Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Conformal arrays are increasingly used in recent wireless communication systems due to their flexibility in mounting on arbitrary surfaces. Many of such systems require working with broadband signals. However, designing conformal arrays has been limited mostly to pattern synthesis techniques due to the complexity imposed by the different contribution of individual antenna patterns to the overall array response. Such pattern synthesis techniques greatly confine the application of the beamformer in dynamic environments since they are fundamentally non-adaptive data independent methods. In this article, the conventional space–time broadband generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) is used to develop an adaptive method for an arbitrarily-shaped conformal array. The constraint matrix assumed for the main beam of the conventional GSC structure is modified to incorporate the pattern of each individual element. This treatment allows the element responses to be directly involved in the weight adjustment algorithm and contribute to the array overall response without having any additional complexity. The proposed method can handle different types of the constraints, although the analysis presented here is based on the angle–frequency domain constraints which nevertheless eliminates the presence of the pre-steering delays and ensures a frequency invariant beampatterm required for wideband beamforming. The simulation results which are presented for a typical cylindrical array show that the proposed method can create the desired broadband beampattern with high performance and in an adaptive manner.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Josefsson, L., & Persson, P. (2006). Conformal array antenna theory and design. New Jersey: Wiley. CrossRef
Zou, L. (2011). Beamforming with distortionless co-polarisation for conformal arrays based on geometric algebra. IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation, 5, 842–853. CrossRef
Hersey, R. K. (2004). Adaptive detection and estimation using a conformal array antenna. Ph.D. thesis, Georgia Institute of Tech.
Li, W. T., et al. (2010). A hybrid optimization algorithm and its application for conformal array pattern synthesis. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 58, 3401–3406. CrossRef
Steyskal, H. (2002). Pattern synthesis for a conformal wing array. In IEEE aerospace conference proceedings (pp. 819–826).
Burger, H. A. (1995). Use of Euler-rotation angles for generating antenna patterns. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 37, 56–63. CrossRef
Tsui, K. M., & Chan, S. C. (2010). Pattern synthesis of narrowband conformal arrays using iterative second-order cone programming. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 58, 1959–1970. CrossRef
Tang, W. et al. (2011). Broadband power pattern synthesis for conformal arrays. In Proceedings- 2011 7th international conference on natural computation, ICNC 2011 (pp. 2019–2022).
Yang, P., Yang, F., & Nie, Z. P. (2010). Robust Adaptive beamformer using interpolation technique for conformal antenna arrays. Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, 23, 215–228. CrossRef
Zou, L., & He, Z. (2013). MVDR method for the whole conformal arrays. In D. Zhenyu (Ed.), Intelligence computation and evolutionary computation (pp. 917–921). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Liu, L., Jiang, Y., Wan, L., & Tian, Z. (2013). Beamforming of joint polarization-space matched filtering for conformal array. The Scientific World Journal. doi: 10.1155/2013/589675.
Godara, L. C. (1997). Applications of antenna arrays to mobile communications. Part I: Performance improvement, feasibility, and system consideration. Proceedings of the IEEE, 85, 1031–1060. CrossRef
Falconer, D. (2002). Spatial-temporal signal processing for broadband wireless systems. In M. Shafi, J. Mizusawa, T. Hattori, & S. Ogose (Eds.), Wireless communications in the 21st century. New York: IEEE Press.
Paulraj, A. J., & Papadias, C. B. (1997). Space-time processing for wireless communications. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 14, 49–83. CrossRef
Liang, Y. L. Y., et al. (2009). Time-domain transmit beamforming for MIMO-OFDM systems with finite rate feedback. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 57, 2828–2838. CrossRef
Stüber, G. L., et al. (2004). Broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communications. In Proceedings of the IEEE (pp. 271–293).
Chujo, W., Konishi, Y., Ohtaki, Y., Fujise, M. (1992). Theoretical and experimental study of conformal array antennas for mobile satellite communications. In Proceedings of ISAP, Sapporo, Japan (pp. 481–484).
Liu, S., et al. (2007). The geodesic dome phased array antenna for satellite operations support-antenna resource management. In IEEE antennas and propagation society, AP-S international symposium (digest) (pp. 3161–3164).
Ahn, H., et al. (2010). Digital beamforming in a large conformal phased array antenna for satellite operations support—Architecture, design, and development. In IEEE international symposium on phased array systems and technology (pp. 423–431).
Raffaelli, S., Johansson, M. (2005). Cylindrical array antenna demonstrator: Simultaneous pencil and omni-directional beams. In Proceedings of 4th european workshop on conformal antennas, Stockholm, Sweden (pp. 93–96).
Godara, L. C. (2004). Smart antennas. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC. CrossRef
Lee, Y., & Wu, W. R. (2008). Adaptive decision feedback space-time equalization with generalized sidelobe cancellation. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 57, 2894–2906. CrossRef
Liu, W., & Weiss, S. (2010). Wideband beamforming: Concepts and techniques. New York: Wiley. CrossRef
Buckley, K. M., & Griffiths, L. J. (1986). An adaptive generalized sidelobe canceller with derivative constraints. IEEE Trans Antennas and Propagation, 34, 311–319. CrossRef
Godara, L. C., & Jahromi, M. R. S. (2007). Convolution constraints for broadband antenna arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 55, 3146–3154. CrossRef
Ebrahimi, R., & Seydnejad, S. R. (2013). Elimination of pre-steering delays in space–time broadband beamforming using frequency domain constraints. IEEE Communications Letters, 17, 769–772. CrossRef
Ahmed, K. M., & Evans, R. J. (1984). An adaptive array processor with robustness and broadband capabilities. IEEE Trans on Antennas and Propagation, 9, 944–950. CrossRef
Buckley, K. (1987). Spatial/Spectral filtering with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformers. IEEE Trans Acoust, 35, 249–266. CrossRef
Jiao, Y. C., et al. (1993). New low-side-lobe pattern synthesis technique for conformal arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 41, 824–831. CrossRef
Frost, O. L. (1972). An algorithm for linearly constrained adaptive array processing. IEEE Proceedings, 60, 926–935. CrossRef
Nieman, K. F., et al. (2010). Wideband monopulse spatial filtering for large receiver arrays for reverberant underwater communication channels. In IEEE oceans conference (pp. 1–8).
Freitag, L., et al. (2001). Acoustic communication with small UUVs using a hull-mounted conformal array. In IEEE oceans conference (pp. 2270–2275).
- Broadband Adaptive Beamforming of Conformal Arrays for Wireless Communications Based on Generalized Sidelobe Canceller
Saeid R. Seydnejad
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Filograph | Getty Images | iStock