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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Business Modeling and Software Design, BMSD 2019, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in July 2019. It contains 12 full and 11 short papers.

BMSD is a leading international forum that brings together researchers and practitioners interested in business modeling and its relation to software design. Particular areas of interest are: Business Processes and Enterprise Engineering; Business Models and Requirements; Business Models and Services; Business Models and Software; Information Systems Architectures and Paradigms; Data Aspects in Business Modeling and Software Development; Blockchain-Based Business Models and Information Systems; IoT and Implications for Enterprise Information Systems. The theme of BMSD 2019 was: REFLECTING HUMAN AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY IN ENTERPRISE MODELS AND SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Full Papers

Frontmatter

Rule Style: Patterns of and Extensions to Data System User Interface Specification for Business Rule Violations

Abstract
We propose patterns of the Fresnel semantic browser interface language specifically for business rules violations. Such mapping between rule logic and violation enforcement makes rule system development more flexible, efficient and reliable. We also propose an extension to Fresnel to enable this. Managing business rules independently from presentation using rule styles adds flexibility and efficiency to information system development. We demonstrate our technique by applying it to the EU-Rent case. An existing EU-Rent implementation in the relation algebra-based system Ampersand serves as an example for restriction of input values and display parameters in the interface. Another existing EU-Rent implementation provides Semantic Web inferencing for rule logic. We apply our proposed inference patterns to this implementation. These inferences then apply to our proposed patterns of Fresnel. Finally, we demonstrate the resulting system interface with mock-ups on Semantic MediaWiki.
Lloyd Rutledge, Erik Bouwer, Stef Joosten

Business, Business Processes and Formal Models

Abstract
Business processes as seen from the business point of view are often not only highly structured linear processes but less structured control processes mechanisms with feedback and mutual adjustments are also important. In case of conflicting rules decision making in business processes is sometimes automatically by predefined decision rules, and sometimes by human assessment of context and interests. There seems to be an inclination in more formalised approaches to business process modelling to adhere to the machine metaphor for analysing organisations and its processes, with a lack of concepts to deal with more complicated process structures. In this paper I will look into the implicit background notions such as the machine metaphor for organisations, the assumption that the organisational world can be represented as a set of clear-cut facts, and the market metaphor for the internal workings for an organisation. A practical example will be presented to analyse different kinds of business processes, and to show where the machine metaphor is too narrow to be of much practical interest for the wider concept of business processes as used in business.
Coen Suurmond

Value-Driven Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

A Process-Led Approach to Fast Results at Minimal Risk
Abstract
Digitalization has transformed the way organizations operate. New digital tools are available with increasing regularity – and many of them have the potential for a major impact. They enable the transformation of business processes to become more efficient, agile, meet compliance requirements, enhance customer experience or improve the general quality of deliverables. They may help achieve a level of process performance not previously envisaged. Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is one of those digital enablers which has been applied, or at least discussed in many organizations as practice reports and conference presentations show. This process technology is becoming a mainstream trend, relevant for many businesses. However, many organizations struggle to realize the full potential of RPA. According to newer statistics even 30–50% of RPA initiatives fail completely. The paper discusses opportunities and challenges of applying RPA as process improvement approach. The approach of Value-driven Robotic Process Automation addresses the challenges and realized the identified opportunities. It proposes an approach that helps to focus on the right sub-processes to automate, improve those business processes considering the end-to-end process context and sustain the results through appropriate governance and hybrid workforce management. Agile principles are combined with the required focus and direction. Value-driven RPA is a part of a discipline of process-led digital transformation management, leveraging the capabilities of business process management (BPM) to realize the full value of digital initiatives, fast and at minimal risk.
Mathias Kirchmer, Peter Franz

Failure and Change Impact Analysis for Safety-Critical Systems

Applied on a Medical Use Case
Abstract
Nowadays, safety-critical systems are used in various domains including Internet of Things of medical devices. However, such systems are usually very complex and fault-prone. This means, safety, security and real-time aspects are often only insufficiently considered. To mitigate or avoid safety-critical failures, it is mandatory to analyze effects by means of a failure and change impact analysis. In this paper, we propose an approach to analyze a hierarchical structured model to determine critical goals. Afterwards, the effects and impacts of failures are calculated and determined to identify components which have a need of counter measures. Furthermore, it is analyzed which kind of effects these counter measures will have within the hierarchical model. Finally, the developed approach is evaluated by means of a realistic medical use case.
Philipp Lohmüller, Julia Rauscher, Bernhard Bauer

Chasing the Crowd: Digital Transformations and the Digital Driven System Design Paradigm

Abstract
These days business successes and economic opportunities steadily depend on IT-capabilities and digital driven business transformations. Digitalization continues to advance with new business models and growing prospects in various dimensions from higher margins and greater public sector funding to new customers, markets and more diverse suppliers’ networks. The key digital transformation drivers of change –fundamental redesign of business activities, processes, and models– are each significantly facilitated by integrated mix of digital technologies that includes, but not limited to, social, mobile, analytics and cloud (SMAC) and sometimes SMACIT when counting the Internet of Things. Increasingly the actual digital transformation has much more to do with information, data, analytics, workflow, culture, and management than traditional IT/IS. In the last decades IT/IS has been essential driver of organizational changes, the recent developments in digitalization and innovations shifted the emphasis on the information rather than the technology in “IT” abbreviation. To understand the prospects and challenges associate with the digital driven business strategy and operational transformations, a modified model of the socio-technical system is created and presented. It depicts at macro level how digital technologies and utility type computing platforms act as drivers for supporting digital business strategies and advancing with the customers. While it simplifies the relations of the internal organization socio-technical model with the external world, the enhanced socio-technical (EST) model indicates the interactions of the four organization’s forces: structure, people, technology and processes with the platform technologies such as O2O and SMACIT and further with the crowds. The paper confers the impact of digital driven transformations to the system design and development process and specifically emphasizes on agile transformational practices aligning better with business agility, asset utilization, and greater customers’ satisfaction.
Ivan I. Ivanov

Supporting the Use of Decision Aiding Methods by Non-specialists

Abstract
Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) is a domain focused on the development of methods to help decision makers. DecSpace is an online Decision Support System (DSS) intended to be a workbench for the use of MCDA methods. DecSpace supports projects as persistent spaces where users can explore different solutions for the same problem, and share those solutions in other projects. It is made available as an online service, and it can use methods implemented in a local server, as part of the local application, or methods available from remote web services. This paper describes DecSpace as a DSS suited for use in teaching, researching, or for professional use in engineering and management.
Ana Sara Costa, Rúben Rodrigues, André Xiang, José Rui Figueira, José Borbinha

Accelerating Knowledge

The Speed Optimization of Knowledge Transfers
Abstract
As knowledge-intensive processes are often carried out in teams and demand for knowledge transfers among various knowledge carriers, any optimization in regard to the acceleration of knowledge transfers obtains a great economic potential. Exemplified with product development projects, knowledge transfers focus on knowledge acquired in former situations and product generations. An adjustment in the manifestation of knowledge transfers in its concrete situation, here called intervention, therefore can directly be connected to the adequate speed optimization of knowledge-intensive process steps. This contribution presents the specification of seven concrete interventions following an intervention template. Further, it describes the design and results of a workshop with experts as a descriptive study. The workshop was used to assess the practical relevance of interventions designed as well as the identification of practical success factors and barriers of their implementation.
Marcus Grum, Simon Rapp, Norbert Gronau, Albert Albers

Declarative Modelling of Transactions for IS Development

Abstract
In the development life cycle of an information system (IS) - from initial user wishes up to a running IS - an intermediate mathematical model is very useful, both as a clear and unambiguous capture of the user wishes regarding the functional requirements as well as a formal model of the system to be built. Based on decades of experience, we tackle the problem to develop a suitable, practical modelling method for formal, declarative, and implementation-independent specifications of information systems that can serve as a clear, unambiguous capture of the user wishes regarding the functional requirements. The theory should integrate data and transactions in a uniform way, because data and transactions are closely related. The theory should also be suitable for incremental and agile development, where we must quickly determine where, what, and how to change when necessary.
The notion of an information machine turns out to be very suitable for this goal. Several related notions will be defined. We introduce a general structure of transactions which includes a generic rollback, taking consistency into account. Several notions are generalizations of notions from database theory, such as transaction, query, and view.
We also explore some common practical structures for states and transactions in an information machine because they can become rather subtle in practice. In particular, transactions can be very subtle and complicated, also because they can be ‘rolled back’ and/or can be ‘compound’. Our formal, declarative specifications of transactions must (and do) account for that. Fortunately, many of the transactions in practice have more or less the same form. We study and formally define several of such common transaction patterns in a declarative way.
We first sketch a development path for functional requirements which is straightforward. In order to handle the inherent complexity of development, the path enables ‘stepwise clarification’, ‘stepwise specification’, and traceability. It gradually goes from the informal natural language and way of thinking of users to a formal model (with inputs, outputs, procedures, parameters, etc.).
Bert de Brock

Tuning the Behavior of Context-Aware Applications

Using Semiotic Norms and Bayesian Modeling to Establish the User Situation
Abstract
Context-aware applications are to adapt their “behavior” to the surrounding context. In this paper, we analyze different ways to achieve adequate application behavior adjustment (based on context data) and we stress upon: (i) Bayesian modeling that is not only considered useful in this regard but is also not enough explored as it concerns context-aware applications; (ii) semiotic norms that have specific relevant strengths. Even though there is much experience as it concerns the challenge of capturing context data, more knowledge is still needed about how to use context data in order to effectively make the right judgement about the “current” user situation (context state). We consider this paper’s contribution as relevant to the above-mentioned challenge.
Boris Shishkov

Business Models of Store-Oriented Software Ecosystems: A Variability Modeling Approach

Abstract
In the last years, store-oriented software ecosystems are gaining more and more attention from a business perspective. In these ecosystems, third-party developers upload extensions to a store which can be downloaded by end users. While the functional scope of such ecosystems is relatively similar, the underlying business models differ greatly in and between their different product domains (e.g. Mobile Phone, Smart TV). This variability, in turn, makes it challenging for store providers to find a business model that fits their own needs.
To handle this variability, we introduce the Business Variability Model (BVM) for modeling business model decisions. The basis of these decisions is the analysis of 60 store-oriented software ecosystems in eight different product domains. We map their business model decisions to the Business Model Canvas, condense them to a variability model and discuss particular variants and their dependencies. Our work provides store providers a new approach for modeling business model decisions together with insights of existing business models. This, in turn, supports them in creating new and improving existing business models.
Sebastian Gottschalk, Florian Rittmeier, Gregor Engels

VR-EA: Virtual Reality Visualization of Enterprise Architecture Models with ArchiMate and BPMN

Abstract
The digital transformation occurring throughout enterprises results in an increasingly dynamic and complex IT landscape. As the structures with which enterprise architecture (EA) deals become more digital, larger, complex, and dynamic, new approaches for modeling, documenting, and conveying EA structural and relational aspects are needed. The potential for virtual reality (VR) to address upcoming EA modeling challenges has as yet been insufficiently explored. This paper contributes a VR hypermodel solution concept for visualizing, navigating, interacting with ArchiMate and Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) models in VR. An implementation demonstrates its feasibility and a case study is used to show its potential.
Roy Oberhauser, Camil Pogolski

Towards Integrating Software Development and Multimedia Content Creation

Abstract
Recently, computer system and user interfaces have been greatly evolved. Especially, multimedia contents are becoming more important because of the improvement of users’ impression and usability. Quality of multimedia contents may determine the application evaluation more than the quality of functions of the software. Although the importance of multimedia contents increases, integration of software development process and multimedia creation process is not discussed in the research field. Therefore, we propose a new integrated approach featuring software development and multimedia content creation. The new approach is implemented through a development process whose model is automatically generated by an algorithm that has already been specified. The algorithm facilitates the generation of phases and stages, based on the relationships among development documents. This results in a new development process. Further, quality control and progress control are easily governed by the process model that is in turn based on the document relations. Similarly to software measurements (supported by particular techniques), the completion rates of each document can be measured. Hence, we also have also metrics for quality and progress. Thus, the integrated process model and the metrics will be useful in controlling quality and progress, as it concerns applications that bring together software and multimedia content.
Noriko Hanakawa, Masaki Obana

Short Papers

Frontmatter

Business Process Optimization with Reinforcement Learning

Abstract
We investigate the use of deep reinforcement learning to optimize business processes in a business support system. The focus of this paper is to investigate how a reinforcement learning algorithm named Q-Learning, using deep learning, can be configured in order to support optimization of business processes in an environment which includes some degree of uncertainty. We make the investigation possible by implementing a software agent with the help of a deep learning tool set. The study shows that reinforcement learning is a useful technique for business process optimization but more guidance regarding parameter setting is needed in this area.
Johan Silvander

A Comparative Study of Methods for Deciding to Open Data

Abstract
Governments may have their own business processes to decide to open data, which might be supported by decision-making tools. At the same time, analyzing potential benefits, costs, risks, and other effects-adverse of disclosing data are challenging. In the literature, there are various methods to analyze the potential advantages and disadvantages of opening data. Nevertheless, none of them provides discussion into the comparative studies in terms of strengths and weaknesses. In this study, we compare three methods for disclosing data, namely Bayesian-belief networks, Fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making, and Decision tree analysis. The comparative study is a mechanism for further studying the development of a knowledge domain by performing a feature-by-feature at the same level of functionalities. The result of this research shows that the methods have different strengths and weaknesses. The Bayesian-belief Networks has higher accuracy in comparison, and able to construct the causal relationships of the selected variable under uncertainties. Yet, this method is more resource intensive. This study can contribute to the decision-makers and respected researchers to a better comprehend and provide recommendation related to the three methods comparison.
Ahmad Luthfi, Marijn Janssen

On the Roles of Project, Program and Portfolio Governance

Abstract
This work proposes a new motivation for a literature review on the concepts of roles in project, program and portfolio governance within organizational overall governance. Recent literature has been promoting a paradigm change in the way how the research and practitioner communities should approach project management. Under such change, it mattered to better understand in a first moment which drivers regarding project, program and portfolio governance roles motivated or, in part, enabled such change. In a second moment the focus was placed on the way how project, program and portfolio governance roles (whereas the concept of role demonstrates to need clarifications under the main standards and practitioners books) are addressed from that paradigm shift onwards. As a result, we concluded that current standards and practitioners books do not promote and effective integration with organizational governance, and although initiatives as Research Project Management promote a shift by addressing a required multidisciplinary approach on project management discipline, such governance alignment is yet to be achieved. The conclusion and final remarks on the future work, stresses onto the evidenced gaps in promoting a coherent set of theories, models and tools in project management discipline, and the apparent suitability of Enterprise Engineering discipline to address them.
Bruno Fragoso, André Vasconcelos, José Borbinha

Governance as a Condition for Creating Business Value from Enterprise Architecture

Abstract
IT Governance is often viewed as an important factor for creating business value for firms. However, there is limited work investigating the relationship between architectural governance and the contributions of enterprise architecture (EA) to firm performance. Based on a study of more than 15 cases the analyzes shows that architectural governance is a condition for the ability to create business value from the EA function. The cases also show that architectural governance depends on the context and there is no best way of EA governance that fits very situation. Architectural governance complements enterprise architecture and should ensure that EA efforts are coordinated and used by the business to improve firm performance. In many cases EA and architectural governance were found to be strongly connected, making it difficult to separate them. This strong dependence suggests that a change in EA influences the governance and vice versa. Architectural governance introduces more bureaucracy and administrative work, but paradoxically can result in the creation of more business flexibility and agility.
Marijn Janssen

Microservice Architecture from Enterprise Architecture Management Perspective

Abstract
Microservice Architecture (MSA) is an architectural style to build distributed applications as a collection of independently deployable services. When adopting MSA, companies must drive some aspects that impact the organizational efficiency in order to guarantee (i) the strategic benefits of services; (ii) promote the best resources usage and (iii) separate the scopes of enterprise architecture (EA) decisions and microservice teams’ decisions. This paper assesses the relevant factors about MSA from the enterprise architecture management (EAM) perspective and proposes an ArchiMate metamodel which serve as an architectural reference. Two methods with different approaches were selected to compose the model proposed, Extreme Enterprise Architecture Planning (XEAP) a top-down approach used here to plan microservices products and EA-Mini-Descriptions a bottom-up approach used to keep the EA up to date. In the end, (i) a model defining principles and governance guidelines, (ii) a generic model defining architectural responsibilities, and (iii) an architectural reference for technology standards which enable the enterprise governance of MSA, are engineered.
Carlos Pinheiro, André Vasconcelos, Sergio Guerreiro

A Case Management Approach to Risk Management

Abstract
Risk management is a development activity and increasingly plays a crucial role in organization’s management. Organizations develop and implement enterprise risk management strategies intending to improve their business model and bring them better results. Enterprise risk management strategies are based on the implementation of a risk management process and supporting structure. Together, this process and structure make a system. The ISO ISO 31000:2018 standard is currently the main global reference framework for risk management systems, proposing the general principles and guidelines, regardless of context. This standard depicts the process of risk management as a case rather than a sequential process flow. To that end, we explored the potential and limitations of the conceptual modeling language “Case Management Model and Notation” (CMMN) for the elaboration of the related conceptual conceptual diagrams, and the “Decision Model and Notation” (DMN) notation to model risk decisions. The application of the model is also demonstrated for a real case.
Tiago Ferreira, Diogo Gonçalves, Ricardo Vieira, Diogo Proença, José Borbinha

Analysing Enterprise Ontology and Its Suitability for Model-Based Software Development

Abstract
Enterprise Ontology (EO) is a well-known theory that captures the essence of an organisation. It is rooted in the Language Action Perspective that acknowledges language as the primary dimension of human cooperative activity. This theory, proposed by Jan Dietz, provides the foundations for designing and engineering of enterprises seen as social information systems. In this paper, we analyse some fundamental aspects of EO using an adapted framework for comparing methodologies. We present also a systematic review of the literature to find how EO and its modelling methodology are used to develop enterprise software applications.
José Cordeiro

Business Process Model Driven Automatic Software Requirements Generation

Abstract
Requirement engineering is a critical stage in software engineering, it enables requirement engineers extract correct system needs, both functional and non-functional constraints from stakeholders. The majority of the errors found in software functionality are directly linked to the mistakes made during the requirement elicitation phases. Therefore, several approaches have been proposed to enhance existing requirements engineering techniques to both reduce such mistakes and to speed up the requirements engineering process. One type of promising approaches is based on utilizing business process modelling to take benefit from business process models to derive requirements. This paper argues that it is possible to generate requirements from business process models. It proposes an approach to derive system requirements; it employs business process models and then transforms them into requirement models. Evaluation shows the proposed approach was able to generate additional valid use case model features compared to other competing approaches.
Salam Turkman, Adel Taweel

An Experimental Study on Decomposition: Process First or Structure First?

Abstract
This article explores the answer to the question of considering the process or the structure dimensions earlier, in software development where decomposition is a preferred technique for top-down model construction. In this research, an experimental study was conducted to observe which software modeling practice is more convenient: process or structural modeling, for the beginning. The study was conducted in different courses that include software modeling where students work within groups to model a system with predefined requirements. The students used Business Process Modeling Notation and Component-Oriented Software Engineering Modeling Language modeling tools. Observations based on the results are analyzed and discussed. The results seem to prioritize the process dimension.
Anil Cetinkaya, Selma Suloglu, M. Cagri Kaya, Alper Karamanlioglu, Gul Tokdemir, Ali H. Dogru

Capturing Human Authority and Responsibility by Considering Composite Public Values

Abstract
Accountability is a key requirement as it concerns current enterprise information systems. In this context, no matter if an action is realized by a human or by a “machine”, it is always important to know who is responsible for what was done. This essentially relates to human authority. We argue that it is not always trivial identifying the human authority “behind” (complex) enterprise actions, especially when the actual authority is “blurred” by references to enterprise structures that may have supported a decision “on paper” but have not had the chance of actually opposing that decision, for example. The contribution of this paper concerns a proposal featuring the identification of human authority (mainly in an enterprise context) based on analyzing universal value categories (such as hierarchy and egalitarianism) that are easy to “check” (possibly by means of surveys).
Magdalena Garvanova, Boris Shishkov

On the Modeling of Innovative Navigation Systems

Abstract
The paper studies an extremely important and promising scientific issue, namely the question of determining the coordinates of moving objects and their navigation in space. For this purpose, we propose a conceptual model of a multi-sensor navigation system, based on a navigation system using pulsar signals. An approximate model of pulsar navigation system is presented as well.
Ivan Garvanov, Hristo Kabakchiev, Vera Behar, Magdalena Garvanova, Ruska Iyinbor

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