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What would it mean to live in cities designed to foster feelings of connectedness to the ocean? As coastal cities begin planning for climate change and rising sea levels, author Timothy Beatley sees opportunities for rethinking the relationship between urban development and the ocean. Modern society is more dependent upon ocean resources than people are commonly aware of—from oil and gas extraction to wind energy, to the vast amounts of fish harvested globally, to medicinal compounds derived from sea creatures, and more. In Blue Urbanism, Beatley argues that, given all we’ve gained from the sea, city policies, plans, and daily urban life should acknowledge and support a healthy ocean environment.

The book explores issues ranging from urban design and land use, to resource extraction and renewable energy, to educating urbanites about the wonders of marine life. Beatley looks at how emerging practices like “community supported fisheries” and aquaponics can provide a sustainable alternative to industrial fishing practices. Other chapters delve into incentives for increasing use of wind and tidal energy as renewable options to oil and gas extraction that damages ocean life, and how the shipping industry is becoming more “green.” Additionally, urban citizens, he explains, have many opportunities to interact meaningfully with the ocean, from beach cleanups to helping scientists gather data.

Ultimately, he explains that we must create a culture of “ocean literacy” using a variety of approaches, from building design and art installations that draw inspiration from marine forms, to encouraging citizen volunteerism related to oceans, to city-sponsored research, and support for new laws that protect marine health. Equal parts inspiration and practical advice for urban planners, ocean activists, and policymakers, Blue Urbanism offers a comprehensive look at the challenges and great potential for urban areas to integrate ocean health into their policy and planning goals.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Urban-Ocean Connection

Abstract
Our urban future and ocean world are intimately intertwined in numerous ways. The ecological services provided by a healthy ocean are immense—from the weather patterns that have given rise to our modern civilization to the oxygen-producing effects of life in the sea to the benefits of carbon sequestration. All cities, no matter how close or distant from an ocean, receive benefits from marine resources. The world’s oceans are a major carbon sink, soaking up an estimated 2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, likely delaying the severity of weather-related climate change. Food from the sea—fish, mollusk, and plant—is a significant source of sustenance and protein for most of the world’s population. Much of the development of modern society draws on ocean resources, from goods moved along shipping channels to deposits of oil under the ocean floor.
Timothy Beatley

Chapter 2. The Reach of Cities Connecting Urban Lifestyles and Ocean Health

Abstract
The marine impacts of urban living are many and multifaceted. Cities looking to incorporate protections for ocean health into policy must better account for the many, often overlooked, connections between the current dismal state of our oceans and the behaviors, consumption patterns, and resource use associated with urban populations. Although densely populated cities realize efficiency gains that can reduce consumption behaviors (walking instead of driving; living in smaller homes and apartments), there are still many opportunities for cities to reduce their impacts on ocean health.
Timothy Beatley

Chapter 3. Satisfying Urban Fish Eaters Sustainably

Abstract
Historically, our oceans have been a bountiful source of fish and seafood. For most of human existence, this source has seemed limitless, inexhaustible, and fecund beyond imagination. But especially in the last several decades, as large-scale industrial fishing has emerged, the extent of fish harvested has multiplied exponentially even as evidence indicated that doing so was threatening the long-term viability of fish populations. Virtually all major global fisheries are either at capacity or in decline.
Timothy Beatley

Chapter 4. Urban Design for a Blue Planet

Abstract
Thoughtful urban design has the power to connect land and water in a way that brings citizens closer to the sea and highlights the ocean as an integral part of the urban environment. In addition to creating a special emotional resonance, ecologically sensitive design and planning can prevent runoff of harmful pollutants, respect the health of the marine environment, and minimize urban impacts.
Timothy Beatley

Chapter 5. Reimagining Land Use and Parks in the Blue City

Abstract
In anticipation of rising seas and shifting boundaries between land and water, the time is right to rethink spatial planning so that it takes ocean and marine environments into account. Most future land use plans and community visions in coastal cities do not include mention of the wondrous marine habitats typically a stone’s throw away from where thousands (or even millions) of urban residents live, but these precedents reflect an outdated approach to urban planning that fails to fully recognize the connections between cities and their natural surroundings.
Timothy Beatley

Chapter 6. Engaging Urban Dwellers in Marine Life around Them

Abstract
Meeting the challenge of growing a blue urban culture involves more than setting marine parks aside or designing new shoreline structures and spaces that provide better visual and physical access to the sea. New underwater parks and bluebelts and the redesign of waterfronts, discussed in earlier chapters, provide the physical foundation for nurturing a more ineffable “blue ethic” among urbanites. I envision this blue ethic as a profound sense of connection and care for the ocean world, and a fascination and curiosity about its biodiversity and complexity.
Timothy Beatley

Chapter 7. New Ideas for Connecting Oceans and Cities

Abstract
As the previous chapter demonstrated, there are many ways that city dwellers can directly enjoy and learn about oceans. Whale watching, beachcombing, even taking an ocean cruise, can be an opportunity to learn about and connect with the marine world. But beyond recreation-based activities or outings organized by school groups, the opportunities are increasing for urbanites to participate in and contribute to ocean-based citizen science and to make a difference in marine and coastal restoration programs. “Citizen science” opportunities allow nonscientists to be directly involved in research about and management of ocean and coastal environments.
Timothy Beatley

Chapter 8. Forging a Blue Urban Future

Abstract
Our oceans are in trouble, in large part because of the pollution, consumption pressures, and habitat destruction associated, directly or indirectly, with cities. We are now in a global urban age, and as we anticipate a further dramatic growth in urbanization on the blue planet (nearly 70 percent of the world’s population will likely live in cities by 20501), it is timely to recast the role of cities and to begin to understand how a viable and compelling vision of the future can fuse the urban and the blue.
Timothy Beatley

Backmatter

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