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01.06.2015 | Original Article | Ausgabe 6/2015 Open Access

International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 6/2015

Brain activation in parietal area during manipulation with a surgical robot simulator

International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery > Ausgabe 6/2015
Satoshi Miura, Yo Kobayashi, Kazuya Kawamura, Yasutaka Nakashima, Masakatsu G. Fujie
Wichtige Hinweise

Conflict of interest

   The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

   All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This experiments were approved by the Waseda University Institutional Review Board (No. 2013-201).

Informed consent

   Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.



we present an evaluation method to qualify the embodiment caused by the physical difference between master–slave surgical robots by measuring the activation of the intraparietal sulcus in the user’s brain activity during surgical robot manipulation. We show the change of embodiment based on the change of the optical axis-to-target view angle in the surgical simulator to change the manipulator’s appearance in the monitor in terms of hand–eye coordination. The objective is to explore the change of brain activation according to the change of the optical axis-to-target view angle.


In the experiments, we used a functional near-infrared spectroscopic topography (f-NIRS) brain imaging device to measure the brain activity of the seven subjects while they moved the hand controller to insert a curved needle into a target using the manipulator in a surgical simulator. The experiment was carried out several times with a variety of optical axis-to-target view angles.


Some participants showed a significant peak (P value = 0.037, F-number = 2.841) when the optical axis-to-target view angle was \(75^{\circ }\).


The positional relationship between the manipulators and endoscope at \(75^{\circ }\) would be the closest to the human physical relationship between the hands and eyes.
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