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This book provides basic concepts and deep knowledge about various security mechanisms that can be implemented in IoT through Blockchain technology. This book aids readers in gaining insight and knowledge about providing security and solutions to different challenges in IoT using Blockchain technology. This book primarily focuses on challenges to addressing the integration of the IoT with Blockchain with respect to potential benefits for IoT. This book gives descriptive analysis of Blockchain integrated with IoT applications and platforms for the development of IoT solutions along with possible topologies to that integration. Several application examples are included in a variety of industries.



A Comprehensive Survey on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency Technologies: Approaches, Challenges, and Opportunities

Blockchain and cryptocurrency are some of the buzzwords in recent years. This chapter provides an organized review of literature on blockchain-based applications in various domains. The main purpose of this study is to explore the latest trends of blockchain technology and its applications and to focus on certain features of this disruptive technology, which can transform traditional business practices in the near future. There are many researchers working in this field for more than 10 years, and they have published their articles in highly reputed journals. Also, many reports and white papers are available. Therefore, a systematic collection of those articles and reviews of this literature will be very much helpful for the upcoming researchers. In this paper, a detailed classification of blockchain-based applications from different domains such as land registration, healthcare, Internet of things, security, and the latest areas for research are presented. The challenges and issues that were identified from various works of literature are presented for deeper understanding. Also, based on the review, the identified gaps in the research and the potential future work directions are given in predicting the importance of value for the researchers and academicians.
K. R. Jothi, S. Oswalt Manoj

Intelligent Traffic Management with Prioritized Scheduling System

A dynamic approach based on traffic density is much more feasible and efficient. Our approach lets signals handle themselves based on various real-time factors such as traffic density and emergency vehicles. The traffic analysis module uses already provided surveillance cameras to analyze the parameters by using artificial intelligence and optical character recognition through CCTV cameras. Each lane on the road is distinguished into three or more segments according to the scenario. These lines are used to determine the traffic density. Whenever the vehicles hide a part of the line in a lane, we can estimate the traffic density concerning time where the camera frames correspond to time. In this manner, we can generate real-time traffic data and implement a time sequence for the signal to clear off the traffic. The scope can be further widened by cooperating this system with Intelligent Transport Systems. The module is set so that it will be trained to get the data from the processed datasets. The advanced structure provides an embedding of a GPS module in the vehicle, which will be able to identify emergency vehicles and can also minimize the theft of vehicles. The module with the GPS sensor makes a good accurate score on the prediction. For implementing this system, we use video feed from the CCTV cameras and detect the amount of traffic density in each lane using OpenCV. Instead of fixed time updating of signals, we used a dynamic approach based on the traffic density. Whenever an emergency vehicle comes within the range of the signals, it automatically detects it and sets the green signal for the vehicle to pass swiftly and also alerts other vehicles through a mobile notification on the way of the ambulance.
S. A. K. Jainulabudeen, D. Sundeep, S. Rahul

Data Mining-Based Metrics for the Systematic Evaluation of Software Project Management Methodologies

Metrics allow the evaluation of project management methodologies. They can identify aspects related to the quality of the results and the economy of resources. This chapter introduces a proposal for metrics to assess the performance in the use of project management methodologies and the first results on a small number of use cases. From bibliographic sources, a set of new metrics are defined to include those evaluations that up to now are subjective or nonexistent. As part of the scope, a detailed presentation of some of the metrics and their application to a case study, along with some statistics, are included. The applicability of the proposal to real cases is also analyzed. The full derivation of the metrics, the complete listing, and the functional prototype that is being used to apply them are not part of the scope.
Patricia R. Cristaldo, Daniela López De Luise, Lucas La Pietra, Anabella De Battista, D. Jude Hemanth

Blockchain Technology Applications for Next Generation

Blockchain technology is a technological breakthrough that can lead to the next generation of information and communication technology (ICT), enabling low-cost, open-ended, and tamper-resistant data access, high availability, and transparency. Originally intended to fund Bitcoin’s digital money, it is expected to be expanded to a broad spectrum of financial applications as well as to other industries, such as delivery and shared economies. This larger deployment calls for a range of technical challenges to be tackled through the clouding of data privacy protections and improved processing speed, and the Fujitsu Laboratory is working on several related R&D projects. This research outlines blockchain technologies and sample applications, describes encryption technology in the business sense, and examines Fujitsu’s communication activities.
Neha Puri, Vikas Garg, Rashmi Agrawal

An Approach to Ensure High-Availability Deployment of IoT Devices

With millions of smart devices being integrated each day through the Internet of Things (IoT), ensuring ubiquitous computing along with pertinent security has now become more significant than ever. Generally, it is difficult to guarantee zero downtime even if the backhaul network is optimally deployed. An automated system that could predict the downtime and take suitable steps to ensure High Availability (HA) of resources could protect businesses from losing data at a critical time. Such an automated model is put forward that would guarantee zero downtime deployment without comprising the security of end devices. The emphasis is on designing an effective solution by improvising the current strategies for this deployment challenge. The proposed architecture is evaluated through numerous tests, and by visualization of the results obtained, one can mitigate the planned and unplanned downtime to ensure continuous operational efficiency of services for businesses.
Abishaik Mohan, Balaji Seetharaman, P. Janarthanan

Blockchain-Based IoT Architecture for Software-Defined Networking

The most popular research advances in emerging technologies are software-defined networking (SDN) and blockchain technology (BCT). These systems have been used in the Internet of things (IoT) environment for various purposes, such as security, reliability, interoperability, privacy, and so on. In this respect, such strategies can be used to efficiently include cloud storage with protection, confidentiality, and privacy. Privacy and power aspects play a significant role in the transferring of information through IoT due to the power and processing of restricted interconnected systems, that is, processing and storage resources. Whether fraudulent or unintentional, there are possible real-world effects of data intrusion in an IoT system. In this chapter, we discuss the potential to combine blockchain technology and software-defined networking (SDN) to alleviate some of the problems. Particularly, using cluster architecture with a modern routing protocol, we suggest a stable and energy-saving blockchain-enabled SDN architecture for IoT. The experimental results suggest that the cluster structure-based routing and packet-oriented routing have better latency, power, and rugged performance than the above routing protocols. The cluster structure-based routing protocol has improved performance than other routing protocols with respect to performance, power savings, and robustness. The cluster structure-based routing protocol has better sensitivity to packet loss. The cluster structure-based routing protocol has improved performance in the presence of foundering. The performance of the suggested architecture is justified based on the observation of simulation results with the choice of applicable parameters.
P. Manju Bala, S. Usharani, T. Ananth Kumar, R. Rajmohan, M. Pavithra

Blockchain Technology Use Cases in Healthcare Management: State-of-the-Art Framework and Performance Evaluation

The use of blockchain is particularly suited to open-source interoperability outside the financial realm, but the exchange among technology complexities and realistic effects remains unknown. Blockchain is an undoubtedly innovative key technology that, even in various business disciplines, this has captured the attention of scholars and practitioners. Owing to the growing concern of scholarly academics in healthcare, this study sought to identify blockchain technologies with an emphasis on the various medical applications. The results of the comprehensive study show that blockchain has been used to establish advanced and innovative technologies to enhance the existing norms of health information and personal health record (PHR) handling, exchange, and distribution. In the healthcare sector, the deployment of blockchain technology is experiencing a technical transformation in which it has generated substantial value through enhanced performance, authentication, technical innovation, personal privacy, and information management process security. The personal health record and electronic health record show a vital part in helping health patients and providers to subsequent recovery data more efficiently. However, it is difficult to achieve a cohesive understanding of health information that is spread through multiple healthcare professionals. Health reports are typically distributed in various locations in particular and are not synchronized. Electronic health records (EHRs) have developed a common way to preserve and track facts in healthcare for patients. Holding these documents makes the original health information gathering system more reliable and expensive. The EHR is securely housed through using client–server model whereby each patient maintains patient data stewardship. A patient’s records are distributed using focused individual servers between various hospitals. These restrictions place the onus on individualized healthcare whenever it relates to supplying various allied patients and providers with a consistent view and mutual, safe, and private exposure to the clinical records of patients. The blockchain’s availability of data, security, and privacy capabilities have a valuable potential in health, offering alternatives to the existing client–server architectural design EHR management system’s difficulty, secrecy, reliability, integration, and privacy issues. A PHR model uses blockchain technologies and the EHR integration framework to incorporate decentralized health information. Therefore, we adopt the PHR paradigm framework that defines an architecture that facilitates the application of a decentralized and compatible PHR. The efficiency of the PHR blockchain and client–server architecture framework is analyzed and contrasted in this chapter. The results also showed that the underlying shortcomings largely pertain to classification accuracy and also the restrictions and risks related to the implementation. The findings indicate that impressive outcomes can be accomplished in a patient-centered method utilizing the PHR blockchain. In comparison, the permanent and reliable information of patients in the PHR blockchain will benefit advanced health practitioners by deep learning to have improved responses to treatment and diagnostic service. This chapter explores this void from an exploratory viewpoint, evaluating the influence of the PHR blockchain technology on healthcare.
S. Usharani, P. Manju Bala, R. Rajmohan, T. Ananth Kumar, M. Pavithra

Secure Vehicular Communication Using Blockchain Technology

Intelligent transportation systems are also called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). They assure timely and reliable vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication to increase traffic flow quality and improve the safety of the road. The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a promising technology for the future as it improves drivers’ comfort levels while also improving their safety measures. The main goal of VANETs is to assist communication between vehicles and roadway units (RSUs) through networks of vehicle-to-RSU (V2R) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V). Due to the growing number of smart cities across the globe and innovation in the technology field, VANET apps have tremendous potential for growth. Accidents in roadside and traffic congestion are growing every day because of the rapid increase in the day-to-day use of vehicles. In order to prevent emergencies and to resolve the problem of vehicle congestion, coordination between vehicles is important. Because of its wireless technology, VANET is vulnerable to WLAN attack node, for example, spoofing attack, DoS (denial of service) attack, replay attack, and Sybil attack. The network could be affected, or privacy and protection could be impacted. The Internet of vehicles platform is safe and also allows contact between vehicles. If a server fails or a natural disaster disrupts regular server contact, a centralized database will still operate. If more cars are linked, there will be more money required to sustain the system. To prevent emergencies and minimize traffic, a secure distributed system is required. We propose a new trust-based blockchain-based protocol to address fundamental issues in the current VANET protocol and improve security and privacy. The proposed solution is based on advanced blockchain technology. We set up a new blockchain for the exchange of event messages among vehicles. We employ a public blockchain, which will guarantee the security of the system and message trustworthiness.
N. Padmapriya, T. Ananth Kumar, R. Rajmohan, M. Pavithra, P. Kanimozhi

Blockchain Technology in Healthcare

Blockchain is an innovation developed to encourage money exchange transactions and take out the requirement for a trusted third party to legally approve and confirm such exchanges to ensure information security and protection. New structures of blockchains have been intended to suit the requirement for this technology in different fields, for example, e-health, the travel industry, and energy. This chapter is concerned about the utilization of blockchains in overseeing and sharing electronic health and medical records to permit patients, emergency clinics, centers, and other stakeholders to share information among themselves and increment interoperability. The choice of the design of the blockchains utilized relies upon the elements chipping in the constructed chain network. In spite of the fact that the utilization of blockchains may decrease redundancy and give guardians reliable records about their patients, it accompanies a few difficulties, which could encroach patients’ security or possibly bargain the entire system of partners. In this chapter, we examine distinctive blockchain structures through various sections like blockchain in healthcare today, how it is changing the future of healthcare, and the benefits of blockchain. The chapter also deals with the implementation and challenges of blockchain in healthcare sector.
Anita Khosla, Shruti Vashist, Geeta Nijhawan

Blockchain-Based IoT Architecture

It represents a new technology of the Internet of Things (IoT) that both the virtual and physical are objects enabled to communicate and connect through each other, and the new quality of life produces improved digitized services. The IoT organization offers some benefits, still, current centralized architecture (CCA) introduces various problems such as privacy, safety, data integrity, transparency, and single point of failure. It is an obstacle in the way of IoT applications and challenges future developments. Moving IoT toward distributed ledger technologies is moving IoT to the correct choice to resolve these problems. The popular and common type of distributed ledger technologies is the blockchain. Integrating the IoT with blockchain innovation can bring endless advantages. They depend on centralized models that present another assortment of specialized impediments from all around the world. It is another form of engineering for refereeing jobs and authorizations in the IoT. It is completely new engineering conveying admittance to the IoT of the control framework dependent on blockchain innovation. The architecture is sponsored through proof of idea usage and assessed in practical IoT situations.
Shweta Sharma, Astha Parihar, Kusumlata Gahlot


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