relationships among learning achievement, personality characteristics and learning context, and to test what kind of personality characteristics are suitable for what kind of learning situation, an experimental study was conducted on 45 college students (24 women, 21 men) in China. Participants were randomly assigned to 6 days of instruction in one of three learning situations: traditional classroom, online learning, and flipped classroom (blended learning). Personality was assessed in terms of the Big Five traits, and achievement scores reflected learning of the course material. Results showed that (1) There were no significant differences in the influence of the three learning situations on learning achievement; (2) Among the Big Five personality traits, Conscientiousness had a significant impact on learners’ academic performance, and positively predicted learning achievement; (3) There was a significant interaction between Openness and learning situation: students with high Openness showed the best performance in the online learning situation, and did worst in the traditional classroom; students with moderate Openness did best in the flipped classroom. The results of this study suggest that in the process of personalized education, we should attach importance to the matching of learning situation and individual differences. This may be especially true in online learning and flipped classroom environments, in order to optimize the learning effect in learners with different personality characteristics.

Lu Wang, Yuan Tian, Yuju Lei, Zongkui Zhou

Backmatter

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