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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 9th Italian Research Conference on Digital Libraries, held in Rome, Italy, in January/February 2013. The 18 full papers presented together with an invited paper and a panel paper were selected from extended versions of the presentations given at the conference. The papers then went through an additional round of reviewing and revision after the event. The papers are organized in topical sections on information access; Digital Library (DL) architecture; DL projects; semantics and DLs; models and evaluation for DLs; DL applications; discussing DL perspectives.



Keynote Address

The Digitization Project of the Vatican Library within the Complex Relationships between Sets of Metadata

The talk is focused on the metadata schemas involved in the digitization project of the Vatican Library: for long-term preservation strategies as applied to digital deposit collections, as well as for web-publication of images in the context of the digital library. The relationship management in the implementation process of sets of metadata (in their structural representation and semantic meaning of data elements) will be discussed with particular attention to the management implications and the resulting operational capabilities.

Paola Manoni


Evaluating Cultural Heritage Information Access Systems


IRCDL is a yearly deadline for Italian researchers on Digital Libraries related topics. This year the focus of IRCDL 2013 was on emphasizing the multidisciplinary nature of the research on digital libraries which not only goes from humanities to computer science but also crosses among areas in the same field ranging, for example, from archival to librarian sciences or from information systems to human-computer interaction.

Tiziana Catarci, Mariella Guercio, Giuseppe Santucci, Francesca Tomasi

Information Access

Contour-Based Progressive Identification of Known Shapes in Images

Information Retrieval in digital libraries is at the same time a hard task and a crucial issue. While the primary type of information available in digital documents is usually text, images play a very important role because they pictorially describe concepts that are dealt with in the document. Unfortunately, the semantic gap separating such a visual content from the underlying meaning is very wide, and additionally image processing techniques are usually very demanding in computational resources. Hence, only recently the area of Content-Based Image Retrieval has gained more attention. In this paper we describe a new technique to identify known objects in a picture. It is based on shape contours, and works by progressive approximations to save computational resources and to improve preliminary shape extraction. Small (controlled) and more extensive experiments are illustrated, yielding interesting results.

Stefano Ferilli, Floriana Esposito, Domenico Grieco, Marenglen Biba

EDB: Knowledge Technologies for Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy

Classical Greek and Latin culture is the very foundation of the identity of modern Europe. Today, a variety of modern subjects and disciplines have their roots in the classical world: from philosophy to architecture, from geometry to law. However, only a small fraction of the total production of texts from ancient Greece and Rome has survived up to the present days, leaving many ample gaps in the historiographic records. Epigraphy, which is the study of inscriptions (epigraphs), aims at plug this gap. In particular, the goal of Epigraphy is to clarify the meanings of epigraphs, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. Indeed, they are a kind of cultural heritage for which several research projects have recently been promoted for the purposes of preservation, storage, indexing and on-line usage. In this paper, we describe the system EDB (Epigraphic Database Bari) which stores about 30,000 Christian inscriptions of Rome, including those published in the

Inscriptiones Christianae Vrbis Romae septimo saeculo antiquiores, nova series

editions. EDB provides, in addition to the possibility of storing metadata, the possibility of


supporting information retrieval through a thesaurus-based query engine,


supporting time-based analysis of epigraphs in order to detect and represent novelties, and


geo-referencing epigraphs by exploiting a spatial database.

Fabio Fumarola, Gianvito Pio, Antonio E. Felle, Donato Malerba, Michelangelo Ceci

DL Architecture

Fostering Interaction with Cultural Heritage Material via Annotations: The FAST-CAT Way

This paper describes the innovative annotation facilities of the CULTURA portal for digital humaties, which are aimed at improving the interaction of non specialist users and general public with cultural heritage contents. The annotation facilities are comprised by two modules: the FAST annotation service as back-end and the CAT Web front-end integrated in the CULTURA portal.

Nicola Ferro, Gary Munnelly, Cormac Hampson, Owen Conlan

EuropeanaLabs: An Infrastructure to Support the Development of Europeana

This document describes the Europeana Development and communication infrastructure, called EuropeanaLabs, built inside the EU projects Europeana and Europeana v. 2. The EuropeanaLabs consists of a number of servers, storages and communication devices; it is used to create Virtual Machines, called sandboxes, used by Europeana foundation communities. EuropeanaLabs provides a test environment, for applications and demos, to several cultural heritage and technology projects, most of them funded by EU, in addition it features a set of servers for cooperative work. In this paper we present the general architecture of the EuropeanaLabs infrastructure.

Nicola Aloia, Cesare Concordia, Carlo Meghini, Luca Trupiano

A Digital Infrastructure for Trustworthiness

The Sapienza Digital Library Experience

The building process of Sapienza Digital Library’s (SDL) digital resources was designed for collecting the information required by the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Preservation Description Information(PDI): Provenance, Reference, Fixity, Context, and Access Rights Information. The Submission Information Packages’(SIP) preservation metadata was encoded in the semantics of the PREMIS standard which is the implementation metadata set, mapped from the OAIS conceptual model. The conformant implementation of the PREMIS standard was one of the principles which permeates the SIP building process. All relevant legal aspects and formal agreements, referred to the organizations involved in the different OAIS functions of the SDL digital repository, were analyzed and structured for their inclusion into the forthcoming AIP management, and for unleashing of the preservation strategies, and for supporting the authenticity of resources.

Angela Di Iorio, Marco Schaerf, Maria Guercio, Silvia Ortolani, Matteo Bertazzo

DL Projects

Historical Digital Archive and Geo-referenced Contents of the Francigena Librari Web Portal

The General Direction for Libraries, Cultural Institutes and Copyright is promoting a project on the “Historical, cultural and religious itineraries valorization” and is achieving an institutional Portal dedicated to Italian Francigena track to create an unified gateway access for cultural and touristic contents concerning the Francigena route. The aim of the Portal is to offer news, events, cultural itineraries, interactive maps, virtual exhibitions, information, documents and images that represent the historical, cultural and religious heritage along one of the most important European pilgrimage routes, catalogued with innovative tools for managing taxonomies which allow advanced searches and geographical access to wide information. User may organize, in “Create your itinerary”, his virtual or real journey sharing contents on the Francigena in the “community”.

Adriana Martinoli, Alfredo Esposito

The Heritage of the People’s Europe Project: An Aggregative Data Infrastructure for Cultural Heritage

HOPE (Heritage of the People’s Europe) is a “Best Practice Network" for archives, libraries, museums and institutions operating in the fields of social and union history. The project provides unified access to materials about the European social and labour history from the 18th to 21st centuries. HOPE proposes guidelines and tools for the management, aggregation, harmonisation, curation and provision of digital Cultural Heritage (CH) metadata and digital objects. Moreover, it offers to institutions joining the HOPE network an operational Aggregative Data Infrastructure (ADI) for the collection, aggregation and access of metadata records from CH content providers. The HOPE ADI is realized using and extending the D-NET Software Toolkit, an enabling framework for data infrastructures.

Michele Artini, Claudio Atzori, Alessia Bardi, Sandro La Bruzzo, Paolo Manghi, Marko Mikulicic, Franco Zoppi

Semantics and DLs

Towards a Methodology for Publishing Library Linked Data

It is argued that linked data are becoming increasingly necessary for libraries and related institutions, such as galleries, museums and archives. Though libraries are potentially crucial players in the linked data movement, very often there is lack of knowledge among librarians on how to publish linked data. This paper presents the results of a master thesis whose main aim was to empower libraries to take an effective part in publishing linked data thereby contributing to building the semantic web, in order to improve the general services which they offer. In a narrower sense, this research aims to draw a methodology applicable to the library domain in publishing linked data. A 15-step methodology is presented and illustrated in some detail.

Dydimus Zengenene, Vittore Casarosa, Carlo Meghini

ConNeKTion: A Tool for Handling Conceptual Graphs Automatically Extracted from Text

Studying, understanding and exploiting the content of a digital library, and extracting useful information thereof, require automatic techniques that can effectively support the users. To this aim, a relevant role can be played by concept taxonomies. Unfortunately, the availability of such a kind of resources is limited, and their manual building and maintenance are costly and error-prone. This work presents ConNeKTion, a tool for conceptual graph learning and exploitation. It allows to learn conceptual graphs from plain text and to enrich them by finding concept generalizations. The resulting graph can be used for several purposes: finding relationships between concepts (if any), filtering the concepts from a particular perspective, extracting keyword, retrieving information and identifying the author. ConNeKTion provides also a suitable control panel, to comfortably carry out these activities.

Fabio Leuzzi, Stefano Ferilli, Fulvio Rotella

Exploiting Wikipedia for Evaluating Semantic Relatedness Mechanisms

The semantic relatedness between two concepts is a measure that quantifies the extent to which two concepts are semantically related. In the area of digital libraries, several mechanisms based on semantic relatedness methods have been proposed. Visualization interfaces, information extraction mechanisms, and classification approaches are just some examples of mechanisms where semantic relatedness methods can play a significant role and were successfully integrated. Due to the growing interest of researchers in areas like Digital Libraries, Semantic Web, Information Retrieval, and NLP, various approaches have been proposed for automatically computing the semantic relatedness. However, despite the growing number of proposed approaches, there are still significant criticalities in evaluating the results returned by different methods. The limitations evaluation mechanisms prevent an effective evaluation and several works in the literature emphasize that the exploited approaches are rather inconsistent. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose a new evaluation methodology where people provide feedback about the semantic relatedness between concepts explicitly defined in digital encyclopedias. In this paper, we specifically exploit Wikipedia for generating a reliable dataset.

Felice Ferrara, Carlo Tasso

Semantic Lenses as Exploration Method for Scholarly Articles

In a move towards an enrichment of the metadata models that are used in the electronic publication of scholarly literature, modern publishers are making steps towards

semantic publishing

. The possibility to explore a collection of scientific papers (a digital library, a repository or an archive of data) using different and multiple facets, i.e., different and multiple points of view on the digital collection, increases on the one hand the success of information retrieval and on the other hand the availability of richer data sets. Multiple facets are the natural navigation method made possible by an adequate ontological representation of a class of homogeneous documents. Context and content of published journal articles are thus components that in the representation of information at the metadata level constitute a fundamental approach to semantic enhancement. In this paper we introduced a test in using a particular semantic publishing model, called

semantic lenses

, to semantically enhance published journal articles.

Silvio Peroni, Francesca Tomasi, Fabio Vitali, Jacopo Zingoni

Models and Evaluation for DLs

Digital Archives: Extending the 5S Model through NESTOR

Archives are an extremely valuable part of our cultural heritage. Although their importance, the models and technologies that have been developed over the past two decades in the

Digital Library (DL)

field have not been specifically tailored on archives and this is especially true when it comes to formal and foundational frameworks, as the

Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, Societies (5S)

model is. Therefore, we propose an innovative formal model, called

NEsted SeTs for Object hieRarchies


, for archives, using it to extend the 5S model in order to take into account the specific features of the archives and to tailor the notion of digital library accordingly.

Nicola Ferro, Gianmaria Silvello

Evaluation of Digital Humanities: An Interdisciplinary Approach

This research, now in its first phase of development, focuses upon evaluation of Digital Humanities, here indicated as the disciplines, included within the Italian Disciplinary Areas 10 and 11, innovating their research outputs through the application of technological methods. These research outputs are relevant both quantitatively and qualitatively, but do not seem to be considered of value by the current procedures of quality evaluation. The research methodology is including a comparison of the evaluation policies and quality assurance procedures in Europe regarding the different typologies of digital publications. The final product will be a KOS (Knowledge Organization System) based on the Web standards, such as RDF and Linked Open data, to represent and organize the digital products and publications as well as the related agents (persons, institutions, etc.). The KOS will include the results derived by user studies including: 1) a toolkit that will provide rich and meaningful information about the research activity and publications in Digital Humanities. The toolkit will consist of decision tools, able to analyze the content of the proposed knowledge organization system; 2) a platform for the diffusion of Project results, including digital publications, OER for training and other communication tools.

Anna Maria Tammaro

The Evaluation Approach of IPSA@CULTURA

This paper reports on the original approach envisaged for the evaluation of a digital archive accessible through a Web application, in its transition from an isolated archive to an archive fully immersed in a new adaptive environment.

Maristella Agosti, Marta Manfioletti, Nicola Orio, Chiara Ponchia, Gianmaria Silvello

DL Applications

Optimizing Relevance Ranking to Enhance the User’s Discovery Experience

With the introduction of library discovery systems, the display of results according to relevance, as determined by the system, has become a norm. To investigate how relevance ranking could be optimized, a provider of a widely used discovery system developed methods of evaluating the system’s relevance ranking. As a result, new factors were added to the calculation of search results’ relevance—information about the individual user and the user’s information needs, and an indicator representing the academic significance of materials. Methods of monitoring the impact of changes were also established.

Tamar Sadeh

Sapienza Libraries and Google Books Project

The report shortly examines the experience of Sapienza libraries as partners of Google Books project, signed in July 2011. The goal is to digitize 35,000 books from 1500 to 1872 during the first year of activity. The issue concerns management and the optimization of bibliographic data set, development of web-based instruments for ruling the workflow and sharing records and information between the ILS system (Sebina Open Library) and external data bases.

Adriana Magarotto, Maura Quaquarelli, Mattia Vallania

Discussing DL Perspectives

Multimedia Digital Libraries Handling: The Organic MMIR Perspective

This paper focuses on new retrieval methods and tools applicable to the management of multimedia documents in Digital Libraries (DL). These matters merge in the organic methodology of MultiMedia Information Retrieval (MMIR). A paper’s goal is to demonstrate the operating limitations of a generic Information Retrieval (IR) system, restricted only to textual language. MMIR offers a better alternative, whereby every kind of digital document can be analyzed and retrieved with the elements of language appropriate to its own nature, directly handling the concrete document content. The integration of this content-based conception of information processing with the traditional semantic conception, can offer the advantages of both systems in accessing of information and documents managed in actual multimedia digital libraries.

Roberto Raieli

Closing the Gap: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Research and Education for Digital Libraries

Two major themes continue to be a subject of discussion when dealing with digital libraries: how should the education programs in LIS (Library and Information Science) schools be changed or updated in order to provide the needed knowledge (skills ?) for librarians in the digital age and, closely related, how could the three major memory institutions (libraries, archives and museums) define common educational curricula for professionals in the three domains, now that the digital age is blurring the boundaries between the three profession. In this paper we will present some considerations about the first topic, in order to share the experience gained through the organization and the participation in five events, having as theme the educational needs of the new librarians and the possible synergies of research and education in the field of digital libraries. It is hoped that it can serve as a further stimulus for discussions and for the definition of possible common actions in the digital libraries community.

Anna Maria Tammaro, Vittore Casarosa, Donatella Castelli


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