Skip to main content
Erschienen in:

12.01.2023

Brine Water Experiments on Transient Flow and Evolution to Multiple States in Inclined Tunnel Fire with Forced Longitudinal Flow

verfasst von: Ping Li, Dong Yang

Erschienen in: Fire Technology | Ausgabe 2/2023

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche, um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

The transient flow characteristics in inclined tunnel fire considerably influence occupant evacuation. We conducted brine water experiments to investigate transient smoke movement characteristics and their evolution into multiple final flow states in an inclined tunnel fire. The flow pattern exhibited a downward trend was the expected flow pattern. The experiment results indicated that before longitudinal mechanical force was activated in the inclined tunnel, the thickness of the current was nearly uniform. When longitudinal mechanical force was activated, the propagation velocity of the upstream longitudinal current declined, and then the back-layering reached its maximum length. During the naturally ventilated stage, the propagation velocity of the downstream and upstream current were approximately proportional to the cubic root of the source buoyancy flux, respectively. In the longitudinally ventilated stage, the modified Richardson number \(Ri^{\prime}\) defined as Eq. (16) were used to analyze the head propagation velocity of both the downstream and upstream currents, and then the empirical models were proposed based on the experimental data. Multiple final flow states existed even under identical longitudinal force and source buoyancy flux; distinct steady flow states were resulted from different initial conditions, that is, distinct longitudinal force activation times. If the buoyant fluid eventually evolved into the expected pattern and flowed out from the downstream end of the tunnel, the initial condition did not considerably influence the reduced gravity distribution in the final steady state.Please confirm the affiliationsI have confirmed.Please check and confirm the short title.Yes, I have checked and confirmed.

Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Du T, Yang D, Peng S, Liu Y, Xiao Y (2016) Performance evaluation of longitudinal and transverse ventilation for thermal and smoke control in a lopped urban traffic link tunnel. Appl Therm Eng 96:490–500CrossRef Du T, Yang D, Peng S, Liu Y, Xiao Y (2016) Performance evaluation of longitudinal and transverse ventilation for thermal and smoke control in a lopped urban traffic link tunnel. Appl Therm Eng 96:490–500CrossRef
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Mei F, Tang F, Ling X, Yu J (2017) Evolution characteristics of fire smoke layer thickness in a mechanical ventilation tunnel with multiple point extraction. Appl Therm Eng 111:248–256CrossRef Mei F, Tang F, Ling X, Yu J (2017) Evolution characteristics of fire smoke layer thickness in a mechanical ventilation tunnel with multiple point extraction. Appl Therm Eng 111:248–256CrossRef
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Fan CG, Yang J (2017) Experimental study on thermal smoke backlayering length with an impinging flame under the tunnel ceiling. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 82:262–268CrossRef Fan CG, Yang J (2017) Experimental study on thermal smoke backlayering length with an impinging flame under the tunnel ceiling. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 82:262–268CrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Chen C-K, Xiao H, Wang N-N, Shi C-L, Zhu C-X, Liu X-Y (2017) Experimental investigation of pool fire behavior to different tunnel-end ventilation opening areas by sealing. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 63:106–117CrossRef Chen C-K, Xiao H, Wang N-N, Shi C-L, Zhu C-X, Liu X-Y (2017) Experimental investigation of pool fire behavior to different tunnel-end ventilation opening areas by sealing. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 63:106–117CrossRef
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Du T, Yang LL, Yang D, Dong S, Ji WH (2020) On the backlayering flow of the buoyant contaminants in a tunnel with forced longitudinal ventilation. Build Environ 175:106798CrossRef Du T, Yang LL, Yang D, Dong S, Ji WH (2020) On the backlayering flow of the buoyant contaminants in a tunnel with forced longitudinal ventilation. Build Environ 175:106798CrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Ji J, Tan TT, Gao ZH, Wan HX, Zhu JP, Ding L (2019) Numerical investigation on the influence of length-width ratio of fire source on the smoke movement and temperature distribution in tunnel fires. Fire Technol 55:963–979CrossRef Ji J, Tan TT, Gao ZH, Wan HX, Zhu JP, Ding L (2019) Numerical investigation on the influence of length-width ratio of fire source on the smoke movement and temperature distribution in tunnel fires. Fire Technol 55:963–979CrossRef
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Li YZ, Lei B, Ingason H (2010) Study of critical velocity and backlayering length in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires. Fire Saf J 45:361–370CrossRef Li YZ, Lei B, Ingason H (2010) Study of critical velocity and backlayering length in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires. Fire Saf J 45:361–370CrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Tang F, Zhao ZX, Zhao K (2020) Experimental investigation on carriage fires hazards in the longitudinal ventilated tunnels: assessment of the smoke stratification features. Saf Sci 130:104901CrossRef Tang F, Zhao ZX, Zhao K (2020) Experimental investigation on carriage fires hazards in the longitudinal ventilated tunnels: assessment of the smoke stratification features. Saf Sci 130:104901CrossRef
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Oka Y, Atkinson GT (1995) Control of smoke flow in tunnel fires. Fire Saf J 25:305–322CrossRef Oka Y, Atkinson GT (1995) Control of smoke flow in tunnel fires. Fire Saf J 25:305–322CrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Thomas PH (1968) The movement of smoke in horizontal passages against an air flow, Fire Research Note, No. 723, Fire Research Station, Watford, UK Thomas PH (1968) The movement of smoke in horizontal passages against an air flow, Fire Research Note, No. 723, Fire Research Station, Watford, UK
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Wu Y, Bakar MZA (2000) Control of smoke flow in tunnel fires using longitudinal ventilation systems—a study of the critical velocity. Fire Saf J 35:363–390CrossRef Wu Y, Bakar MZA (2000) Control of smoke flow in tunnel fires using longitudinal ventilation systems—a study of the critical velocity. Fire Saf J 35:363–390CrossRef
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Du T, Du JX, Yang D, Dong S, Yang LL (2018) Transient evolution and backlayering of buoyancy-driven contaminants in a narrow inclined space. Build Environ 143:59–70CrossRef Du T, Du JX, Yang D, Dong S, Yang LL (2018) Transient evolution and backlayering of buoyancy-driven contaminants in a narrow inclined space. Build Environ 143:59–70CrossRef
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Li JM, Tian Y, Li YF, Zhao YH, Huang YB (2017) Numerical and experimental study on the effects of the slope on the critical velocity in titled tunnels. Procedia Eng 205:1864–1870CrossRef Li JM, Tian Y, Li YF, Zhao YH, Huang YB (2017) Numerical and experimental study on the effects of the slope on the critical velocity in titled tunnels. Procedia Eng 205:1864–1870CrossRef
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Chow WK, Gao Y, Zhao JH, Dang JF, Chow NCL (2016) A study on tilted tunnel fire under natural ventilation. Fire Saf J 81:44–57CrossRef Chow WK, Gao Y, Zhao JH, Dang JF, Chow NCL (2016) A study on tilted tunnel fire under natural ventilation. Fire Saf J 81:44–57CrossRef
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Li P, Yang D (2020) Critical fan-induced pressure rise for preventing smoke flow multiplicity in longitudinally ventilated sloping tunnel fires: potential function analysis and numerical simulations. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 97:103294CrossRef Li P, Yang D (2020) Critical fan-induced pressure rise for preventing smoke flow multiplicity in longitudinally ventilated sloping tunnel fires: potential function analysis and numerical simulations. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 97:103294CrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Hinkley PL (1970) The flow of hot gases along an enclosed shopping mall—a tentative theory. Fire Res Note 807:1–35 Hinkley PL (1970) The flow of hot gases along an enclosed shopping mall—a tentative theory. Fire Res Note 807:1–35
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Du T, Yang D, Wei HB, Zhang ZJ (2018) Propagation and entrainment of buoyancy-driven flows in a narrow horizontal space and implications for buoyant contaminant transport under natural ventilation. Build Environ 132:214–224CrossRef Du T, Yang D, Wei HB, Zhang ZJ (2018) Propagation and entrainment of buoyancy-driven flows in a narrow horizontal space and implications for buoyant contaminant transport under natural ventilation. Build Environ 132:214–224CrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Britter RE, Linden PF (1980) The motion of the front of a gravity current travelling down an incline. J Fluid Mech 99:531–543CrossRef Britter RE, Linden PF (1980) The motion of the front of a gravity current travelling down an incline. J Fluid Mech 99:531–543CrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Chen QY (2009) Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: a method overview and recent applications. Build Environ 44:848–858CrossRef Chen QY (2009) Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: a method overview and recent applications. Build Environ 44:848–858CrossRef
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Fitzgerald SD, Woods AW (2010) Transient natural ventilation of a space with localized heating. Build Environ 45:2778–2789CrossRef Fitzgerald SD, Woods AW (2010) Transient natural ventilation of a space with localized heating. Build Environ 45:2778–2789CrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin YJP, Tsai TH (2013) The push-type displacement ventilation in two series-connected chambers. Build Environ 62:89–101CrossRef Lin YJP, Tsai TH (2013) The push-type displacement ventilation in two series-connected chambers. Build Environ 62:89–101CrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Yang D, Ding Y, Du T, Mao SH, Zhang ZJ (2018) Buoyant back-layering and the critical condition for preventing back-layering fluid in inclined tunnels under natural ventilation: brine water experiments. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 90:319–329CrossRef Yang D, Ding Y, Du T, Mao SH, Zhang ZJ (2018) Buoyant back-layering and the critical condition for preventing back-layering fluid in inclined tunnels under natural ventilation: brine water experiments. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 90:319–329CrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Van Sommeren DDJA, Caulfield CP, Woods AW (2012) Turbulent buoyant convection from a maintained source of buoyancy in a narrow vertical tank. J Fluid Mech 701:278–303MathSciNetCrossRefMATH Van Sommeren DDJA, Caulfield CP, Woods AW (2012) Turbulent buoyant convection from a maintained source of buoyancy in a narrow vertical tank. J Fluid Mech 701:278–303MathSciNetCrossRefMATH
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Vantelon JP, Guelzim A, Quach D, Kim, Son D, Gobay D, Dallent D (1991) Investigation of fire-induced smoke movement in tunnels and stations: an application to the Paris Metro. In: proceedings of the third international symposium on fire safety science, Edinburgh, UK, Elsevier, Oxford, pp 907–918 Vantelon JP, Guelzim A, Quach D, Kim, Son D, Gobay D, Dallent D (1991) Investigation of fire-induced smoke movement in tunnels and stations: an application to the Paris Metro. In: proceedings of the third international symposium on fire safety science, Edinburgh, UK, Elsevier, Oxford, pp 907–918
Metadaten
Titel
Brine Water Experiments on Transient Flow and Evolution to Multiple States in Inclined Tunnel Fire with Forced Longitudinal Flow
verfasst von
Ping Li
Dong Yang
Publikationsdatum
12.01.2023
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Fire Technology / Ausgabe 2/2023
Print ISSN: 0015-2684
Elektronische ISSN: 1572-8099
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-022-01359-3

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 2/2023

Fire Technology 2/2023 Zur Ausgabe