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Writings about civil society in general and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in particular have downplayed the value of state linkage for the development of non-state social actors in non-democratic settings. Those writings have generally emphasized the state’s constraints on the development of NGOs in authoritarian countries. However, an increasing number of scholars have discovered that NGOs in non-democratic countries can accrue real benefits by establishing strong linkages to the authoritarian state, which control critical organizational resources. Similarly, in existing studies about NGOs in non-democratic states, the importance of NGO leadership has been overshadowed by the attention to structural factors. Yet, NGO leaders are valuable resources for their respective organizations. Among the critical roles that NGO leaders play in advancing organizational effectiveness is their role as resource agents. The NGO’s dependence on external resources means that the leader’s social ties are among the most valuable leadership skills. Given the state’s control of critical organizational resources in contemporary China, state linkages constitute the most valuable form of leadership ties for China’s NGOs.
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- Building Civil Society Under the Shadows of Authoritarianism
John W. Tai
- Chapter 1