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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces a new approach to understanding security in the Mediterranean and explores current challenges at the European Union (EU) Mediterranean borders. It investigates the intertwined area at the South of the EU that we call the ‘Mediterranean Global South’ where common actions and strategies are required to face common security challenges. The book critically addresses the EU's capacity to manage its expanding borders and analyses the actors involved in providing security in the Mediterranean Global South. Specific attention is devoted to South to North migration, one of the most critical security issues of current times, deploying its effects well beyond states’ borders.



Chapter 1. Introduction: Conceptualizing the Mediterranean Global South to Understand Border Crises and Human Mobility Across Borders

This introductory chapter conceives the Mediterranean as a critical junction between Global North and Global South (Acharya, 2014). It investigates the intertwined area at the European Union (EU) borders that we qualify as ‘Mediterranean Global South’ and focuses on contested issues at the EU Mediterranean borders. The EU Mediterranean borders are expanding and several actors are involved in the management of regional crises to secure the Mediterranean Global South. It explores actors providing security in the Mediterranean Global South and critically addresses the EU capacity to manage its borders. It challenges state-centred approaches that regard closing the borders as the most effective solution to acquire security and stability, suggesting that non-state actors’ practices can address regional problems more effectively. Specific attention is devoted to South to North human flows, one of the most critical challenges to human security in current times, deploying its effects well beyond states’ borders. Mediterranean human mobility has put EU member states (EUMS), EU institutions and European societies under stress. The complexification of regional relations deriving from the actual role of states, non-state actors, EU, EUMS, regional and global powers that play crucial functions in the provision of solutions to complex security issues, are here investigated.
Stefania Panebianco

Critical Security Approaches to the Mediterranean Global South


Chapter 2. Mediterranean Security and the World Policies. The Overlooked Link

The Mediterranean area is the large geopolitical area encompassing the countries that are concerned about, and directly affected by, the events occurring all around the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean area is as well an interregional area because it is bordered by different international political regions, the Middle East and the Gulf, North Africa, and Europe. The current debate on the actual state of the world political order tends to overestimate the regional fragmentation of the world order. Actually, the world order foundational policies are in trouble today, but they are far from being irrelevant to the Mediterranean affairs. Security from aggression and violence, security from economic crisis, security from threats to territorial sovereignty are the various dimensions of security that continue to depend on the world policies also when the Mediterranean countries come into account. The present chapter reviews the controversy over emerging regional fragmentation and analyses the impact of the foundational world policies on the security politics of the Mediterranean area. In the concluding section, focus is on the future of world politics and how the reshaping of order will affect the Mediterranean area.
Fulvio Attinà

Chapter 3. Security in Crisis? The Cultural Production of the 2015 ‘Mediterranean Immigrant Crisis’

This essay traces the trajectory of EU security practices vis-à-vis the Mediterranean from the early 1990s to the present day to understand how was it that South/east to North/west human mobility in the Mediterranean Sea in late 2015 was rendered ‘the Mediterranean immigrant crisis’. In doing so, I follow Jutta Weldes and focus on the ‘cultural production of crises’. I will begin by distinguishing between ‘problem-solving’ and ‘critical’ approaches in the study of crises. Next, I look at the events of late 2015 from a critical perspective, tracing the cultural production of the so-called ‘Mediterranean immigrant crisis’. Here, I identify three key moments in EC/EU security governance in the Mediterranean, namely: The Global Mediterranean Policy (GMP) and Euro-Arab dialogue from the mid-1970s until the late 1980s; the Euro-Mediterranean partnership of the mid-1990s until the early 2000s; and the European neighbourhood policy from the early 2000s onwards. During these three moments, the need for protecting the EC/EU ‘self’ vis-à-vis mobility of people from the South/east of the Mediterranean was ‘suggested, reiterated, and finally solidified’ (Weldes). I submit that these three stages of cultural production, suggestion, reiteration and solidification coincide with three key moments in EC/EU security governance vis-à-vis the Mediterranean.
Pinar Bilgin

Actors and Practices in Border Crises and Migration


Chapter 4. Power and Security in the Mediterranean Global South and at the Eastern EU Borders: Russia in Syria and Ukraine

This chapter focuses on power and security dynamics in the Mediterranean Global South and at the EU’s Eastern borders, with a focus on the role of Russia. This is a complex space where EU’s external borders have become locus of collision between the EU and Russia. The violence that has been persisting in Syria since 2011 and Ukraine since 2014 has led many to talk about a ‘ring of fire’, depicting the EU’s neighbourhood as fraught with instability, fragility and leading many to flee. The annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the 2015 bombardments in Syria were game changers, making Russia a key player in these violent conflict settings. The chapter argues the conceptualisation of borders is key to understanding Russian actions, putting forward a critical approach to reading material and ideational definitions of borders. The changing dynamics associated with physical and identitarian borders, such as with NATO and EU’s enlargements, changed the security framework where relations between the EU and Russia developed and highlighted processes of borderisation as potentially fostering insecurity. The readings and projects about a ‘shared neighbourhood’ involving the EU and Russia are thus clashing, putting pressure on the Mediterranean and Eastern borders of the EU.
Maria Raquel Freire

Chapter 5. The EU and the Politics of Migration in the Mediterranean: From Crisis Management to Management in Crisis

This chapter explores EU migration policies to manage large-scale movements in the Mediterranean Global South. It maps, interrogates and explains the assumptions underlying EU policy responses in times of crisis, their mismatch with migration dynamics and migrants’ coping strategies, as well as their human (in)security implications. The chapter problematises the role of the EU as one of the many actors in the Mediterranean Global South, where rather multiple agencies (third countries, migrants, asylum-seekers, smugglers, etc.) are at stake. It proposes the concept of ‘humanitarian vacuum’ to reflect on the relation between migration policies and the humanitarian dimension of migratory phenomena and argues that EU policy assumptions to secure external and internal borders are not only ineffective but reproducing the same phenomena they are supposed to contain, in a continuous interplay between security, migration and border politics. The consequence is that migration crises in the Mediterranean Global South are set to travel back to the future in a vicious cycle of border closures, flows and humanitarian vacuums.
Iole Fontana

Chapter 6. The Changing Policies of International Institutions: Human Mobility in the Mediterranean

The transition from a liberal international system to an alternative political world order makes state coalitions increasingly vulnerable. The transition also affects international institutions and international policy-making processes as well. Some international actors are becoming politically irrelevant, while other political actors are acquiring a more central role in the world political system. This chapter studies the transition in political order and its effects on the roles and policies of international institutions in a crucial sector: migration. The development of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM), and the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR), the criminalization and securitization of Mediterranean migration flows, are all evidence of this transition. Such changes reveal that while mass movements remain a salient issue, world policies concerning human mobility and asylum are also influenced by the contemporary phase of the world order transition. The protection of people on the move, an already highly contentious issue, seems not a likely expected principle of the rising post-liberal world order.
The chapter explores how the changing policies of international institutions in managing human mobility in the Mediterranean are affected—beyond the challenges coming from the Global South migration governance, by the contemporary changes in the broader global political order.
Rosa Rossi

Contemporary Insecurities Across the Borders


Chapter 7. Climate Change Migration Enters the Agenda of the Wider Mediterranean: The Long Way Towards Global Governance

In the last decades a consolidated knowledge on the linkage between climate change and migration has been produced. This nexus is particularly relevant for IR scholars exploring migration as a transboundary phenomenon with multiple causes. Climate change is recognised as one of the main drivers of migration, in the Mediterranean as elsewhere, together with economic, social, political and demographic factors. It can produce rising temperatures, rainfall, drought flood and sea-level rise, acting as a threat multiplier of other vulnerabilities such as food security, water security, health issues or natural resource availability (UNEP. 2011). . However, there is less consensus on how to address the needs of climate migrants, a specific category of people deserving adequate policy initiatives. The governance of climate migration relies upon the involvement of state and non-state actors, relying upon experts’ advice, in the elaboration of specific strategies to minimise the risks and effects of climate change on the most vulnerable people. Focusing on the ‘wider Mediterranean’, a region across Global North and Global South, extending from the European Mediterranean borders towards the sub-Saharan countries, this chapter seeks to assess the policy response to climate change migration, a transboundary phenomenon that cannot be addressed within state borders, thus compelling a global governance.
Stefania Panebianco

Chapter 8. Syrians in Turkey: A Case for Human Security and State Capacity

This article is about Turkey’s policy towards the Syrian migrants. Based on Michael Mann’s concept of ‘state capacity’, it situates Turkey’s response to Syrian migration crisis in the broader debate about the state strength and security in the European periphery, in particular, the Eastern Mediterranean. This humanitarian crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean caused by the civil war in Syria requires Turkey and the EU to build a long-term strategy for migration management to respond to a common security problem. This study argues that the current way of dealing with the Syrian migration crisis is a temporary response to a humanitarian crisis that requires a longer-term perspective, which includes strengthening Turkey’s state capacity. The Turkish case could be an example for similar, probably larger kinds of situations in other parts of the Mediterranean as the migration routes deviate towards the Central and the Western Mediterranean and the crisis worsen with the latest arrival of Afghans after the US withdrawal from Afghanistan.
Kıvanç Ulusoy, Özgür Uzelakçil

Chapter 9. Migration of Unaccompanied Children: Is the EU Up to the Challenge? A Legal Perspective of the Southern Mediterranean

In recent years, the number of children arriving alone to the EU through the southern and eastern Mediterranean, has increased dramatically. The Mediterranean has become a critical junction between Global North and Global South for migrants in general and including unaccompanied minors. Once in Europe, many of these children are exposed to risks, inadequate treatment, and lack of respect for their rights, all clear breaches of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. This international Treaty establishes that in all actions concerning children, undertaken by public institutional and private actors, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. This contribution explores the effectiveness of this pivotal principle of the UN Convention in its application to the children arriving alone to European territory, especially in the area of the Mediterranean Global South, where the influx of children has been massive. It will also advance recommendations regarding protocol for the EU Member States and criteria that the EU itself must implement in order to treat unaccompanied children with their full rights.
Susana Sanz Caballero

Chapter 10. Conclusion: Looking Ahead, Setting the Future Agenda to Address Border Insecurities and Human Mobility in the Mediterranean Global South

It was the intention of this edited volume to disentangle human insecurities at, across and within the Mediterranean borders. We chose to focus on various players acting in the Mediterranean Global South, that we regard as the critical junction between Global North and Global South. To move beyond traditional security approaches, we opted for reversing the analytical prism, considering the human being as the referent object of the analysis. Being one of the key players in addressing border insecurities, the European Union (EU) deserved specific attention. Yet, it clearly lacks the capacity of managing humanitarian crises at its borders. Research has thus included a variety of actors involved in addressing border crises with practices and policy tools aimed at providing security at the borders. The conclusion reconsiders the role of the EU as a global player and suggests that human mobility in the Mediterranean Global South faces challenges that deserve further investigation.
Stefania Panebianco


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